By Sylvia Marshall,2014-06-18 08:52
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    Arindam Basu, A. Sivaramakrishnan, G. Illango, V. Kumaravel, N.Vasantkumar

    The South India Textile Research Association, P.B. No. 3205, Coimbatore 641014, India



Jute processing machines are old and many component parts of the machine

    are still conventional in design which consumes more power and generates

    more noise with vibration. SITRA has redesigned an existing conventional

    jute flyer spinning frame and modified important sections such as motor

    drive, spindle assembly; spindle drive and bobbin drive systems. About

    20% saving in energy has been achieved by the above modifications along

    with significant reduction in noise level and vibration. At present, 24

    machines are working successfully with the above mentioned advantages in

    a leading jute textile mill in India.



     SITRA has been conducting research and developmental activities in jute processing machines for the past two decades along with other textile research programmes. Most of the jute processing machines are old and technological developments in them are less as compared to other spinning systems. There are wide variations in the manufacturing cost yarn in the jute mills due to various reasons. One of the main reasons is the condition of the machinery available in the jute industry. Significant technological advancement in other areas paved the way for modernization and improvement in the overall productivity and quality of the end product. Very few modifications have been introduced in the past to improve the performance of jute processing machines. Therefore, an attempt has been made to improve the overall performance of the existing machines. As a part of this programme, jute flyer spinning frame has been selected as it constitutes about 90% of the production of jute yarn. SITRA has redesigned the existing flyer spinning frame to improve its energy efficiency and performance in terms of production and quality. This paper deals with the modifications carried out at SITRA to improve the jute flyer spinning frame.


     Flyer spinning frames with slip drafting system are widely used for producing coarser count jute yarn and Ring spinning frames for fine count jute yarn. The existing flyer spinning machines are producing yarns at a spindle speed of about 4000 rpm and the production rate is about 45 kg per 100 spindles per hour for 11 lb yarn. Quality of yarn is not consistent due to inherent deficiencies in the dead weight drafting system of the existing flyer spinning machines. Energy consumption of the machine is also high due to conventional drive systems in different sections of the machine. SITRA has taken up one conventional slip draft flyer spinning frame with 100 spindles having 4?”spindle gauge for modifications and redesigned the drafting, twisting and building component parts of the machine. The details of specifications of the existing flyer spinning machine are given Table 1:


    Table 1 Details of Machine Specifications

     No Particulars Details

     1 No. of spindles 100

     2 Drafting Slip draft

     3 Spindle type Boxter

     4 Spindle gauge 4?”

     5 Lift 6?”

     6 Induction Motor 15 hp / 1440 rpm


     Important sections of the machine are identified and many component parts are

    redesigned / modified for improvement in energy efficiency and performance and the details

    are given in Table 2.

    Table 2 Details of Modifications

    No. Area Modifications

    1 Motor drive system Synthetic belt with adjustable tension

    2 Drafting system Top arm pressure

    3 Spindle assembly Modified drive

    4 Spindle drive system Al / ABS Pulley with sandwich synthetic tape

    5 Building mechanism Cam and bobbin rail

    6 Transmission of motion Gear drive to belt drive

3.1 Productivity

    Spindle assembly is incorporated with high speed radial type ball bearing and the

    transmission of motion in the machine is simplified to achieve very smooth running at high

    speed operation. The spindle speed can be increased up to 5000 rpm resulting in

    improvement in productivity.

3.2 Yarn Quality

    The existing drafting system has been redesigned for top arm pressure drafting system

    and rollers with specially designed flutes are introduced for even drafting. Condensers are

    provided in the fibre path to reduce fibre shedding. Twist variation and hairiness are reduced

    to an extent of about 5% and 10% respectively. Fibre shedding is also reduced due to the

    modified system along with improvement in machine efficiency.


3.3 Energy Consumption

    Motor drive, transmission of motion, spindle assembly and building mechanisms are

    analysed in detail to reduce the energy consumption. Twisting and winding mechanism

    accounts for major part of the energy (76%) consumed by the machine. The modifications

    incorporated in the machine to reduce power consumption are discussed in detail.

3.3.1 Motor drive system

     A comparison of different component parts of the existing motor drive system and the

    modified system are given in Table 3. The modified motor drive assembly consists of a set of

    driving and driven pulleys along with synthetic flat belt. The belt tension can be adjusted to

    the required level by means of jack screw adjustment. The existing motor (Standard

    Efficiency) is replaced by energy efficient motor to reduce the no load power substantially.


    Modified by Description Existing SITRA

    Motor Ordinary Energy Efficient

    Weight of Drive 41.3 20.5 Pulleys (kg)

    Belt Material Cotton Synthetic

    Belt Tension Dead Weight Butterfly bed mechanism

    Belt Size (mm) 2080 x 138 x 6 1800 x 70 x 3

3.3.2 Transmission of motion

    Motion is transmitted from machine pulley to different sections of the machine by

    spur gears and bush bearing. All spur gears have been replaced by helical gears and mounted

    on ball bearings for smooth transmission and less noise level.

3.3.3 Energy Efficient Spindle Drive System

    Spindle is a major consumer of energy in flyer spinning machine. Spindle drive

    system is improved to conserve energy with the following modifications:

    ? Hallow Shaft, Individual light weight pulleys

    ? Twin tension pulley arrangement

    ? Synthetic sandwich spindle tapes.

    Each pulley drives a pair of flyer spindles and the tape tension can be adjusted to the

    required level by tension arrangement. This energy efficient drive system of spindle assembly


accounts for about 30% of total power consumption of flyer spinning machine. Table 4 shows

    the existing and modified components of spindle drive system.

    Table 4 - Spindle Drive System

    Existing Parameters / SITRA Modified Area System Parameters

    Spindle Drive With Al/ABS Pulley and Cylinder (5.875”) and Jockey Pulley High Speed Ball Bush Bearing Tension Bearing

    Jockey Pulley 114 90 Dia (mm)

    Jockey Pulley 375 325 Weight (g)

    Spindle Tape Type Cotton Synthetic

    & Size (mm) 2275 x 25 x 1.5 2360 x 20 x 0.8

    Belt Tension Dead Weight Spring Loaded

3.3.4 Bobbin Rail System

    The modified bobbin rail system is provided with ball bearings for smooth

    performance and reduction in energy consumption. The details of modifications are given in

    Table 5.


    Area Existing SITRA Modified

    Parameter/System Parameters/System

    Lifter Pulley Bush Bearing Ball Bearing

    Rail Material Cast Iron MS Sheet

    Rail Weight (kg) 225 168


    The modified system of jute flyer spinning gives significant improvement in energy

    conservation along with reduction in noise level and vibration. Table 6 gives details of

    modifications made by SITRA for energy saving.


    Table 6 Modifications for Energy saving in Jute Flyer Spinning

    S.No. Description Existing Modified 1 Motor Standard Efficiency High Efficiency

    Butterfly bed with screw

    2 Belt Tension Dead Weight loading

    adjustment 3 Type of Belt Conventional belt Energy efficient belt

    Hollow / solid shaft with

    5.875” Dia. Cylinder

     Aluminum pulley or ABS

    Bush type tension

    4 Spindle drive system pulley

    pulley and cotton

     tension pulley with Ball


    bearing and synthetic tape

    Lifter shaft &

    6 Bush type Self aligned ball bearing

    Drive shaft

    7 Builder cam 1:1 2:1 8 Gears Spur gear Helical gear 9 Drive Chain drive Timing belt drive

Modified jute flyer spinning and existing flyer spinning machines are studied and

    compared for power consumption and the details are given in Table 7.

    Table 7 -Comparison of Energy Consumption in Jute Flyer Spinning Machines with

    and without SITRA Modifications

    SITRA Modified Existing Jute Flyer No. Description Jute Flyer Spinning Machine Spinning Machine 1 Make/Mc No SP - 58 SP 55 SP - 61 2 Spindle Speed (rpm) 4031 4034 4028 3 TPI -- -- -- 4 No. of Doff 8 4 8 5 Total Running Hours 5.18 2.298 4.91 6 Total Production (kg) 260.5 124.0 247 7 Energy Consumed (kWh) 46.83 20.86 36.02 8 Production / hr (kg) 50.289 53.959 50.28 9 Units / hr 9.0425 9.077 7.3328 10 Units / kg 0.1798 0.1681 0.1458 11 % Saving in Units/hr -- -- 18.9 & 19.2 12 % Saving in Units/kg -- -- 18.9 & 13.3



     The following are the salient features of modified jute flyer spinning frame.

    ? About 20% reduction in specific energy consumption.

    ? Flyer spindle speed can be increased upto 5000 rpm.

    ? Improved drafting system gives better quality yarn

    ? Energy efficient spindle drive system

    ? Improved motor drive assembly with energy efficient motor

    ? Improved gear trains and modified bobbin rail arrangement for energy



     The conventional jute flyer spinning machine has been modified at SITRA for

    improved performance and the major conclusions are given below:

    ? 20% reduction in specific energy consumption

    ? Considerable reduction in noise level

    ? Significant reduction in vibration due to timing belt drive and helical gear drive with

    ball bearing system

    ? Twenty four machines have been modified in a jute mill and the energy saving

    accounts for about 2.5 lakh kWh/ annum.


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