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Strasbourg, 8 December 2003

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Strasbourg, 8 December 2003

    Strasbourg, 28 September 2007

    CEPEJ(2007)10

EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF JUSTICE

    (CEPEJ)

    FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

    SCHEME FOR EVALUATING JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

    2006-2008 CYCLE

    adopted by the CEPEJ at its 9th Plenary Meeting

    Strasbourg, 13 14 June 2007

    approved by the Committee of Ministers on 26 September 2007 th(1005 meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)

    Contents FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

    1. Demographic and economic data .................................................................................................... 3 1. 1. General information ..................................................................................................................... 3

    1. 1. 1. Inhabitants and economic information ................................................................................ 3 1. 2. Budgetary data concerning judicial system ................................................................................. 3

    1.2.2. Budget (courts, public prosecution, legal aid, fees) .............................................................. 3 2. Access to Justice and to all courts ................................................................................................. 6 2. 1. Legal aid ...................................................................................................................................... 6

    2.1.1. Principles .............................................................................................................................. 6 2. 2. Users of the courts and victims ................................................................................................... 8

    2. 2. 1. Rights of the users and victims ........................................................................................... 8

    2. 2. 2. Confidence of citizens in their justice system ..................................................................... 9 3. Organisation of the court system .................................................................................................. 11 3. 1. Functioning ................................................................................................................................ 11

    3. 1. 1. Courts ............................................................................................................................... 11

    3. 1 . 2 Judges, court staff ............................................................................................................ 12

    3. 1 . 3 Prosecutors ....................................................................................................................... 13

    3. 1 . 4 Budget and New Technologies ......................................................................................... 14 3. 2. Monitoring and evaluation ......................................................................................................... 15

    3. 2. 1. Monitoring and evaluation ................................................................................................. 15 4. Fair trial ............................................................................................................................................ 18 4. 1. Principles ................................................................................................................................... 18

    4. 1. 1. General principles ............................................................................................................. 18 4. 2. Timeframes of proceedings....................................................................................................... 19

    4. 2. 1. General information .......................................................................................................... 19

    4. 2. 2. Penal, civil and administrative law cases ......................................................................... 20 5. Career of judges and prosecutors ................................................................................................. 24 5. 1. Appointment and training .......................................................................................................... 24

    5. 1. 1 Recruitment, nomination and promotion ............................................................................ 24

    5. 1. 2. Training ............................................................................................................................. 26 5. 2. Practice of the profession .......................................................................................................... 27

    5. 2. 1. Salaries ............................................................................................................................. 27

    5. 2. 2. Disciplinary procedures .................................................................................................... 28 6. Lawyers ............................................................................................................................................ 30 6. 1. Statute of the profession ........................................................................................................... 30

    6. 1. 1 Profession .......................................................................................................................... 30

    6. 1. 2. Training ............................................................................................................................. 30

    6. 1. 3. Fees .................................................................................................................................. 31 6. 2. Evaluation ................................................................................................................................. 31

    6. 2. 1 Complaints and sanctions .................................................................................................. 31 7. Alternative Dispute Resolution ...................................................................................................... 33 7. 1. Mediation and other forms of ADR ............................................................................................ 33

    7. 1. 1. Mediation .......................................................................................................................... 33

    7. 1. 2. Other forms of alternative dispute resolution .................................................................... 34 8. Enforcement of court decisions .................................................................................................... 34 8. 1. Execution of decisions in civil matters ...................................................................................... 34

    8. 1. 1. Functioning ....................................................................................................................... 34

    8. 1. 2. Supervision ....................................................................................................................... 35

    8. 1. 3. Complaints and sanctions................................................................................................. 36 8. 2. Execution of decisions in criminal matters ................................................................................ 37

    8. 2. 1. Functioning ....................................................................................................................... 37 9. Notaries ............................................................................................................................................ 38 9. 1. Statute ....................................................................................................................................... 38

    9. 1. 1. Functioning ....................................................................................................................... 38

    9. 1. 2. Supervision ....................................................................................................................... 38 10. Functioning of justice ................................................................................................................... 39 10. 1. Foreseen reforms .................................................................................................................... 39

    10. 1. 1. Reforms .......................................................................................................................... 39

2

    SCHEME FOR EVALUATING JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

    First Name Name

    Position

    Organisation

    E-mail

    Telephone

1. 1. General information

1. 1. 1. Inhabitants and economic information

    1. Number of inhabitants

2. Total of annual State public expenditure / where appropriate, public expenditure at

    regional or federal entity level (in ?)

     Amount

     State level

     Regional / entity level

    3. Per capita GDP (in ?)

    4. Average gross annual salary (in ?)

    5. Exchange rate from national currency (non-Euro zone) to ? on 1 January 2007

    Please indicate the sources for questions 1 to 4

1. 2. Budgetary data concerning judicial system

1.2.2. Budget (courts, public prosecution, legal aid, fees)

    6. Total annual approved budget allocated to all courts (in ?)

7. Please specify:

    3

8. Does the approved budget of the courts include the following items? Please give for

    each item (or some of them) a specification of the amount concerned

     FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

     Yes Amount

    (Euro)

    Annual public budget allocated to (gross) salaries

    Annual public budget allocated to computerisation (equipment, investments,

    maintenance)

    Annual public budget allocated to justice expenses

    Annual public budget allocated to court buildings (maintenance, operation

    costs)

    Annual public budget allocated to investments in new (court) buildings

    Annual public budget allocated to training and education

    Other (please specify):

9. Has the annual public budget of the courts changed (increased or decreased) over the

    last five years?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify (i.e. provide an indication of the increase or decrease of the

    budget over the last five years)

    10. In general are litigants required to pay a court tax or fee to start a proceeding at a court

    of general jurisdiction:

     for criminal cases?

     for other than criminal cases?

    If yes, are there exceptions? Please specify:

11. If yes, please specify the annual income of court fees (or taxes) received by the State

    (in euros)

    12. Total annual approved budget allocated to the whole justice system (in ?)

    13. Total annual approved public budget allocated to legal aid (in ?)

14. If possible, please specify:

     the annual public budget allocated the annual public budget allocated

    to legal aid in criminal cases to legal aid in other court cases

    Amount

4

FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

    15. Is the public budget allocated to legal aid included in the court budget ?

     Yes

     No

    16. Total annual approved public budget allocated to the public prosecution system (in ?)

17. Is the budget allocated to the public prosecution included in the court budget?

     Yes

     No

18. Authorities formally responsible for the budget allocated to the courts:

     Preparation of the Adoption of the total Management and Evaluation

    total court budget court budget allocation of the of the use

     budget among of the

    the individual budget at

    courts a national

    level

    Ministry of

    Justice

    Other

    ministry

    Parliament

    Supreme

    Court

    Judicial

    Council

    Courts

    Inspection

    body.

    Other.

19. If other Ministry and/or inspection body and/or other, please specify (in regards to

    question 18):

    You can indicate below:

    - any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned above

    - the characteristics of your budgetary system and the main reforms that have

    been implemented over the last two years

    - if available an organisation scheme with a description of the competencies of

    the different authorities responsible for the budget process

    Please indicate the sources for the questions 6, 7, 13 and 16.

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FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

2. 1. Legal aid

2.1.1. Principles

20. Does legal aid concerns:

     Criminal cases Other than criminal cases

     Representation in court

     Legal advice

     Other

21. Other, please specify (in regards to question 20)

22. Does legal aid foresee the covering or the exoneration of court fees?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify:

23. Can legal aid be granted for the fees that are related to the execution of judicial

    decisions?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify:

24. Number of cases granted with legal aid provided by (national, regional, local) public

    authorities:

     Number

    Total

    Criminal cases

    Other than criminal cases

25. In a criminal case, can any individual who does not have sufficient financial means be

    assisted by a free of charge (or financed by public budget) lawyer?

     Yes

     No

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FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

26. Does your country have an income and asset test for granting legal aid:

     No Yes Amount

    for criminal cases

    for other than criminal

    cases?

27. In other than criminal cases, is it possible to refuse legal aid for lack of merit of the

    case (for example for frivolous action)?

     Yes

     No

    28. If yes, is the decision for granting or refusing legal aid taken by:

     the court?

     an authority external to the court?

     a mixed decision-making authority (court and external)?

29. Is there a private system of legal expense insurance enabling individuals to finance

    court proceedings?

     Yes

     No

    Please specify:

30. Do judicial decisions have an impact on who bears the legal costs which are paid by

    the parties during the procedure in:

     Yes No

    criminal cases?

    other than criminal cases?

    ***

    You can indicate below:

    - any useful comments for interpreting the data mentioned above

    - the characteristics of your legal aid system and the main reforms that have been

    implemented over the last two years

    Please indicate the sources for the questions 24 and 26

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FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

2. 2. Users of the courts and victims

2. 2. 1. Rights of the users and victims

31. Are there official internet sites/portals (e.g. Ministry of Justice, etc.) for the following,

    which the general public may have free of charge access to:

    Yes

    ? legal texts (e.g. codes, laws, regulations, etc.)?

     Internet address(es):

    ? case-law of the higher court/s?

     Internet address(es):

    ? other documents (for examples forms)?

     Internet address(es):

32. Is there an obligation to provide information to the parties concerning the foreseeable

    timeframe of the proceeding?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify:

33. Is there a public and free-of-charge specific information system to inform and to help

    victims of crimes?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify:

34. Are there special favourable arrangements to be applied, during judicial proceedings,

    to the following categories of vulnerable persons:

     Information mechanism Hearing modalities Procedural rights Other

     Victims of rape

     Victims of

    terrorism

     Children/Witnes

    ses/Victims

     Victims of

    domestic

    violence

     Ethnic

    minorities

     Disabled

    persons

     Juvenile

    offenders

     Other

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FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

35. Does your country have a compensation procedure for victims of crimes?

     Yes

     No

36. If yes, does this compensation procedure consist in:

     a public fund?

     a court decision?

     private fund?

    If yes, which kind of cases does this procedure concern?

37. Are there studies to evaluate the recovery rate of the compensation awarded by courts

    to victims?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify:

38. Is there a specific role for the public prosecutor with respect to the (protection of the

    position and assistance of) victims?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify?

39. Do victims of crimes have the right to contest to a decision of the public prosecution to

    discontinue a case?

     Yes

     No

    If yes, please specify?

2. 2. 2. Confidence of citizens in their justice system

40. Is there a system for compensating users in the following circumstances:

     Excessive length of proceedings?

     Non execution of court decisions?

     Wrongful arrest?

     Wrongful condemnation?

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FOR CONSULTATION ONLY

    If yes, please specify (fund, daily tariff):

41. Does your country have surveys aimed at users or legal professionals (judges, lawyers,

    officials, etc.) to measure their trust and/or satisfaction (with the services delivered by

    the judiciary system)?

     (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at judges

     (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at court staff

     (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at public prosecutors

     (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at lawyers

     (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at citizens (visitors of the court)

     (Satisfaction) surveys aimed at other clients of the courts

    If possible, please specify their titles, how to find these surveys, etc:

42. If yes, please specify:

    Yes (incidental surveys) Yes (surveys at a regular interval: for example annual)

     Surveys at national level

     Surveys at court level

43. Is there a national or local procedure for making complaints about the performance (for

    example the length of proceedings) or the functioning (for example the treatment of a

    case by a judge) of the judicial system?

     Yes

     No

44. If yes, please specify:

    Time limit for dealing with the Time limit to respond (Yes) complaint (Yes)

    Court concerned

    Higher court

    Ministry of Justice

    High Council of the Judiciary

    Other external organisations (e.g. Ombudsman)

    Can you give information elements concerning the efficiency of this complaint procedure?

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