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Renewable energy sources

By Anita Lawson,2014-03-30 22:37
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In the case of renewable energies and rational energy use, the policy is defined by the SEI and implemented by ADEME (the French Agency for Environment and

    Renewable Energy Sources

    In the French National Plan for Improved Energy

    Efficiency

    Energy policy falls within the jurisdiction of the Department of the State

    Secretary of Industry (Secrétariat d’Etat à l’Industrie; SEI). In the case of

    renewable energies and rational energy use, the policy is defined by the SEI

    and implemented by ADEME (the French Agency for Environment and Energy

    Management). The fight against climatic change falls within the jurisdiction of

    the Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning (Ministère de

    l’Environnement et de l’Aménagement du Territoire; MATE). Therefore both these

    Ministries collaborated on the French National Plan for Improved Energy

    Efficiency (PNAEE, Programme National d’Amélioration de l’Efficacité

    Energétique ) whose aim is to ensure the conformity of national energy policy

    with the climate change mitigation policy.

The ADEME programs within the framework of the PNAEE were devised to be in

    line with France’s National Plan to Combat Climatic Change and with the French

    national targets in the European directive for Electricity from Renewable Energy

    Sources. According to this directive, by 2010, RES electricity should account for

    21% percent of electricity consumed in France as opposed 15% today.

    To pave the way for this increase, ADEME’s funding has been stepped up, and the

    agency is to receive approximately Euros 75 million in 2001. Of this Euros 75

    million, around Euros 18 million are earmarked for R&D, while the remainder is

    to be used for the launch on the market of RES technologies. This overall funding

    figure and the manner in which it is to be subdivided will be subject to annual

    review.

    1.Programs and results forecast for 2006 in the field of

    renewable energy sources

Levels of technical and economic development of renewable energy sources vary

    significantly across different technology sectors and different ranges of

    application. Broadly speaking, they can be categorized as follows:

1. Sources or applications approaching competitiveness. Accelerating

    development for these technologies is a question of improving their market

    position. Prices must be reduced through economies of scale achieved by wide

    distribution, components must be optimized and supply must be structured

    (energy wood, solar thermal, traditional wind power and biogas). The

    organization of energy wood supplies and in particular energy wood from

    timber harvesting must be improved. Market distortions, due to, for example,

    the fact that the price of national grid electricity is not adjusted to reflect real

    costs, must be corrected (Overseas Departments and Corsica), and subsidized

    distribution and/or pricing for competing fossil fuels (reduced VAT on

    standing charges for gas) must be reviewed.

    2. Sources or applications that are profitable or borderline profitable whose

    development is hampered by non-economic constraints. This is the case

    with low temperature geothermal energy (not encouraged by tax legislation

    and subject to intense competition), mini-hydraulics (environmental legislation)

    and off-grid rural electrification (local governments and users remain

    uninformed about products and systems, funding difficulties).

    3. Renewable sources that still require major R&D initiatives to improve

    their profitability and marketability. This is the case with photovoltaic, off-

    shore wind energy, solar cooling and hot dry rock geothermal systems. This

    list could also include biocomponents used in fuels. However like LPG, these

    fuels are promoted by major tax incentives. We might also provisionally

    include vegetable derivatives (for lubricants, solvents, and surfactants) and

    agromaterials (biopolymers), which compete on markets dominated by

    petrochemicals. Lastly, we should not overlook the promising development of

    fuel cells that make use of biomass hydrogen.

ADEME aims to guide and facilitate technical and economic development in these

    different fields, notably by reducing their costs. Implementing a strategy of

    providing support for businesses, it will endeavor to assist the penetration of

    renewable source-based techniques into the most easily accessible and the most

    profitable markets without excessive reliance on public credit. The use of public

    funds for the development of RES is largely justified by the fact that their positive

    economic externalities (notably avoiding CO emissions) cannot be quantified in 2

    economic terms.

    The DOM-TOM & Corsican RES Program

KEY FIGURES AT THE START OF 2000

     DOM-TOM Corsica Array output power 500 MW max. in 494 MW

    each DOM-TOM

    Hydroelectricity 236 MW operational 111 MW of which 10

    MW mini-hydroelectric Bio-electricity 188 MW operational Energy wood (heating) 2,500 TOE/year Wind power 4 MW operational Photovoltaics 5,000 isolated homes 200 isolated homes or

    equipped with 8 sites 0.250 MWp

    MWp

    Geothermal 4.2 MW operational Solar Hot Water Systems 45,000 Domestic 800 homes equipped

    SHWS (90,000 sq. m) (3,000 sq.m)

     5,000 sq.m operational

    in collective dwellings,

    tertiary and industry Existing jobs in RES 320 Source: ADEME-EDF

    DOM-TOM: Overseas Departments or Territories

2000-2006 ISSUES:

? Encourage the distribution of renewables on the DOM-TOM and Corsican

    markets where electricity production costs are high (Euros 0.12 to 0.21/kWh

    production + transport + distribution)

? Stabilize emissions of CO 2

OBJECTIVES:

? Stabilize consumption of fossil energy and associated emissions, create jobs in

    local economies

? Provide between 30-60% of electricity production capacity from RES, that is

    10-20% of energy consumed from RES

SERVICES PROVIDED BY ADEME AND PARTNERS:

    ? Resources assessment (wind, geothermal) and financial assistance for

    decision-makers.

    ? Investment support and demonstration plants

PARTNERSHIPS

     with EDF, FACE(Fund for rural electrification), and Regional Councils

FURTHER SUPPORT:

Pricing of Wind-Generated Electricity: Euros 0.0915/kWh for 5 years,

    followed by pricing in line with wind speed for 10 years, Euro 0.075/kWh for

    an average site with a capacity 2,400 hrs/year

    Pricing for hydro-electricity, photovoltaics, geothermal and biomass: yet to

    be determined.

     These feed-in tariffs are valid only in the frame of the RES electricity

    buying obligation.(Nominal Power less than 12 MW)

RESULTS FORECAST FOR 2006:

st1 circle

    ? Production of grid electricity: 445 GWh/year (wind power + mini-hydraulics +

    geothermal HV.)

    ? 80,000 sq.m solar thermal to be installed over the period (individual and

    collective/tertiary applications), that is 35,000 individual hot water and

    10,000 sq.m collective/tertiary

    ? Installation of 5-10 MW of electric power and 10-20 MW thermal in

    cogeneration /gasification from biomass (10,000 toe)

    ? Electrification of 500 isolated sites per year

    ? Carbon emissions avoided: 88 KT/year

nd 2circle

    ? Wind power price to be reduced to Euros 1,680/kW (Euros 2,750/kW in 1999) ? Photovoltaics prices for isolated sites: costs to be reduced by 40-50% (from

    levels in 1999)

    ? SWHS prices in the DOM: average costs to be reduced by 20% (from levels in

    1999)

    The SOLAR THERMAL PROGRAM

    (Continental France)

KEY FIGURES AT THE START OF 2000:

    Current level of equipment: 350,000 sq.m surface area of collectors in

    Continental France

    (still operating part not known)

    Individual homes market 100 water heaters/year

    70-80 solar combined systems installed

    per year

    installation cost: Euros 875 /sq.m Solar thermal market for 1,000 sq.m/year collective/tertiary sectors 44% of installations offline, all of these

    were installed before 1989

    installation cost: Euros 690/sq.m (average)

    Source: ADEME

2000-2006 ISSUES:

Encourage the distribution of solar thermal in Continental France by improving

    equipment and reducing the overall cost of solar heated water (possible link with

    energy wood in the collective/tertiary building sector and heat networks)

OBJECTIVES:

To bring the solar thermal market to maturity by 2006 and to make solar thermal

    competitive with traditional electric water heating.

    SERVICES AND INCENTIVES PROVIDED BY ADEME AND PARTNERS:

? Subsidies for the distribution of individual solar water heaters and combined

    systems

    ? Training for technicians who install solar equipment

    ? Technical and financial consultancy for installations in collective/tertiary

    buildings

    ? Promotional demonstration of solar cooling systems

    ? R&D, pre-normative support

    ? Communications campaign targeting the general public

PARTNERSHIPS WITH REGIONAL COUNCILS

-

RESULTS FORECAST FOR 2006:

st1 circle

    ? 550,000 sq.m installed by 2006 (that is 30,000 DSHWS*, 500 SCS* and

    15,000 sq.m institutional/industrial systems per year) ? Annual emissions reduced by 16 kt by 2006

nd2 circle

    ? Jobs created: 1300

    ? Reach Euros 560 /sq.m installation cost for the individual homes market (that

    is Euros 2,240/4 sq.m-type unit) and Euros 380/sq.m for the

    public/institutional buildings market.

* DSHWS: domestic solar hot water systems

* SCS: solar combined systems

    The WOOD FUEL PROGRAM

    KEY FIGURES: ENERGY WOOD AT THE START OF 2000

     Current market trend Current level of equipment

    Domestic heating over 8 mtoe/year static Mediocre (7 million units)

    Heating for 150,000 toe/year Good (recent) (400 boilers)

    collective/tertiary increasing

    building sector

    Energy production ? 0.7 mtoe/year Highly variable (1,000 for industrial increasing boilers) process

2000-2006 ISSUES:

? Extension and amplification of the energy wood plan (launched in 1995 in 13

    departments or regions) in all regions

    ? Facilitation of the use of non-recyclable waste wood for energy production in

    the wood and paper industries

    ? Launch of a development and approval system for high-performance clean

    wood domestic heating

    ? Experimental research in cogeneration-gasification with wood

    ? Structuring of supply

    ? Contribution to the replanting of forests damaged by the 1999 storm

OBJECTIVES:

     To bring the collective/tertiary building and industrial heating sector to

    commercial maturity in 2006, making it sufficiently competitive to permit

    sustained independent development

    ? Requalify the range and the market for domestic wood burning heating

    systems; structure distribution networks for guaranteed efficient fuel wood

    ? Contribute to France’s target of 21% renewable energy source electricity by

    2010 (directive).

SERVICES AND INCENTIVES PROVIDED BY ADEME AND PARTNERS:

? Financial support for decision-makers.

    ? Subsidies for investment in collective/tertiary and industrial sectors.

    ? R&D and emissions monitoring for combustion technologies, boilers and

    domestic systems

    ? In-depth market studies, wood supply and distribution networks, and criteria

    of operation for fuel reserves, notably in forests

    ? Nationwide agreement to be established with concerned professionals to

    ensure the reliability of equipment and fuel wood supplies (public buildings

    sector), and distribution (domestic sector)

    ? Establishment of contracts for the involvement of regional authorities in the

    energy wood program, promotional drives and assistance with studies and

    investments within the framework of regional energy service branches PARTNERSHIPS:

     Regional Councils, Equipment Suppliers, Wood fuel Suppliers, Distribution

FURTHER INCENTIVE: PRICING OF ELECTRICITY FROM RENEWABLE

    SOURCES (IN THE PROCESS OF DEFINITION)

RESULTS FORECAST FOR 2006:

    stBusiness sector (1 circle)

    Multi-dwelling, institutional and industrial building:

    ? Allocation: consultancy for 250 projects and implementation of 80 territorial

    studies (market, supply, range of equipment)

    ? 2,500 wood-fueled multi-dwelling and industrial systems (that is 1,000 more

    boilers including 20 large-scale projects for industry)

    + 1,140 ktoe/year of extra substitutes in 2006

    + 200 MW operational

    + 680 kt/year of emissions avoided in 2006

    Domestic sector:

    Promotion of domestic wood use (certification of equipment, turnkey solutions,

    wood distribution network ranking, and so on)

nd2 circle impact

    + 1,200 extra jobs created

rd3 circle impact

    Improvement of 4% on the sector’s (closed heaters) energy and environmental

    balance sheet that is:

    + 270,000 toe/year saved in 2006

    + 80 kt/year of emissions avoided in 2006

In total: + 1,410 ktoe/year of substitutes in 2006, for 760 kt/year of emissions

    avoided

    The BIOFUELS, BIOGAS, BIOMATERIALS PROGRAM

KEY FIGURES AT THE START OF 2000:

    Production of biofuels and 278,000 t/year of diester additives 86,000 t/year of ethanol for ETBE

    that is 305,000 toe/year net of

    substitutes

    Development of biogas 150 000 toe/year recycled (dumps, mud,

    food processing industry) Use of renewable materials 6 M tons/year (construction, chemicals)

2000-2006 ISSUES:

? Development of biogas energy (and reduction of methane emissions) in dumps,

    urban waste disposal, food processing industry, and agriculture

    ? Increase and stabilization of the production of biocomponents used in fuels

    ? Development of the use of biomolecules in the chemicals industry

    ? Improving the quality of wood and extending its use in building construction

OBJECTIVES:

? Take advantage of current or forthcoming waste management policies (biogas),

    pollution and fuels (components), construction (air/wood legislation) and

    agriculture (CAP/non food and Agricultural pollution control program/Biogas)

    with a view to promoting renewable energies and combating the greenhouse

    effect

? Contribute to France’s target of 21% renewable energy source electricity by

    2010 (directive).

SERVICES AND INCENTIVES PROVIDED BY ADEME:

? Technical and financial consulting for biogas

    ? R&D, call for proposals (AGRICE program, linked wood material program)

    ? Support for pilot plants (chemicals, components, food processing, wood

    material)

FURTHER INCENTIVES: PRICING OF BIOGAS-GENERATED ELECTRICITY

     Yet to be defined.

RESULTS FORECAST FOR 2006:

st1 circle

    Methanization and the development of biogas: 800 ktoe/year of thermal energy

    substitute, 360 MWe of electric power operational, 550 kt/year of emissions

    avoided.

rd3 CIRCLE

    ? Biofuels: 20% increase in competitiveness and commercial development of

    additives (from 350,000 toe/year to 473,000 toe/year and from 220 kt/year of

    emissions avoided to 300 kt/year, that is 830 kt CO/year to 1,130 kt 2

    CO/year avoided) 2

? Biomolecules: development of pilot operations and full scale industrial projects

    3? Wood material: consumption of an extra of 2.4 Mm/year of wood in the

    1construction industry (0.655 MT stocked, that is 2.4 MT CO by the end of 2

    2006)

     1

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