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over-development

By Gilbert Stone,2014-09-26 10:20
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over-development

    Unit 1

    I. Vocabulary & Structure

    1. What happened that day had a great _______ on peoples lives. Now they all know

    that no country can be completely __________ terrorist attack.

     A. effect , immune to B. impact, immune from

     C. influence, free to D. result, free from

    2. Money is often __________ the idea of happiness. But it is wrong. In a civilized

    society, people wouldnt attach too much importance ____ material things.

     A. associated with, on B. associated with, to

     C. related with, to D. related to, at

    3. The _________ victories turned his head, so that he made a fatal mistake which

    led to the total destruction of his army.

     A. successful B. success C. successive D. succeeded 4. The other day I came _________ a book, which came _________ quite recently. It

    argues that education should not be too closely ______ market needs.

     A. across, up, geared to B. across, out, geared to

     C. up with, out, linked to D. into, out, connected with 5. These media stars were admired for their wealth and glamour _____ their

    achievements and moral strength of character.

     A. except B. except for C. rather D. rather than

    6. Yong couples should think twice before they ________ . Divorce is very often not a

    very good idea _________ their differences.

    A. break, in spite of B. break up, regardless of

    C. break off, instead of D. break away, for

    7. ________ he needed money for his mother’s operation, the driver resisted the

    temptation to keep the fat wallet a customer had left behind in the car.

     AMuch as B. So much C. As much D. Much so

    8. The construction of the dam is already ________. But its completion is still a long

    way _______.

     A. under its way, off B. in progress, away

     C. under progress, to go D. under way, off

    9 .Products tend to sell well that are packed in __________ catch the consumers eye.

     A. such ways as to B. such way as to

     C. ways so as D. a way that

    10. _____ anyone can grow up in the world today without worrying about nuclear

    weapons is no tribute to the discovery of radium----- Madame Curie and her

    husband, Pierre Curie.

     A. That hardly B. How scarcely C. Whether D. If 11. __________, Shanghai is probably the best place for the next Asian Games.

     A. Considering all things B. All things being considered

     C. All things considered D. To consider all things 12.In ________ the most primitive cultures, people do not directly exchange goods

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    for other goods.

     A. all B. all but C. most of D. every one of 13. The service in the hospital was terrible. Patients often had to wait for half an hour

    without ________.

     A. attending to B. been attended to

     C. being attended to D. having been attending

    14. Basketball is one of the few sports that are just ________ satisfying playing by

    yourself as it is _______ a team.

     A. very, for B. equally, on C. as, with D. so, in 15. __________ we seem to have conquered nature. But this is not true. Many

    scholars actually say that we should stop __________ nature before it is too late.

     A. On the surface, tempering to B. On the surface, tampering with

     C. In surface, interfering with D. On the appearance, tampering with

Key:

    1-5 ABCBD 6-10 BADAA 11-15 CBCCBD

    II. Cloze

    Most researchers agree that the loneliest people are between the age of 18 and 25, so a group of psychologists decided to ____1___a group of college freshmen. They

    found that more than 50 percent of the freshmen were situationally lonely at the beginning of the semester__2___ a result of their new circumstances but had ____3__

    after a few months. Thirteen percent were still lonely after seven months. ___4__ to

    shyness and fear, they felt very __5____ meeting new people, even though they

    understood that their fear was not __6____. The situationally lonely freshmen

    ___47__ their loneliness by making new friends, but the chronically lonely __8___

    unhappy because they were afraid to do ___9____.

     Psychologists are trying to find __10____to help habitually lonely people ___11_

    two reasons. First of all, they are unhappy and _12____ to socialize. Secondly,

    researchers have found a ____13___ between chronic loneliness ad serious illness such as heart disease. __14____ temporary and situational loneliness can be a ____15___ healthy part of life, chronic loneliness can be a very sad , and sometimes dangerous condition.

    1. A. observe B. research C. study D. watch 2. A. as B. because of C. for D. upon 3. A. adapted B. adjusted C. changed D. transformed 4. A. Thanks B. Due C. As D. Driven 5. A. ill B. restless C. uncomfortable D. weak 6. A. conventional B. national C. rational D. situational 7. A. beat B. held C. mastered D. overcame 8. A. remained B. retained C. reversed D. restrained 9. A. it B. so C. such D. that 10. A. drugs B. means C. remedies D. ways 11. A. for B. out of C. owing to D. with

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    12. A. feasible B. impossible C. incapable D. unable 13. A. connection B. distinction C. gap D. similarity 14. A. As B. If C. Since D. While

    15. A. common B. good C. favorable D. normal

    Key:

    1. ABCBC 6. ADDBB 11. DCCBD

III. Reading Comprehension

    (1)

     The energy crisis, which is being felt around the world, has dramatized how the careless use of the earth’s resources has brought the whole world to the brink of disaster. The over-development of motor transport, with its increase of more cars, more highways, more pollution, more suburbs, more commuting, has contributed to the near-destruction of our cities, the breakup of the family, and the pollution not only of local air, but also of the earth’s atmosphere. The disaster has arrived in the form of the energy crisis.

    Our present situation is unlike war, revolution or depression. It is also unlike the great natural disasters of the past. Worldwide resources exploitation and energy use have brought us to a state where long-range planning is essential. What we need is not a continuation of our present serious state, which endangers the future of our country, our children and our earth, but a movement forward to a new norm in order to work rapidly and effectively on planetary problems.

    This country has been falling back under the continuing exposures to loss of morality and the revelation that lawbreaking has reached into the highest places in the land. There is a strong demand for moral revival and for some devotion that is vast enough and yet personal enough to enlist the devotion of all. In the past it has been only in a war in defense of their own country and their own ideals that any people have been able to devote themselves wholeheartedly.

     This is the first time that we have been asked to defend ourselves and what we hold dear in cooperation with all the other inhabitants of this planet, who share with us the same endangered air and the same endangered oceans. There is a common need to reassess our present course, to change that course, and to devise new methods through which the world can survive. This is a priceless opportunity.

    To grasp it, we need a widespread understanding of the nature of the crisis confronting us and the world, a crisis that is no passing inconvenience, no byproduct of the ambitions of the oil-producing countries, no environmentalists’ mere fears, no

    byproduct of any present system of government. What we face is the outcome of the invention of the last four hundred years. What we need is a transformed lifestyle. The acceptance of this lifestyle depends on a sincere devotion to finding a higher quality of life for the world’s children and future generations.

    1.According to the first paragraph, what condition does the author feel has nearly

    destroyed our cities?

    A. Lack of financial planning

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B. The breakup of the family

    C. Natural disasters in many regions.

    D. The excessive growth of motor transportation.

    2.According to the passage, an example of our loss of morality is ________.

     A. lack of cooperation B. lack of devotion

     C. disregard for law D. exploitation of resources 3. ―The highest places in the land‖ in the third paragraph most probably refers to

    ________.

    A. mountainous areas in the countries B. national government offices C. high positions in the business D. core of crime organizations 4. The purpose of the author in writing this passage is to _________. A. describe seriousness of the energy crisis

    B. reveal the loss of morality in many people

    C. call for more devotion to a common cause of mankind

    D. warn of the immediate dangers of the energy crisis

    5.Which of the following is the most suitable title for this passage? A. Energy Crisis B. Environmental Pollution

    C. Loss of morality D. Over-development of Motor Transport

    (2)

    In the U.S., it is important to be punctual for an appointment, a class, a meeting, etc. This may not be true in all countries, however. An American professor discovered this difference while teaching a class in a Brazilian university. The two-hour class was due to begin at 10 a.m. and end at 12 a.m... On the first day, when the professor arrived on time, no one was in the classroom. Many students came after 10 a.m... Several arrived after 10:30 a.m.. Two students came after 11 a.m.. Although all the students greeted the professor as they arrived, few apologized for their lateness. Were these students being rude? He decided to study the students’ behavior.

    The professor talked to the American and Brazilian students about lateness in both an informal and formal situation: lunch with a friend, and a university class, respectively. He gave them an example and asked them how they would react. If they had a lunch appointment with a friend, the average American student defined lateness as 19 minutes after the agreed time. On the other hand, the average Brazilian student felt the friend was late after 33 minutes.

    In an American university, students are expected to arrive at the appointed hour. In contrast in Brazil, neither the teacher nor the students always arrive at the appointed hour. Classes not only begin at the scheduled time in the U.S., but they also end at the scheduled time. In the Brazilian class, only a few students left the class at noon, many remained past 12:30 to discuss in the class and ask more questions. While arriving late may not be very important in Brazil, neither is staying late.

    The explanation for these differences is complicated. People from Brazilian and North American cultures have different feelings about lateness. In Brazil, the students believe that a person who usually arrives late is probably more successful

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    than a person who is always on time. In fact Brazilians expect a person with status of prestige to arrive late, while in the U.S., lateness is usually considered to be disrespectful and unrespectable. Consequently, if a Brazilian is late for an appointment with a North American, the American may misinterpret the reason for the lateness and become angry. As a result of his study, the professor learned that the Brazilian students were not being disrespectful to him. Instead, they were simply behaving the appropriate way for a Brazilian student in Brazil. Eventually, the professor was able to adapt his own behavior to feel comfortable in the new culture.

    6. Which of the following is not true according to the passage?

    A. In the U.S., the teacher usually dismisses the class as scheduled.

    B. Brazilian professors tend to be late for class.

    C. Brazilian students leave the classroom immediately after class.

    D. American classes tend to start at the appointed hour.

    7. It can be inferred from the passage that the professor believed that_______.

    A. the American attitude towards lateness is better than the Brazilian one

    B. the Brazilian students should change their habit

    C. he had a good reason to be angry with his students’ behavior

    D. the difference of attitude toward lateness between the American and

    Brazilian people is a cultural one

    8. Finally, the professor ________.

    A. managed to change his students’ habit

    B. found the Brazilian way of life better

    C. managed to change his own habit

    D. gave up the teaching post and lived comfortably again

    9. He purpose of the passage is _________.

    A. to illustrate cultural differences and the need to adapt one’s behavior to a

    different culture

    B. to describe the different conceptions of punctuality in America and Brazil

    C. to contrast the different attitudes toward classes between American students

    and their Brazilian counterparts

    D. to recount an American professor’s experience in Brazil

    10. Which of the following could serve as the best title for the passage?

    A. Lateness in different cultures

    B. Lateness in the U.S. and Brazil

    C. Lateness in Brazilian Universities

    D. An American Professor’s Experience in Brazil

    (3)

    Certain animals and plants develop characteristics that help them cope with their environment better than others of their kind. This natural biological process is called adaptation. Among the superior characteristics developed through adaptation are those that may help in getting food or shelter, in providing protection, and in producing and protecting the young. That results in the evolution of more and more organisms that

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are better fitted to their environments.

     Each living thing is adapted to its way of life in a general way, but each is adapted especially to its own distinct class. A plant, for example, depends upon its roots to fix itself firmly and to absorb water and inorganic chemicals. It depends upon its green leaves for using the sun’s energy to make food from inorganic chemicals. These are general adaptations, common to most plants. In addition, there are special adaptations that only certain kinds of plants have. Many animals have adaptations that help them escape from their enemies. Some insects are hidden by their body color or shape, and many look like a leaf or a little branch. The casts of deer are colored to mix with the surroundings. Many animals have the ability to remain completely still when an enemy is near.

    Organisms have a great variety of ways for adapting. They may adapt in their structure, function, and genetics; in their development and production of the young; and in other respects. An organism may create its own environment, as do warm-blooded mammals, which have the ability to adjust body heat exactly to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather. Usually adaptations are an advantage, but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that, if conditions change, it finds it difficult or impossible to readapt to the new conditions.

    11. Some plants and animals develop superior characteristics so that they may

    _______.

    A. help others of their kind get food, shelter and other things needed

    B. get into the biological process of adaptation

    C. become better adapted to the environments than others of their kind

    D. lead to the evolution and production of more and more organisms 12. Some animals have colored and spotted coats so that they may_______.

    A. appear frightening to the enemies

    B. look like leaves or branches

    C. keep motionless when an enemy is coming

    D. mix with the surroundings for safety

    13. All of the following adaptations of living things are mentioned in the passage

    except that in their_______.

    A. structure B. ways to develop the survival skills of the young

    C. production of the young D. working system of the body

    14. Which of the following statements about the warm-blooded mammals is true

    according to the text?

    A. They can change their environments.

    B. They can adjust body heat to keep their ideal temperature.

    C. They can make food from chemicals.

    D. They get most of their heat from the environment.

    15. The passage is mainly a discussion of__________

    A. the adaptations of organisms to their environments

    B. the reasons why organisms have their particular shapes and colors

    C. the special way of life of each living thing

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    D. the hows and whys of the structures of organisms

Key:

    1-5 DBBCA 6-10 CDCAB 11-15 CDBBA

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    Unit 2

    I. Vocabulary & Structure

    1. Young peoples plans are _________ those of their parents. They are not satisfied

    ______ the life arranged for them. They want to ________ out _______their

    own.

     A. different from, of, strike, on B. contradictory to, with, strike, for

     C. opposed to, to, strike, in D. in conflict with, with, branch, on 2. I wrote them a formal letter to ___ whether they could offer me a position in their

    company.

     A. acquire B. inquire C. require D. obtain 3. He was ___ with the construction of the expressway, and he used this opportunity

    to steal public money.

     A. entrusted B. trust C. believe D. distrust 4. ____ in the pouring rain, he fell ill and had to stay in bed.

     A. Being caught B. Caught

     C. Having been caught D. Having caught

    5. She looked into the future and saw many long years ___ that would belong to her

    alone.

     A. to come B. came C. will come D. had come 6. If we had taken his advice, the project ___ sooner.

     A. could have completed B. would be completed

     C. could complete D. would have been completed 7. I sympathize ___ her. I know why she didn’t show ___ that day.

    A. for, up B. with, in C. to, off D. with, up 8. In a state of crisis, it is usually the weak that goes ___. It goes ___ nations as well

    as individuals.

    A. down, for B. under, to C. out, for D. under, for 9. They were just ___ you. They meant no harm.

    A. ridiculing B. mocking C. laughing at D. teasing 10. Chinese companies badly need managerial ___.

    A. person B. personnel C. personality D. personal 11. He is very ___ about food. Its hard to please him.

    A. special B. particular C. specific D. partial 12. Not only ___ the film, but he met and talked with the director as well.

    A. he did see B. did he see C. had he seen D. he saw 13. Much of the boys free time ____ the Internet.

    A. spends surfing B. is spent surfing

    C. spent surfing D. is spent to surf

    14. He___ to be related to the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, author of War and

    Peace.

    A. says B. is said C. is saying D. been said

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    15. He teaches singing at a high school and is acknowledged to be___ singer as he is a

    teacher.

    A. so good a B. as good a C. a so good D. a good

    16. After a week-long exchange of views, the two sides found there were fewer

    differences than really ___ between them.

    A. they existed B. it exist C. to exist D. existed 17. Our development plans should conform ___ the local conditions. I dont think it is

    wise to concentrate on coal-mining ___ the expense of our agriculture.

    A. to, at B. at, with C. from, at D. from, on 18. It is generally agreed that we have to grapple ___ some tough problems in our

    education. ___ this regard, we have a lot to learn from other countries.

    A. for, in B. with, for C. with, in D. from, with 19. I gradually ___ that culture and language cannot really be separated.

    A. perceived B. conceived C. received D. deceived 20. His advice has been ___ to the success of the project, which had helped us a lot.

    A. valuate B. unvaluable C. valueless D. invaluable 21. A new product should be judged not by the promises made in commercials and

    advertisements, but by the results ___.

    A. demonstrated B. suggested C. appeared D. contained 22. If the fire alarm is sounded, all residents are requested to ___ in the courtyard.

     A. converge B. assemble C. crowd D. accumulate 23. Since mixtures are composed of two or more pure substances, each ___ changes

    state at a different temperature.

     A. company B. companion C. compound D. component

    24. Plants as well as animals are ___ to insect attack, and every year million of dollars

    worth of agricultural crops are destroyed by insects.

     A. subject B. eager C. beneficial D. harmful

    25. His ability and experience ___ him to the respect of his colleagues.

     A. permitted B. entitled C. distinguished D. granted Key

    1-10 DBACA DDDDB 11-20. BBBBA D ACAD 21-35. ABDAB

?. Translation

    1. 那场可怕的沙尘暴使整个城市盖上了厚厚一层土。

    2. 对大多数中国人来说;统一我们的国家是一个非常严肃的承诺。

    3. 仅仅是贫困还不能解释犯罪率上升的原因。

    4. 他在最近出版的书里花了整整一章讲这个题目。

    5. 一个省苦于能源短缺;而另一个却有富裕。他们真可以订一个能源合作计划。

Key

    1. That terrible sand storm left the whole city covered with a thick layer of dust. 2. For most Chinese people, the unification of our country is a serious / solemn

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commitment.

    3. Poverty alone can not account for the increase of the crime rate. 4. He devoted a whole chapter to this subject in his recently published book. 5. One province is suffering from a serious energy shortage, and the other has enough and to spare. They can really work out a plan for energy cooperation.

?.Composition

    Directions: In this part, you should write a composition of about 150 words on Competition and

    Cooperation . The first sentence of each paragraph is given below:

    1. Competition is a common phenomenon in our social life.

    2. We often find competition and cooperation at the same time.

    3. While we are advocating competition, we can not forget cooperation.

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