911 And Its Aftermath

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911 And Its Aftermath

    9/11 And Its Aftermath

    Public Policy 264.02

    Adjunct Associate Professor David Schanzer

The attacks of September 11, 2001, were a seminal moment in modern history. They

    demonstrated the ability of non-state actors to inflict serious damage on the world‘s greatest superpower and exposed the vulnerability of the entire global community to catastrophic acts of

    terrorism. This course explores the genesis of these attacks and evaluates the response of the

    United States government in three areas: military and foreign policy, law enforcement, and

    homeland security. Do we have in place the proper strategy to deal with the national security

    threats revealed by 9/11? Have the actions taken by the government since 9/11 made the nation

    and the world safer? What impact have these changes in policy had on foreign relations, the

    economy, civil rights, and privacy? What changes in current policy should be pursued to improve

    security while minimizing adverse consequences.

Course Requirements:

Class Participation

    This is not a lecture course. Rather, each class will involve a professor-led discussion on the topic at hand. Students must be prepared to engage in discussion and present arguments on the

    policy questions presented by the readings. Voluntary participation will be encouraged, but students should expect to be called on by the professor at least once per class. Class

    Participation will count as 15 percent of the final grade. The participation grade will be based on the quality of participation, not quantity.

     Attendance Policy

    Class attendance is mandatory and will be considered as a factor in the participation grade.

    Students who cannot attend a class should advise the professor by email. An absence

    may be excused if it for a legitimate reason (i.e., illness, religious observance, serious

    personal matter, representation of the university) and the student writes a one-page essay

    on an issue raised by the readings for the missed class (due on the next class day). Work

    for other classes is not a basis for an excused absence. Any student that is absent for an

    extended period (more than two classes) should obtain a Dean's excuse letter.

Policy Memoranda

Short policy memoranda or other short papers (no more than 750 words) will be assigned to

    provide students the opportunity to consider the material for a class in greater depth. The class will

    be split into three groups (A, B & C)for the purpose of these assignments. Students will be assigned 4 memoranda over the course of the semester -- one for each section of the class. The

    memoranda will count as 40 percent of the final grade. Memoranda are due at the beginning of the class for which they were assigned.

Mid-Term Paper

There will be a 10-12 page paper (3000 words maximum) due on Friday, October 20 at 5 P.M.

    The paper will relate directly to the course readings and will not require additional research. The

    paper will count as 20 percent of the final grade.


    One grade (i.e. B+ to B) will be deducted for each day of lateness. The day begins as

    12:00 midnight, so a paper that is due in class on Tuesday, but not handed until 12:01 AM

    Wednesday will be two days late.


    Students may re-write issue memoranda and the mid-term papers. Re-writes for

    memoranda are due one week after they are turned in, unless otherwise announced by the

    professor. Re-writes for the mid-term paper will be due at a time announced by the

    professor. The grade for a re-written paper will be the average of the initial grade and the

    re-write grade. There is no guarantee that the re-write grade will be higher than the initial

    grade. Re-writes that simply re-structure sentences commented on by the professor

    during in the initial grading without dealing with the overall broader comments on the paper

    will not receive a higher grade on the re-write. Students are encouraged to speak or meet

    with the professor before re-writing a paper (especially the mid-term paper).

    Final Examination

The final exam will be a series of essay questions handed out on the last day of class, due on the

    day of the final - Saturday, December 16 at 5 PM. The final will count as 25 percent of the final


Books Recommended for Purchase:

The following books have been ordered and should be available for purchase at the bookstore:

Stephen Flynn, America the Vulnerable (New York, 2004)

    David Frum & Richard Perle, An End to Evil, (New York, 2003)

    Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, (New York, 1998)

    National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Against the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report

    (Washington, 2004)

    Richard Clark, Against All Enemies, (New York, 2004) (optional)

    Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia, 2004)

Reading Assignments

** Starred readings are RECOMMENDED only


    Tues. Aug. 29 -- What Is Terrorism and Why Do We Fear It?

Thurs. Aug. 31 What Kind of ―War‖?

    Clausewitz, On War (translated by Col. J.J. Graham, London, 1873), Book One,

    Chapter One On the Nature of War

    President George W. Bush, Address To A Joint Session of Congress, September 20,


    James Carafano & Paul Rosenzweig, Winning the Long War, Prologue: The Long

    Shadow of the Long Telegram

    Richard Stephenson, ―President Bush Makes It Clear: Phrase Is War on Terror,‖ New

    York Times, Aug. 4, 2005


Tues. Sept. 5 -- Terrorism: Theory and Tactics

    Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, (New York, 1998), pp. 13-129

    David C. Rapoport, Perceptions & Misperceptions of Religious Terror (2001)

Thurs. Sept 7 -- The Nature of Radical Islamic Jihadism

    MEMO #1: GROUP A

     Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia, 2004), pp. 1-24, 61-99

     David Cook, Understanding Jihad (Berkley, 2005), pp. 1-31, 93-127

     ―Special Report: Forty Shades of Green,‖ The Economist, Feb. 4, 2006, pp. 22-24

     ** James W. Roberts, ―Political Violence and Terrorism in Islamdom,‖ in Democratic

     Development & Political Terrorism: The Global Perspective (William Crotty, ed.

     Boston, 2005), pp. 102-20

     ** Mehran Kamrava, ―Repression, Fundamentalism and Terrorism in the Middle

     East,‖ in Democratic Development & Political Terrorism: The Global

     Perspective (William Crotty, ed. Boston, 2005), pp. 167-91

Tues. Sept. 12 -- Bin Laden, Al-Qaeda & the Jihad

    MEMO #1: GROUP B

     Understanding Terror Networks, 25-59, 137-184

    Bruce Lawrence, Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama bin Laden, pp.

    xi-xxiii, 23-30, 58-62, 63-94

    National Counterterrorism Center, Al Qa‘ida, Sunii Affiliates, Allied Organizations, Fact


    Al Qaeda Training Manual, pp. 1-22

    Bernard Haykel, ―Terminal Debate,‖ New York Times, October 11, 2005

    Thurs. Sept. 14 -- Counterterrorism: World Trade Center (1993) to Bush Inauguration

    MEMO #1: GROUP C

     National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Against the United States, The 9/11

     Commission Report (Washington, 2004), Chapters 3, 4, & 6.1 6.4

     Richard Clarke, Against All Enemies (New York, 2004), pp. 73-99, 133-154, 181-226

Tues. Sept. 19 September 11, 2001 What Went Wrong?

    9/11 Commission Report, pp. Chapters 5, 6.5, 7, 8 & 1

    Dr. Condoleezza Rice‘s Opening Remarks to Commission on Terrorist Attacks,

    Washington, D.C. April 8, 2004

    ** Against All Enemies, 227-246

    Thurs. Sept. 21 Post 9/11 Strategies for Combating Terrorism: The Bush Administration & the


    President George W. Bush, Remarks at the United States Air Force Academy

    Graduation, June 2, 2004

     David Frum & Richard Perle, An End to Evil (New York, 2003), pp. 51-229

     Donald Rumsfeld, Memo, October 16, 2003

    George Packer, The Assassin‘s Gate: America in Iraq, pp. 15-32

    Tues. Sept. 26 Post 9/11 Strategies for Combating Terrorism: Alternative Approaches

    Will Marshall & Jeremy Rosner, ―A Progressive Answer To Jihadist Terror,‖ from With

    All Our Might, Will Marshall, ed. (Washington, 2006), pp. 1-16,

    Daniel Benjamin, ―A Smarter War on Terror,‖ from With All Our Might, pp. 87-99

    Philip Heymann, Terrorism, Freedom and Security: Winning Without War, (Cambridge,

    MA, 2003) pp. xi-xii, 1-41

    Joseph Nye, Jr., Soft Power (New York, NY, 2003) pp. 1-15, 127-147


Thurs. Sept. 28 The Bush Doctrine & Its Critics (Part One)

    MEMO #2: GROUP A, B & C (Exchange With Classmate)

    President George W. Bush, Address to a Joint Session of Congress, September 20,


    President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, January 29, 2002 pp. 1-4

    President George W. Bush, Remarks at the Graduation of the United States Military

    Academy, June 1, 2002

    The National Security Strategy of the United States, September 2002, 1-8, 13-16, 21-24

    Norman Podhoretz, ―World War IV, How It Started, What It Means, and Why We Have

    to Win,‖ Commentary, October 4, 2004

Tues. Oct. 3 -- NO CLASS (Yom Kippur)

     MEMO #2: GROUP A, B, C (Return Comments To Classmate)

Thurs. Oct. 5 -- The Bush Doctrine & Its Critics (Part Two)

    MEMO #2: GROUP A,B, C (Rewrite Due)

    Michael O‘Hanlon, Susan Rice, James Steinberg, The New National Security Strategy

    and Preemption, Brookings Policy Brief #113

    Benjamin Barber, Fear‘s Empire, (New York, NY, 2003), pp. 85-119

    Andrew Bachevich, ―Bush‘s Grand Strategy,‖ The American Conservative, November 4,


    Robert Jervis, ―Why the Bush Doctrine Cannot Be Sustained,‖ Political Science

    Quarterly, Fall, 2005

Tues. Oct. 10 -- NO CLASS (Fall Break)

Thurs. Oct. 12 -- Applying the Bush Doctrine: Iraq

    James Fallows, ―Bush‘s Lost Year,‖ Atlantic Monthly, October 2004

    President George W. Bush, Remarks on Iraq, Cincinnati Museum Center, October 7,


    Brent Scowcroft, ―Don‘t Attack Saddam,‖ Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2002

    Robert Kagan & William Kristol, ―The Right War For the Right Reasons,‖ Weekly

    Standard, February 23, 2004, p. 20

    An End to Evil, pp. 8-33

    President George Bush, President Outlines Strategy for Victory in Iraq, Remarks to

    United States Naval Academy, November 30, 2005

    Mark Danner, ―Taking Stock of the Forever War,‖ New York Times Magazine, Sept. 11,


    David Rivkin, Jr. & Lee A. Casey, ―Why We‘re There,‖ National Journal, December 31,


    Fouad Ajami, The Foreigner‘s Gift, xi - xix

Tues Oct. 17 Fighting Terror by Promoting Democracy

    President George W. Bush, Second Inaugural Address, Washington, .C. January 20,


    Condoleeza Rice, ―The Promise of Democratic Peace,‖ Washington Post, December 11,


    M. Halperin, J. Siegel, M. Weinstein, The Democracy Advantage (2005), pp. 93-134

    F. Gregory Gause III, ―Can Democracy Stop Terrorism?‖ Foreign Affairs,

    September/October 2005

    Jennifer Windsor, ―Promoting Democratization Can Combat Terrorism,‖ Washington

    Quarterly, pp. 43

    Larry Diamond and Michael McFaul, ―Seeding Liberal Democracy,‖ from With All Our

    Might, pp. 49-67

Thurs. Oct. 19 -- NO CLASS

Friday, October 20 MID TERM PAPERS DUE 5 PM


    Tues. Oct. 24 -- Treatment of Detainees: Geneva Convention, Guantanamo, & Military Tribunals

Philip Zelikow, ―Legal Policy In the Twilight War,‖ ABA Standing Committee on Law and

    National Security, March 10, 2006

    Guantanamo Bay Detainees Overview, ―Applicable Law,‖ International Debates, April


    John Barry, et al., ―The Roots of Torture,‖ Newsweek, May 24, 2004

    Alberto R. Gonzales, Memorandum for the President, January 25, 2002

    Colin Powell, Memorandum to Counsel For the President, January 26, 2002

    Stuart Taylor, ―We Don‘t Need to Be Scofflaws To Attack Terror,‖ National Journal, Feb.

    2, 2002

    Reuel Marc Gerecht, ―What‘s The Matter With Gitmo?‖ The Weekly Standard, July 4,


    Thurs. Oct. 26 -- Interrogation & Torture

Kenneth J. Levit, ―The CIA and the Torture Controversy: Interrogation Authorities and

    Practices in the War on Terror,‖ 2 Journal of National Security Law & Policy


    Jay Bybee, Memorandum for Alberto Gonzales, August 1, 2002, 1-2, 31-39

    Mark Danner, ―Torture and Truth,‖ New York Review of Books, June 10, 2004 Charles Krauthammer, The Truth About Torture, The Weekly Standard, December 12,


    Andrew Sullivan, ―The Abolition of Torture,‖ The New Republic, December 19, 2005 Public Law 109-48 (DoD, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address

    Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006, Sections


    Charlie Savage, ―Bush Could Bypass New Torture Ban,‖ Boston Globe, Jan. 4, 2006

    Tues. Oct. 31 Overseeing the Executive: The Role of Congress & the Courts

    Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, (as edited - Opinion of Justice O‘Connor, pp. 8-32, Opinion of

    Justice Scalia, dissenting, 1-2, 26-27, Opinion of Thomas, dissenting, 1)

    Public Law 109-48 (DoD, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address

    Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006, Sections


    Hamdan v. United States, (as edited Opinion of Justice Stevens, 1-7, 25,30, 49-52,

    53-62, 72-73, Justice Breyer, 1, Justice Kennedy, 1-2, Justice Scalia, 1, 19-24,

    Justice Thomas, 1-6)

    Stuart Taylor, ―How Bush‘s Overreaching Hurts The War on Terrorism,‖ National

    Journal, July 3, 2004

    Thurs. Nov. 2 Information Gathering & Civil Liberties


    Kate Martin, ―Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties,‖ SAIS Review, Winter 2004, pp.


    Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required To

    Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT Act), Section 215

    Patriot Act Overview, Congressional Digest, pp. 258, 260-01, 288

    Statement of Deputy Attorney General James Comey, House Judiciary Committee,

    June 8, 2005, p. 6-11

    ―Patriot Debates, A Sourceblog for the USA Patriot Act,‖ Sections 214 & 215—Andrew

    McCarthy & Peter P. Swire

    Alison Leigh Cowan, ―At Stake In the Court, the Use of the Patriot Act to Get Library

    Records,New York Times, Sept. 1, 2005

    Barton Gellman, ―The FBI‘s Secret Scrutiny,‖ Washington Post, Nov. 6, 2005

Tues. Nov. 7 -- Data Mining & Civil Liberties


    Robert O‘Harrow, Jr. No Place to Hide, pp. 190-246

    De Rosa, Mary, ―Data Mining and Data Analysis for Counterterrorism,‖ Center for

    Strategic and International Studies (March 2004)

    Simson Garfinkel, ―Phone Calls Are Just the Start,‖ The Washington Post, May 14,


    MacDonald, Heather. ―Total Information Unawareness,‖ Weekly Standard, February 17,


    Jay Stanley, ―Is the Threat From ‗Total Information Awareness Overblown?‖,, Dec. 18, 2002

    Thomas Powers, ―Welcome To the Omnipticon,‖ Public Interest, Summer 2004 pp. 114

Thurs. Nov. 9 Surveillance & Civil Liberties

    MEMO #3: GROUP C

    Mark Hosenball, Evan Thomas, ―Hold the Phone; Big Brother Knows Who You Call,‖

    Newsweek, May 22, 2006

    James Risen & Eric Lichtblau, ―Bush Let‘s U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts,‖ New

    York Times, Dec. 16, 2005

    Leslie Cauley, ―NSA Has Massive Database of Americans‘ Phone Calls,‖ USA Today,

    May 11, 2006

    Congressional Research Service, ―Constitutional and Statutory Framework for NSA

    Activities,‖ Congressional Digest, April 2006, pp. 99-102

    Michael Hayden, Speech at the National Press Club January 23, 2006,

    Congressional Digest, April 2006, pp. 116-124

    Richard Posner, Not a Suicide Pact (New York, 2006), p. 91-103

    Heather MacDonald, ―Information Please,‖ The Weekly Standard, May 22, 2006

    James Bamford, ―Big Brother Is Listening,‖ Atlantic Monthly, April 2006

Tues. Nov. 14 -- Screening and Profiling

    Kurt Anderson, "Damned If We Do, and Don't" New York Magazine, Aug. 15, 2005

    Michael Kinsley, "Racial Profiling At the Airport," Slate, Sept. 28, 2001

     Andrew McCarthy, "Unreasonable Searches," National Review, Aug. 29, 2005, p. 17

     ACLU & Privacy International, "Comments to Department of Homeland Security on the

     Proposed Secure Flight Program," Oct. 25, 2004

    Bernard Harcourt, ―Search and Defend,‖ New York Times, Aug. 25, 2006

     Posner, Not a Suicide Pact, pp. 116-120


Thurs. Nov. 16 -- What Is Homeland Security?

    National Strategy for Homeland Security, July 2002, Opening Letter, Executive

    Summary (vii-xiii) & Introduction (1-7)

    Stephen Flynn, America the Vulnerable (New York, 2004), pp. 1-79

    Secretary Michael Chertoff, Remarks at George Washington University Policy Institute,

    March 16, 2005

    Tues. Nov. 21 Cargo Security & WMD: The Needle in a Haystack Problem

    MEMO #4: GROUP A

    America the Vulnerable, pp. 81-110

    Matthew Bunn, ―Preventing a Nuclear 9/11,‖ Issues in Science and Technology, Winter

    2005, pp. 55-62

     Clark Kent Ervin, Open Target (New York, 2006), pp. 117-135

     Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, United States Senate, ―An Assessment

     of U.S. Efforts To Secure The Global Supply Chain‖ pp. 1-43

Thurs. Nov. 23 NO CLASS (Thanksgiving)

    Tues. Nov. 28 Chemical Plant Security: How to Secure Private Facilities?

    MEMO #4: GROUP B

    Margaret Kriz, ―Security Leak,‖ National Journal, August 2, 2003

    Richard Falkenrath, ―We Could Breathe Easier,‖ Washington Post, March 29, 2005,

     p. A15

    Peter Orzag and Michael O‘Hanlon, ―Protecting Infrastructure and Providing Incentives

    For the Private Sector To Protect Itself,‖ in Michael d‘Arcy, et al., Protecting the

    Homeland 2006 / 2007, (Washington 2006), pp. 73-95

    Government Accountability Office, Homeland Security: Federal Action Needed To

    Address Security Challenges at Chemical Facilities, pp. 11-14

    Thurs. Nov. 30 Bioterrorism: The Challenge of Preparedness

     MEMO #4: GROUP C

    Biodefense for the 21st Century, Apr. 8, 2004

    Remarks of Senator Bill Frist, ―Manhattan Project for the 21st Century,‖ June 1, 2005

    David Ignatius, ―We‘re Unprepared,‖ Washington Post, May 20, 2005, p. A21

    Elin Gursky, ―Moving Target: Biological Threats To America,‖ in The McGraw-Hill

    Homeland Security Handbook (New York, 2006), pp. 703-716

    Paul Offit, ―Why are Pharmaceutical Companies Gradually Abandoning Vaccines?‖

    Health Affairs, May/June 2005, pp. 622

Tues. Dec. 5 -- Border Security: Who Is Coming To America?

    David Rieff, ―The Way We Live Now: 11-6-05; Migrant Worry‖ New York Times

    Magazine, Nov. 6, 2005

    Open Target, pp. 41-77

    Kenneth Rogoff, ―The Cost of Living Dangerously,‖ Foreign Policy, Nov./Dec. 2004, p.


    Thomas Friedman, ―America‘s DNA,‖ New York Times, June 1, 2005

    The Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, Independent Task Force on Immigration,

    ―Keeping the Promise: Immigration Proposals from the Heartland‖ (2005), 1-21

    Mark Krikorian, ―Keeping Terror Out,‖ National Interest, Spring 2004

    Mark Krikorian, ―Borderline Insanity,‖ National Interest, Spring 2005


Thurs. Dec. 7 The Future

Reza Aslan, ―The Struggle for Islam‘s Soul,‖ in With All Our Might, pp 19-31

James Fallows, ―Declaring Victory,‖ The Atlantic, Sept. 2006

Daniel Benjamin & Stephen Simon, The Next Attack (New York, 2006), pp. 197-229

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