Time - 30 minutes
Directions: Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that
something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets
of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning
of the sentence as a whole.
1. Nonviolent demonstrations often create such ten- sions that a community that has
constantly refused to —— its injustices is forced to correct them: the injustices
can no longer be ——.
2. Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen's novels has oscillated between ——
and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than
did most of her literary ——.
(B) adoration. .contemporaries
3. There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has
to the extent that they no longer —— ecologists.
4. Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National lnstitutes
human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which ——
treatments are unsatisfactory.
5. It was her view that the country's problems had been —— by foreign technocrats,
so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive.
6. Winsor McCay, the cartoonist, could draw with incredible ——: his comic strip
about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and
7. The actual —— of Wilson's position was always —— by his refusal to
compromise after having initially aGREed to negotiate a settlement.
Directions: In each of the foiiowing questions, a related pair of words
is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the
lettered pair that
best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original
8. SEDATTVE : DROWSlNESS ::
(A) epidemic : contagiousness
(B) vaccine : virus
(C) laxative : drug
(D) anestheiic : numbness
(E) therapy : psychosis
(A) participant : team
(B) commuter : train
(C) gladiator : arena
(D) senator : caucus
(E) patient : ward
10. CURIOSITY : KNOW ::
(A) temptation : conquer
(B) starvation : eat
(C) wanderlust : travel
(D) humor : laugh
(E) survival : live
11. FRUGAL : MISERLY ::
(A) confident : arrogant
(B) courageouss : pugnacious
(C) famous : aggressive
(D) rash : foolhardy
(E) quiet : timid
12. ANTIDOTE : POISON ::
(A) cure : recovery
(B) narcotic : sleep
(C) stimulant : relapse
(D) tonic : lethargy
(E) resuscitation : breathing
13. STYGIAN.: DARK ::
(A) abysmal : low
(B) cogent : contentious
(C) fortuitous.: accidental
(D) reckless : threatening
(E) cataclysmic : doomed
14. WORSHIP : SACRIFICE ::
(A) generation : pyre
(B) burial : mortuary
(C) weapon : centurion
(D) massacre : invasion
(E) prediction : augury
15. EVANESCENT : l)ISAPPEAR :
(A) tlansparent : penetrate
(B) onerous : struggle
(C) feckless : succeed
(D) illusory : exist
(E) pliant : yield
16. UPBRAlD : REPROACH ::
(A) dote : like
(B) lal: : stray
(C) vex : please
(D) earn : desire
(E) recast : explain
Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content.
After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer
following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
lt has been known for many decades that the appear-
ance of sunspots is roughly periodic, with an average
cycle of eleven years. Moreover, the incidence of solar
flares and the flux of solar cosmic rays, ultraviolet radia-
tion, and x-radiation all vary directly with the sunspot (5)
cycle. But after more than a century of investigation. the
relation of these and other phenomena, known collec-
tively as the solar-activity cycle, to terrescrial weather
and climate remains unclear. For example. the sunspot
cycle and the allied rnagnetic-polarity cycle have been (10)
linked to periodicities discerned in records of such vari-
ables as rainhll. temperature, and winds. lnvariably,
however, the relation is weak. and commonly ofdubious
Effects of solar variability over longer terms have also (15)
been sought. The absence of recorded sunspot activity in
the notes kept by European observers in the late seven-
teenth and early eighteenth centuries has led some schol-
ars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at
that time (a period called the Maunder minimum). The (20)
Maunder minimum has been linked to a span of unusual
cold in Europe extending from the sixteenth to the early
nineteenth centuries. The reality of the Maunder mini-
mum has yet to be established, however, especially since
the records that Chinese naked-eye observers of solar (25)
activity made at that time appear to contradict it. Scien-
tists have also sought evidence of long-term solar period-
icities by examining indirect climatological data, such as
fossil recoras of the thickness of ancient tree rings. These
studies, however, failed to link unequivocally terrestrial(30)
climate and the solar-activity cycle, or even to contirm
the cycle's past existenue.
If consistPn! and re!iab!e geo!sgigal~-arek-xologieal
evidence tracing the solar-activity cycle in the distant
past could be found, it might also resolve an important(35)
issue in solar physics: how to model solar activity. Cur-
rently, chere are two models of solar activity. The tirst
supposes that the Sun's internal motions (caused by
rotation and convection) interact with its large-scale
magnetic field to produce a dynamo. a device in which(40)
mechanical energy is converted into the energy of a mag-
netic field. ln short. the Sun's large-scale magnetic field
is taken to be self-sustaining, so that the solar-activity
cycle it drives would be maintained with little overall
changc for perhaps billions of years. The alternative(45)
exp)anarion supposes that the Sun's large-sca)e magnetic
field is a remnant of the field the Sun acquired when it
formed, and is not sustained against decay. In this
model. the solar mechanism dependent on the Sun's
magnetiC field runs down more quickly. Thus, the char-(50)
acteristics of the solar-activity cycle uvuld be expected to
change over a long period of time. Modern solar obser-
vations span too short a time to reveal whether present
cyclical solar aCtivity is a long-lived feature of the Sun,
or merely a transient phenomenon.
17. The author focuses primarily on
(A) presenting two competing scientific theories concerning solar
activity and evaluating geological evidence often cited to support them
(B) giving a brief overview of some recent scientifrc developments
in s'olar physics and assessing their impact on future climatological research
(C) discussing the difficulties involved in linkinl: ter- restrial
phenomena with solar activity and indicating how resolving that issue
could have an impact on our understanding of solar physics
(D) pointing out the futility of a certain line of sci- entific inquiry
into the terrestrial effects of solar activity and recommendine ita
aban- donment in favor of purely physics-oriented research
(E) outlinine the specific reasons why a problem in solar physics has
not yet been solved and faulting the overly theoretical approach of modern
18. Which of th.e following statements about the two models of solar
activity. as they are described in lines 37-55, is accurate?
(A) In both modgls cyclical solar activity is regarded as a long-lived
feature of the Sun, persisting with little change over billions of years.
(B) Tn both models the solar-activity cycle is hypothesized as being
dependent on the large-scale solar magnetic field.
(C) Tn one model the Sun's magnetic fieid is thought to play a role in
causing solar activ- ity, whereas in the other model it is not.
(D) In one model solar activity is presumed to be unrelated to terrestrial
phenomena. whereas in the other model solar activity is thought to have
observable effects on the Earth.
(E) In one model cycles of solar activity with peri- odicities longer than
a few decades are con- sidered to be impossible, whereas in the other model
such cycles are predicted.
19. According to the passage, late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century
Chinese records are impor- tant for which of the following reasons?
(A) They suggest that the data on which the Maunder minimum was predicated
(B) They syggest that the Maunder minimum can- not be related to climate.
(C) Thcy suggest that the Maunder minimum might be \-'alid only for Europe.
(D) They establish the existence of a span of unusu- ally cold weather
worldwide at the time of the Maunder minimum.