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2011english

By Henry Carter,2014-06-16 06:12
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2011english

Section? Use of English

      Directions:

      Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

      Ancient Greek philosopher viewed laughter as “a bolidy eercise preicious to heath。”But 1 some claims to the contrary ,laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness. Laughter does 2 short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, 3 heart rate and oxygen consummption ,But because hard laughter is difficult to 4 ,a good laugh is unlikely to have 5 benefits the ,say,walking ot jogging does

      6 ,instead of straining muscles to bulid them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the 7 ,studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laughter 8 muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down  Such bodily reaction might conceivably help 9 the effects of psychological stress.Anyway, the act og laughing probably does 11 one classical theory of emtion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argued at the end of 19th centry that humens do not cry 13 they are sad but they become sad when the tears begins to flow

      Althiugh sadness also 14 tears ,evidence suggests that emotions can flow 15 muscular responses. In an experimemt published in 1988, social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of wiirzburg in Germany asked volunteers to 16 a pen eigher with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile-or with their lips, which would produce a(n) 17 expression. Those forced to exercise thrie enthusiastically to funny catoons than did those whose months were contracted in a frown, 19 that expression may influence emotions rather than just the other way around 20 ,the physical act of laughter could improve mood

      1. [A] among [B] except [C]despite [D] like   2. [A] reflect [B]demend [C]indicate [D]produce   3. [A] stabilizing [B] boosting [C] impairing [D] determining   4. [A] transmit [B]sustain [C] evaluate [D] observe   5. [A] measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable   6. [A] In turn [B] In fact [C] In addition [D] In brief

      7. [A] opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D] expected   8. [A] hardens [B] weakens [C] tightens [D]relaxes   9. [A] aggravate [B] generate [C] morderate [D] enhance   10. [A] physical [B] mental [C] subcinscious [D]intermal  11. [A] Except for [B] According to [C] Due to [D] As for   12. [A] with [B] on [C] in [D]at   13. [A] unless [B] until [C] if [D] because   14. [A] exhausts [B] follows [C] precedes [D] supresses   15. [A] into [B]form [C] towards [D] beyond   16. [A] fecth [B] form [C] pick [D] hold   17. [A] disappointed [B] excited [C] joyful [D] indifferent   18. [A] adapted [B] catered [C] turned [D] reacted  19. [A] suggesting [B] requiring [C] mentioning [D] supposing   20. [A] Eventually [B] Consequently [C] Similatly [D] Conversely  Section? Reading Comprehension

      Part A

      Directions:

      Reading the following fours texts. Answer the question below each text by Choosing [A],[B],[C] or [D]. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET1.(40points)

      Text 1

      The decision of the New York philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least “Hooray! A t last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic

      One of the reason why the appiontment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilber is commparatively little known Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s

    appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him。”As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that semms likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint prwise   For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, be performs an impressive variety of interesting composition, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer amd download still more recorded music form iTumes

      Devoted concertgoers who reply that recording are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes , theeater companies, and museums, but also with the recorsed performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recording are cheap, available everwhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s choosing. The widespread availabilyty of such recording has thus brought about a ctisis in the institution of the traditional classical councert

      One possible reponse is for classical performers to program attravtive new music that is not yet available on recors. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross , a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Phiharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely, expanding the orchestra’s repertorre will not be enough. If Gilbert and thr Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’a olderest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract。

      21.We learn from Para 1 that Gilbert’s appointment has

      [A]incured criticism

      [B]raised suspicion

      [C]raceived acclaim

      [D]around curiousity

      22.Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is

      [A]influential

      [B]modest

  [C]respectable

      [D]talented

      23. The auther believes that the devoted concertgoers

      [A]ingore the expense of live performance

      [B]reject most kinds of recorded performance

      [C]exaggerate the variety of live performanc

      [D]overestimate the variety of live performance

      24.According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?  [A]They are often interror to live concerts in quality

      [B]They are easily accessible to the genral public

      [C]They help improve the quality of music

      [D]They have only convered masterpieces

      25.Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalixing the Philharmonic, the authir feels  [A]doubtful

      [B]enthusisastic

      [C]confident

      [D]puzzled

      Text 2

      When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August,his expanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving to presue my goal of running a company, broadcasting his ambition "was very much my decision," McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29.

      MaGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to refect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn't alone. In recent weeks the NO.2 executives Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post.

    As boards scrutinize succession plans in response business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations。  As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEo turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders。

      The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Krn Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey, "I can't think of a single search I've done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first."

      Those who jumped without a job haven't always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commoditied exchange. Robert Willumstad left CItigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institurion three years later。

      Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad on. "The traditional rule was it's safer to stay where you are, bu that's been fundamentally inverted," says one headhunter. "The people who've been hurt the worst are those who've stayed too long"

      26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being( )

      A. Arrogant B. frank C. self-centered D. impulsive

    27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives quitting may be spurred by ( )  A. their expectation of better financial status

      B. their need to reflect on their private life

      C. their strained relations with the boards

      D. their pursuit of new career goals

      28. The word "poached" (Line3, Paragraph 4) most probably means ( )

  A. approved of B. attended to C.hunted for D. guarded against

      29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that ( )

      A. top performers used to cling to their posts

      B. loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated

      C. top performers care more about reputations

      D. it's safer to stick to the traditional rules。

      30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?

      A. CEOs: where to GO?

      B. CEOs: All the Way Up?

      C. Top managers Jump without a Net

      D. The Only way out for Top Performers

      Text 3

      The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional "paid " media-such as television commercials and print advertisements-still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create "owned" media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Webe site. The way consumenrs now approatch the board range of factors beyond conventional paid media。  Paind and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media, such marketers act as the initiators for users' responses. But in some cases, one marketer's owned media become another marketer's paid media-for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We difine such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong tha other organization palce their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. Thies trend, which we believe is still in its infance, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further John& JOhnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies' marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.

      The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign become hostage to consumers,other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesse that originally created them。

      If that happends, passinate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company's response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly sites such as Twitter and the social-news sit Digg。

      31. Consumers may creat "earned" media when they are ( )

      A. obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites

      B. inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them

      C. eager to help their friends promote quality products

      D. enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products

      32. According to Paragraph 2, sold media feature ( )

      A. a safe business environment

      B. random competition

      C. Strong user traffic

      D. flexibility in organization

      33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media ( )

      A. invite constant conflicts with passinate consumers

      B. can be used to produce negative effects in marketing

      C. may be responsible for fiercer competition

      D. deserve all the getative comments about them

  34. Toyota Motor's experience is cited as an example of ( )

      A. responding effectively to hijacked media

      B. persuading customers into boycotting products

      C. cooperating with supportive consumers

      D. taking advantage of hijacked media

      35. Which of the following is the text mainly about?

      A. Alternatives to conventional paid media

      B. Conflict between hijacked and earned media

      C. Dominance of hijacked media

      D. Popularity of owned media

      Text 4

      It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter-nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness, instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight。”  The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive-and newly single-mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual “Jennifer Aniston is pregnant” news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands。

      In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, o sot any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn’t seem quite fair, then , to compare the regrets of parent to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that

    children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives。

      Of course the image of parenthood that celebrity magazine like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on; yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their “own (read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake。”

      It’s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it’s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren’t in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting “the Rachel” might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston。

      36. Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring  [A] temporary delight。

      [B] enjoyment in progress。

      [C] happiness in retrospect。

      [D] lasting reward。

      37. We learn from Paragraph 2 that

      [A] celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip。

      [B] single mothers with babies deserve greater attention。

      [C] news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining。

      [D] having children is highly valued by the public。

      38. It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folk。

      [A] are constantly exposed to criticism。

      [B] are largely ignored by the media。

      [C] fail to fulfill their social responsibilities。

  [D] are less likely to be satisfied with their life。

      39. According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is  [A] soothing。

      [B] ambiguous。

      [C] compensatory。

      [D] misleading。

      40. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

      [A] Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms。  [B] Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing。  [C] Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life。

      [D] We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing。

      Part B

      Directions:

      The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize those paragraph into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraph E and C have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

      [A] No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm the humanities. You can, Mr. Menand points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees。

      [B] His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines that are going out of sytle:22% of American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on what a “general education” should look like. At Harvard, Mr. Menand notes, “the great books are read because they have been read”? they form a sort of social glue。

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