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Renewable Energy in Devon

By Roy Jenkins,2014-03-30 22:12
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2 Mar 2005 The purpose of this Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Action Plan is to set out why and how renewable energy generation in Devon can be

    Renewable Energy in Devon

    2005 2010

    A Strategy and Action Plan

    Devon Strategic Partnership

Contents

    Executive Summary ................................................................................................................ 1

    1 Background ...................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 5 1.2 What is renewable energy? ........................................................................................ 5 1.3 Why is it important? .................................................................................................... 5 1.4 Why this strategy now? .............................................................................................. 6 1.5 How has this strategy been developed? ..................................................................... 6 1.6 Summary .................................................................................................................... 7

    2 Context ............................................................................................................................. 8 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 8 2.2 Current energy consumption and production .............................................................. 8

    2.2.1 Within the UK ...................................................................................................... 8

    2.2.2 Within Devon ....................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Current renewable energy production ........................................................................ 9 2.4 Renewable energy potential in the South West and Devon ...................................... 10

    2.4.1 Electricity ........................................................................................................... 10

    2.4.2 Heating .............................................................................................................. 13

    2.4.3 Vehicle fuels ...................................................................................................... 13 2.5 Existing policy, strategy and targets ......................................................................... 13 2.6 Summary .................................................................................................................. 15

    3 Opportunities and barriers ........................................................................................... 16 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 16 3.2 The economic case .................................................................................................. 16 3.3 Environmental protection .......................................................................................... 17 3.4 Public perceptions .................................................................................................... 18 3.5 Integrating renewable energy within mainstream policy and strategy ....................... 18 3.6 Analysis of barriers and possible actions .................................................................. 19 3.7 Summary .................................................................................................................. 20

    4 Strategy .......................................................................................................................... 21 4.1 Vision ........................................................................................................................ 21 4.2 Aims ......................................................................................................................... 21 4.3 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 21 4.4 Activities ................................................................................................................... 24

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    4.5 Benefits .................................................................................................................... 25

    5 Action Plan ..................................................................................................................... 26 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 26 5.2 Action plan ................................................................................................................ 26

    6 Delivery Partnership ...................................................................................................... 30 6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 30 6.2 The Devon Sustainable Energy Network .................................................................. 30 6.3 Structure for the Devon Sustainable Energy Network .............................................. 30 6.4 Added value.............................................................................................................. 31

Appendix 1: Analysis of issues, barriers, current initiatives and opportunities for

    renewable energy technologies .......................................................................................... 33

    Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Action Plan, 2005 2010

    Executive Summary

Background

    1. The purpose of this Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Action Plan is to set out why

    and how renewable energy generation in Devon can be increased.

    2. Renewable energy is energy produced from sources that will remain indefinitely, such as

    sunlight, wind, tides, flowing water, and harvested crops such as wood, as opposed to

    non renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas).

3. Harnessing renewable sources of energy is important in order to:

    ; avoid the worst effects of climate change by reducing emissions of carbon dioxide ; provide secure sources of energy for the future

    ; provide new business and employment opportunities

    4. Improvement in energy efficiency and reduction of the total amount of energy used is also

    important. However, energy production still needs to be transferred from non-renewable

    fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy. This Strategy and Action Plan focuses on

    Renewable Energy and not energy efficiency.

    5. This strategy has been produced following a wide consultation amongst key stakeholders

    within Devon having been initially recommended within a report by the Renewable Energy

    and Energy Reduction Task Group of the Devon Strategic Partnership.

    6. This strategy and action plan is needed to identify the opportunities and barriers to local

    renewable energy generation together with the local actions needed to increase

    renewable energy development.

    7. The draft strategy and action plan will be taken forward by developing a partnership of

    organisations who support it and submitting funding applications to enable implementation.

Context

    8. The UK energy consumption is heavily influenced by electricity generation losses and

    energy consumption from transport.

    9. Less than 2% of UK energy is generated from renewable sources. Devon currently

    produces over 17MW of renewable electricity and a smaller unquantified amount of other

    energy, totalling less than 2% of Devon‟s consumption.

    10. Devon has a large potential renewable energy resources to be harnessed, one of the

    greatest resources of any County in England or any sub region in Europe.

    11. There is a national target to generate 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010

    and to create a low carbon economy emitting 60% less carbon dioxide in 2050 than 1990.

    The SW regional target is 11-15% of electricity generation in the South West (which

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    equates to 597MW) and the Devon target is 151 MW of electricity generation by 2010.

    There is also a lot of opportunity to generate energy for heating and vehicle fuels.

    12. This strategy and action plan supports the delivery of a range of national, regional and

    local policies, strategies and targets

Opportunities and Barriers

    13. Renewable energy generation in Devon and the UK is currently not growing in line with

    the resource opportunities or the requirements of policy and targets.

    14. Increases in renewable energy generation will require investment, primarily by businesses

    responding to commercial demand.

    15. Greater understanding is required of how key issues like environmental protection and the

    planning process, public perceptions and strategic policy development affect renewable

    energy development

    16. Private sector investment is not occurring in response to the opportunities, policies or

    targets due to the following short term barriers:

    ; Planning permission, particularly for electricity generation by wind turbines

    ; Lack of awareness in the community as a whole of the opportunities for renewable energy

    ; Lack of integration within public sector and social landlord building renovation and new build

    programmes

    ; Lack of specialist expertise and skills in the local business sector

    ; Need to risk initial investment before a full investment decision can be made

    ; Supply and demand issues and market size

    ; Difficulty in accessing finance and high initial capital costs

    ; Difficulty in generating business and investment structures that will deliver local economic return

    ; Lack of supportive local authority policies

17. The following actions could overcome the barriers to investment:

    ; Awareness raising, promotion, information and advice

    ; Greater links with local authority policy and practice e.g. sustainable construction guidelines,

    regeneration programmes, estate management

    ; Development of planning guidance on renewable energy in Devon

    ; Development of criteria based planning policies on renewable energy in line with government‟s new

    planning policy statement on renewable energy, PPS 22.

    ; Training for members and planners on renewable energy technologies

    ; Demonstration renewable energy projects

    ; Identification of site specific opportunities

    ; Feasibility and business planning support

    ; Assistance with accessing funding

    ; Collaborative buying initiatives to reduce costs

    ; Fuel supply chain development

    ; Market development

Strategy

18. The following strategic framework is proposed:

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Vision:

    Our vision is for Devon to be a leading County in England for renewable energy enterprise and production by 2010

Aims:

The aims of the strategy are to:

    ; Increase the understanding and support for renewable energy at a local level ; Establish a growing, self sustaining renewable sector of the local economy ; Help to deliver the Devon target for renewable electricity generation ; Reduce carbon dioxide emissions and therefore contributing to international, national,

    regional and county targets

    ; Create greater opportunities for community involvement in renewable energy development

    By achieving these aims, broader issues will be addressed including the need to create jobs & improve incomes, diversify traditional industries and the opportunity to develop the image of Devon as being synonymous with sustainability and innovation.

Objectives:

The aims will be met by the following objectives:

    1. To enhance the strategic framework within which renewable energy is delivered in Devon 2. To raise awareness of the opportunities for renewable energy through a wide ranging

    education and promotion campaign

    3. To bring forward specific and appropriate renewable energy projects through the

    provision of specialist information, advice, and support

    4. To develop and implement technology growth plans for specific technologies 5. To support the development of the renewable energy industry within Devon 6. To develop an inclusive, partnership approach to sector development

Action Plan

    19. The following activities are proposed to achieve the vision, aims and objectives:

    ; Policy development at County, District and community level

    ; Awareness raising, promotion, provision of information and advice

    ; Survey and research to identify opportunities

    ; Feasibility and business planning support to site specific opportunities

    ; Assistance with accessing funding for implementation

    ; Project implementation support

    ; Training and skills development

    ; Supply chain and market development

    ; Facilitating group working between businesses

    ; Co-ordination and partnership development

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Delivery

    20. The Strategy and Action Plan will be delivered through the newly established Devon

    Sustainable Energy Network (DSEN)

    21. DSEN will provide the framework within which renewable energy work can be balanced

    and integrated with increased activity on energy efficiency, sustainable construction, fuel

    poverty and affordable warmth as part of a full sustainable energy strategy for Devon.

    22. Integrating renewable energy with the wider sustainable energy agenda will enable

    greater synergy between the interests of key stakeholders and enable Devon to integrate

    its approach to energy across both the supply and demand of energy.

    23. The Devon Energy Efficiency Advice Centre will resource the secretariat for the network

    through their Local Authority Support Programme, to be reviewed annually. The network

    will operate through four task groups, one of which will be renewable energy. This

    strategy and action plan will form the basis for the workplan for this group. John

    Sunderland, Chief Executive of North Devon will chair the network.

    24. The implementation of the Strategy and Action Plan will aim to deliver the following

    benefits:

    ; Growth of existing Devon businesses in the renewable energy sector

    ; Creation of new Devon businesses in the renewable energy sector

    ; Creation of jobs, associated with economic activities including: fuel production,

    processing and supply; installation, management and maintenance of equipment;

    development, manufacture and marketing of equipment

    ; Creation of opportunities for land based businesses to diversify

    ; Retention of money in the local economy by substituting imported energy with locally

    produced energy, and creating community based solutions, and therefore benefiting

    Devon‟s economy as a whole

    ; Providing opportunities for local income through the establishment of local community

    funds associated with larger scale renewable energy developments

    ; Increasing community involvement within the planning system

    ; Enhancement of Devon‟s image as an innovative, sustainable community resulting in

    increased investment and visitors

    ; Creation of waste management solutions and reduction of waste going to landfill

    ; Reduction of Carbon Dioxide emissions and longer term environmental protection,

    health and quality of life benefits through the mitigation of the effects of climate change

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1 Background

1.1 Introduction

    The purpose of this Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Action Plan is to describe why and how renewable energy generation in Devon can be increased. This section provides an introduction to what renewable energy is, why it is important and why a strategy is needed. 1.2 What is renewable energy?

    Renewable energy is energy produced from sources that will remain indefinitely, such as sunlight, wind, tides, flowing water, and harvested crops such as wood, as opposed to non renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas).

    1.3 Why is it important?

    Currently, the majority of energy is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels to make electricity, heat water and buildings, or power vehicles. Use of fossil fuels as energy sources is not sustainable because:

    ; Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, increasing atmospheric concentrations

    and thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect and promoting rapid climate change ; Supplies of fossil fuels are finite and will become scarce, expensive and difficult to obtain,

    with impacts to the economy and security.

    These are global issues which, through the Kyoto protocol, the adoption of European, national and regional targets for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, require local action.

    Improvement in energy efficiency and reduction of the total amount of energy used is an important part of any sustainable energy strategy. In the short term, some of the most cost-effective measures to reduce use of fossil fuels and emissions of climate change enhancing gases, relate to energy efficiency. However, ultimately however much we reduce energy demand by, energy production will still need to be transferred from non-renewable fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy. Energy efficiency is a separate issue and will need to be dealt with elsewhere. This Strategy and Action Plan focuses on Renewable Energy and not energy efficiency.

    Harnessing renewable sources of energy is therefore important in order to: ; avoid the worst effects of climate change by reducing emissions of carbon dioxide ; provide secure sources of energy for the future,

    Renewable energy also provides new business and employment opportunities such as: ; Development and sale of new energy generating equipment

    ; Installation and maintenance of equipment

    ; Production and processing of renewable fuels such as those from harvested crops

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1.4 Why this strategy now?

    Recognition of the need to harness renewable energy has increased over the last decade in response to scientific understanding of the causes and impacts of climate change. Climate change is primarily, but not exclusively, related to the burning of fossil fuels and the projected impacts of current trends show severe environmental, social and political consequences of a „business as usual‟ approach to fossil fuel use. In addition, there is political recognition of the danger to the economy and global security of continuing to generate energy from fossil fuels from ever diminishing reserves to meet increasing demand.

    International, European, National and regional policies and targets place an obligation on the community of Devon to increase the local generation of renewable energy. This is especially relevant to Devon because we have relatively high levels of renewable energy resources. In addition, Devon is a relatively economically deprived community (for example, Devon has lower than the national average GDP per person) and renewable energy has been identified as a particular opportunity for economic diversification by the Regional Economic Strategy, the Devon Rural Strategy and other documents.

    The Devon Strategic Partnership identified climate change, renewable energy and energy efficiency issues as a priority area to address at its inaugural conference in October 2001. Subsequently a Renewable Energy and Energy Reduction Task Group was established and produced a draft report for consultation in October 2002. One of the report‟s key recommendations was that a Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Actin Plan should be developed and implemented. This draft Strategy and Action plan aims to address that recommendation.

This strategy and action plan is therefore needed to identify:

    ; what the local opportunities are for renewable energy generation;

    ; what the barriers are to local renewable energy generation;

    ; what actions are needed to increase renewable energy generation;

    ; how the required actions can be implemented;

    ; to initiate a dialogue leading to a co-ordinated, partnership approach to promotion of

    renewable energy production in Devon.

    1.5 How has this strategy been developed?

    A first draft Strategy was prepared by Devon County Council in November 2003 as a basis for discussions with partners, including: DSP Renewable Energy and Energy Reduction Task Group, Devon Association for Renewable Energy, relevant businesses, SW Wood Fuels, SW Forest, Devon Energy Efficiency Advice Centre, Local Strategic Partnerships, District Councils, Devon Market and Coastal Town Forum, GOSW, RegenSW, SWRDA etc. This consultation process took place during 2004 with a paper based consultation in the fist half of the year followed by consultation meetings and workshops with many key stakeholders during the second half of the year.

    In addition the strategy has formed the basis for several funding bids to support the delivery of many of the actions contained within the action plan.

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    It is hoped that this strategy will now be considered and integrated within the work of the developing Devon Sustainable Energy Network.

    1.6 Summary

    1. The purpose of this Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Action Plan is to describe why and how renewable energy generation in Devon can be increased.

    2. Renewable energy is energy produced from sources that will remain indefinitely, such as sunlight, wind, tides, flowing water, and harvested crops such as wood, as opposed to non renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas).

3. Harnessing renewable sources of energy is important in order to:

    ; avoid the worst effects of climate change by reducing emissions of carbon dioxide ; provide secure sources of energy for the future

    ; to provides new business and employment opportunities

    4. The need for a Devon Renewable Energy Strategy and Action Plan has been identified in the report of the Devon Strategic Partnership‟s Renewable Energy and Energy Reduction Task Group.

5. This strategy and action plan is needed to identify:

    ; what the local opportunities are for renewable energy generation;

    ; what the barriers are to local renewable energy generation;

    ; what actions are needed to increase renewable energy generation;

    ; how the required actions can be implemented;

    and to:

    ; initiate a dialogue leading to a co-ordinated, partnership approach to promotion of

    renewable energy production in Devon.

    6. The draft strategy has been developed as a result of a wide consultation process that has involved many key stakeholders within Devon.

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2 Context

    2.1 Introduction

    The purpose of this section is to set the context within which a Devon strategy should be developed, including the current national pattern of energy consumption and generation, the current state of renewable energy production, the available resource from which renewable energy could be produced in Devon, and the relevant policies and targets that will guide the production of renewable energy in Devon.

    2.2 Current energy consumption and production

    2.2.1 Within the UK

Million tonnes of oil equivalent:

     By End Use 2003 and Fuel 2003

    Electricity generation losses

    Conversion losses 54.5

    Distribution losses and

    energy industry use 20.1

    Sub total losses 74.6 Coal and

    manufactured Final consumption

    fuels Industry 34.6 1.3 14.8 7.3 9.8 1.4 41.5

    Domestic sector 47.9 1.1 33.2 3.4 10.0 0.3 40.5 Gas Transport 56.0 - - 55.3 0.7 - 41.5

    Other end users 19.5 - 8.8 1.3 8.5 0.8 23.5

    Oil Sub total final consumption 158.0 2.4 56.7 67.4 29.0 2.5 147.0

    Total inland primary energy

    Electricity consumption 232.7

     Renewables Notes and heat Data on energy use taken from the 2004 Digest of UK Energy Statistics

    Data on carbon dioxide emissions taken from DEFRA e-digest on website Carbon dioxide http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/index.htm emissions 2002 The breakdown of carbon dioxide emissions allocates emissions from powers (million tonnes stations to those using the electricity generated carbon)

    The summary table above highlights the importance of electricity generation losses and energy use within transport on final energy consumption. The distribution of carbon emissions is more even across the three main sectors due to the influence of electricity use within industry and domestic sectors. Renewable energy production is very low, even if primary energy is considered (taking into account conversion losses) renewable energy accounted for just 3.23 million tonnes of oil equivalent in 2003. This equates to just 1.4% of total primary energy or 1.6% of final consumption or delivered energy.

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