DOC

Chinese Negative Transfer in Chinese-English Interpretation

By Amanda Lee,2014-05-08 06:30
10 views 0
Chinese Negative Transfer in Chinese-English Interpretation

    

    

    Chinese Negative Transfer in

    Chinese-English Interpretation

     040310215

     046

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT

     Shaoguan University

    Declaration of Academic Integrity

    I promise that the thesis contains no material which has been

    accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any

    institutes of higher learning and that, to the best of my knowledge

    and belief, the thesis contains no material previously published or

    written by another person, except when due reference is made in the

    text of the thesis.

    I understand that to do so would mean that I had committed

    plagiarism, and that it is my responsibility to be aware of the

    University’s regulations on plagiarism and their importance.

    Signed:

    Date: April , 2008

    i

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    Chinese Negative Transfer in Chinese-English Interpretation

    Abstract

     Chinese negative transfer is an interference which proves to be an obstacle for

    Chinese learners of English as a second language , i.e., English L2 acquisition, resulting

    in error expressions of great discrepancy between C-E interpreters and native speakers

    of English. Chinese-English interpretation is a cross-linguistic activity with its own

    features, which is influenced by several factors, say, the habit of associating Chinese

    counterparts in speaking and writing English words or phrases. It is inevitable that

    negative transfer will take place. Three levels of Chinese negative transfer in

    Chinese-English interpretation are analyzed in this thesis. They are lexical level,

    syntactic level and pragmatic level. They are illustrated with examples in order to find

    out the causes of the errors in Chinese-English interpretation. Meanwhile, a case study

    is conducted to evidence the theory in this thesis.

    Key words: Chinese negative transfer, error, interpretation

    i

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

     由于汉英两种语言在词汇、结构和文化等方面存在着差异,而在口译活动中,

    译者受时间限制与压力等的制约,汉语负迁移现象在所难免。本文从词汇、句法

    及语用的层次对汉英口译中汉语负迁移现象进行了分析及探讨,旨在帮助译者认

    识原语干扰现象,提高汉英口译的质量。

    汉语负迁移;语误;口译

    ii

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    Table of Contents

    Abstract ............................................................................................................................. i

     ............................................................................................................................... ii 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1

    2 Basic Definitions ........................................................................................................... 2

    2.1 C-E I and its Features ........................................................................................... 2

    2.1.2 Process of C-E I ............................................................................................... 2

    2.1.3 Features of C-E I .............................................................................................. 4

    2.2 Language Negative Transfer and its Consequences........................................... 5

    2.2.1 Language Negative Transfer ............................................................................ 5

    2.2.2 Consequences of Language Negative Transfer ................................................ 6

    2.3 Summary ................................................................................................................ 7

    3 Analysis Of Chinese Negative Transfer In C-E Interpretation ................................ 8 3.1 Lexical Transfer .................................................................................................... 8

    3.1.1 Errors in Function Words ................................................................................. 8

    3.1.2 Errors in Content Words ................................................................................ 11

    3.1.3 Errors in Wording........................................................................................... 13

    3.2 Syntactic Transfer ............................................................................................... 14

    3.2.1 Errors in Agreement ....................................................................................... 14

    3.2.2 Errors in Word Order ..................................................................................... 15

    3.3 Pragmatic Transfer ............................................................................................. 15

    3.4 Summary .............................................................................................................. 17

    4 A Case Study ............................................................................................................... 17 4.1 Method ................................................................................................................. 17

    4.1.1 Subjects .......................................................................................................... 17

    4.1.2 Design ............................................................................................................ 17

    4.1.3 Materials ........................................................................................................ 18

    4.1.4 Procedure ....................................................................................................... 18

    4.2 Results .................................................................................................................. 18

    4.3 Discussion ............................................................................................................ 19

    5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 20 References ...................................................................................................................... 21 Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................... 22

    iii

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    Chinese Negative Transfer in Chinese-English Interpretation

1 Introduction

    Language transfer, which is also known as L1 interference or linguistic interference, is an important issue in second language acquisition. It usually exerts an

    influence on speaking a second language. There are two types of transfer, positive and

    negative. Positive transfer facilitates second language acquisition due to the influence of

    cross-linguistic similarities, while negative transfer results in errors, overproduction,

    etc.

    Interpretation is a cross-linguistic activity which will be influenced by the habit of using L1. It is inevitable that negative transfer will take place. On the other hand,

    interpretation is a special task for the reasons that the interpreters work under temporal

    pressure and need good memory, etc. Consequently, negative transfer happens more

    often than most of other relevant activities.

    In this thesis, the author focuses on the Chinese negative transfer (CNT) in Chinese-English interpretation (CEI). Related materials are provided in the thesis and

    analyzed, evidencing the theory of negative transfer in second language acquisition.

    With the features of interpretation taken into consideration, the thesis tries to analyze

    the CNT in CEI against data, collected from previous studies, in terms of three levels:

    lexical, syntactical, and semantic.

    Furthermore, a case study is conducted of the juniors and seniors in Foreign Languages School of Shaoguan University.

    Finally, some relevant strategies are suggested for the purpose of minimizing CNT and improving the quality of CEI.

    1

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    2 Basic Definitions

    2.1 C-E I and its Features

    It is necessary to introduce C-E I and its features here for the reason that the

    interpretation is a special activity where CNT arises and the further discussion requires

    some basic information about it.

    2.1.1 Definition of C-E I

    Interpretation is not only “a form of translation in which a first and final rendition in another language is produced on the basis of a one-time presentation of an utterance

    in a source language,but also an activity “performed for the benefit of people who want to engage in communication across barriers of language and culture. (Pochhacker,

    2004: 10-11)

    Interpretation, a form of translation, is essentially a complex communicative act.

    For many, interpretation is seemingly just an oral translation used in daily

    communication and therefore deals with simple expressions. But for interpreting service

    delivered at high levels, it is often applied for formal conferences, especially

    international conferences. It is easily understood that, in this thesis, C-E I is a process of

    transferring Chinese to English in the oral form in order to convey the information.

    2.1.2 Process of C-E I

    The process of interpretation is more than simplely one of decoding, coding, and

    encoding. According to Chen (2005), the interpreting process is as follows:

    2

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    Party A Interpreter Party B

    Meaning Voice Array B Code B

     Meaning

     Code A

    Decoding,

     Voice Array A acquiring meaning Voice Array C

    Figure 1. Process of Interpretation (in Chen, 2005)

    Figure 1 above shows that the process of interpretation involves five components,

    namely, input (i.e. Code A), decoding, memory (i.e. acquiring meaning), encoding, and

    output (i.e. Code B).

    (I) Input

    Input is the first step in interpretation. What it means is that the interpreter extracts

    the words and sentences from the source language. It is very important that the

    interpreter should highly concentrate on the context from Party A in order to avoid

    missing information.

    (II) Decoding

    The process of decoding involves the shift from thinking in the source language to

    thinking in the target language. The interpreter recognizes the meaning of sentence elements and the underlying logical relationship between them and then completes comprehension of the source language speech. (Zhang, 2006: 3-4)

    (III) Memory

    A qualified interpreter requires a good memory because it influences the result of

    interpretation directly. It is clear that short-term memory is very important in

    3

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    interpretation since the information in source language should be stored in the memory

    for some time. There are also some factors which hinder the memorizing such as the

    speakers accent, the topic of the speech and differences between source language and target language.

    On the other hand, according to Seleskovitch (1978), memory can be divided into two types: substantive memory and verbatim memory. The former refers to catching the

    meaning by rapid analysis and understanding of the message, while the latter means to

    memorize the original words or sentences of the message. Substantive memory is the

    key method since it is difficult for the interpreter to remember all of the words in source

    language. It is undoubted that verbatim memory is inevitable in interpretation for the

    reason that such words as certain numbers, names and headings have to be accurate.

    (IV) Encoding

    Encoding refers to the interpreter reconstructs the messages from source language into target language based on understanding of them. In this process, the interpreter

    should pay attention to the words and sentences in target language, the completeness of

    the context and the style of the speech. Meanwhile, the interpreter has to organize the

    speech. Difficulty in speech organization is inevitably encountered because of the

    differences between the source language and the target language and therefore negative

    transfer happens, which will later be discussed in details.

    (V) Output

    The last phase of interpretation is output, namely, expression. It is a key stage of the process and the symbol of success or failure of the interpretation. If the interpreter

    cannot express the message accurately, fluently and clearly, the interpretation is not a

    successful one though he or she has a good listening and comprehension.

    2.1.3 Features of C-E I

    4

    韶关学院外语学院本科毕业论文

    Firstly, the interpreter works under temporal pressure. The interpreter usually has no time for preparation. Although they can prepare for the theme or topic that the

    speaker may talk about before he or she works, he or she can hardly guess the exact

    words the speaker will use. In addition, the role of interpreter decides that he or she

    cannot occupy too much time.

    Secondly, interpreter works under tremendous pressure from working environment. The interpretation sometimes takes place in relaxed atmosphere like guide interpretation.

    In most of the time, however, the interpreter works in an atmosphere of serious.

    Consequently, the interpreters especially those who lack of experience will lose

    confidence and cannot perform well.

    Thirdly, the interpretation requires interpreters comprehensive ability e.g. the

    ability to listen and to speak, comprehension and reaction. Being a good listener is very

    important to an interpreter. This requires the interpreters concentration on the message

    from the source language speaker. Meanwhile, the interpreter should speak fluently in

    both source language and target language in order to make the listeners understand the

    text in target language easily and clearly. Additionally, taking notes is one of the parts of

    interpretation in some places where the interpreter is allowed to do.

    Finally, interpreter should finish the work independently. In practical work, the interpreter cannot look up the dictionaries or get any help from others when the

    difficulties occur to test his or her ability.

    2.2 Language Negative Transfer and its Consequences

    2.2.1 Language Negative Transfer

    As is known to all, every interpreter is first and foremost a bilingual who is able to speak both the source language and target language. The source language and target

    language is not acquired at the same time. Therefore, if we observe carefully, we can

    find that a Chinese usually speaks English with Chinese accent. The influence of the

    source language always occurs in other language levels e.g. vocabulary, grammar,

    5

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com