? Part 1: WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE PLANT KINGDOM? ? In your journal : Read each statement and determine which statements are True or False. Write
your answers in your journal.
____1. Modern plants diversified from those early descendants of green algae. ____2. A plant is a multicellular heterotroph.
____3. A plant embryo develops within the female parent.
____4. Stomates are microscopic pores in a leaf's surface that only control water loss. ____5. A plant has a waxy cuticle coating the leaves helping the plant retain water. ____6. There are four major groups in the Plant Kingdom.
____7. Bryophytes such as mosses are the oldest land plants.
____8. Alternation of generations exist in plants.
____9. Three types of bryophytes are mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. ____10. Bryophytes have vascular tissue.
____11. Pteridophytes are a group of plants inclucing ferns.
____12. The sporophyte is the dominant generation in a fern's life cycle. ____13. Gymnosperms are plants that have seeds in an ovary.
____14. Pollen grains contain cells that develop into eggs.
____15. Four phyla of gymnosperms exist today - one of which is the familiar dogwood. ____16. An angiosperm is a flowering plant that produces a ripened ovary called a fruit. ____17. The flower functions as a reproductive structure.
____18. Today, angiosperms are divided into only two classes: monocots & dicots. ____19. The purpose of a fruit is to disperse seeds.
____20. In the strict scientific sense, a pumpkin is a fruit.
____21. The roots, stems, and leaves of a flowering plant have continuous tubes. ____22. Phloem moves "sap" upward in a plant.
____23. The roots of a plant booth absorb water and store food.
____24. Most photosynthesis occurs in the flowers of plants.
____25. There are carnivorous and parasitic plants.
? Part 2: Lab: Plant Identification
The “Who’s My Plant’s Daddy?” Lab
Taxonomists use structural, physiological and
molecular data to classify plants. Structural
characteristics include the number of embryonic
leaves (cotyledons), root structure, leaf shape,
leaf edging, hairs, and color. Physiological data
include germination time, growth rate, time of
flowering, and harvest time. Most recently
scientists have begun to use molecular data
including DNA and protein sequencing, to
classify plants and to understand their evolution.
Investigative Question: What plant are you growing?
You and your team will be assigned an unknown plant seed and must figure out what type of plant it
is by observing its growth and its structure.
Hypothesis: Your teacher will give you possible adult plants that may have been the parents and you hypothesize which seed is from which plant. You may want to make observations of the seed, take
photos and compare your observations to the different seeds of the given plants on-line before you
make your hypothesis.
Variables: Identify your variables: Manipulated Responding, and 3 controls. Your experimental control will be the adult plants shown to you on the class PowerPoint – available on-line.
Materials: Paper cup (with a couple of holes poked in the bottom), soil, 3 seeds, water, and tape to label your cup with your plant Letter and your period and names.
Procedure: Next you will write a procedure outlining how you will identify which seed came from which plant. You must take daily observations in a chart that your group creates. An example is
shown below. You and your team are also responsible for watering and checking on your plants daily.
Sample Data Table: Give yourself enough space for writing detailed observations and for two
weeks or more of observations.
Date Visual Obervations (Color, Hairs, Number of leaves (You Height in
Texture and Leaf Patterning) should be able to mm or
determine if it’s a cm.
monocot or dicot within
the first couple of days
The graph should be a line graph of the plant growth in cm or mm vs. days. The graph should
include the day of planting as day 0 and will end the class day before the test.
Analysis/Conclusion: Which plant is which and how did you determine this? You must have at
least five pieces of data that point to the correct parent plant. Your data points should include 5 of the
following: dicot/monocot, germination time, seed shape, leaf shape, leaf edging, hairs, pattern on the
leaves, leaf odor, or growth rate. Apply what you have learned to the real world. Include a new
question that you have come up with through your observations and a possible experimental design
for this experiment.
****This Lab must be word processed and will be due at the end of the plant unit.****
? Part 3: Teacher Notes
? In your journal: Write notes over teacher lecture on the Plant Kingdom. See website
for plant kingdom notes from the power point if you are absent. ? Part 4: Lab: Survey of the Plant Kingdom
Introduction: Based on molecular, cellular and anatomical comparisons the closest modern
relative to the ancestors of plants is a group of multi-cellular green algae. (Use the textbook for
1) Name two common characteristics of organisms in the plant kingdom and green algae.
2) Name one difference between organisms in the plant kingdom and green algae.
1) Pull apart a single strand of moss from one of the moss sections. Can you find a
strand with a capsule at the top? This is the sporophyte generation.
2) Draw a sketch of this single stalk of moss.
A) Label the capsule
B) Label the rhizoids (root-like structures)
C) Label the stalk
using a microscope. Label the spores and
Figure 1 – 1 Moss – Bryophyte, a non vascular plant
3) Using a pencil eraser, crush the capsule
on a slide. Add a drop of water and a coverslip. Draw a picture of what you see
Figure 1-2 Moss Capsule; A seta is
another word for stalk.
1) Observe the liverwort samples. Turn over one of the leaf structures and observe the
root-like structures called rhizoids. The small palm tree structures are the gametophytes.
The small cup-like structures are called gemma cups. These cups hold spores that are
scattered when the rain hits the cups.
2) Sketch a small part of the liverwort. Include the leaflet structure, the palm-tree
structure and gemma cup in your drawing.
3) Label the following parts:
A) liver-shaped leaflet (Thallus)
B) gametophyte(palm tree)
C) gemma cup (spore holder)
1) How are the moss and liverworts similar to each other?
2) Why do mosses and liverworts need a moist environment?
3) Why will you never see a 4 foot tall liverwort?
1) What is one difference between the ferns (pteridophytes) and the mosses and liverworts that you just observed? (Are they vascular or nonvascular? What does this mean?)
Observe the fern samples. The large frond you observe is part of the sporophyte
generation. The gametophyte in the fern life cycle is much smaller and difficult to find on the forest floor. The large leaf-like area is called the frond. The fern fronds are connected by a horizontal rhizome with small hair-like roots. On the underside of the frond, look for small brown spots. These spots are called sori and are the spores of the fern.
2) Scrape off one of the sori on the back on the fern fronds. Put the spores on a
microscope slide with a small drop of water and observe using a microscope. Label the
spores that you see.
Horsetails(pteridophytes) Observe the samples of horsetails. Some of the stalks
are green and have whorls of small scale-like leaves
around a hollow, jointed stem. There are also other
stalks that are white and have a cone-like structure at
the top. This cone-like structure is called the strobili
and releases spores.
Feel the texture of the horsetail plant. These plants
contain crystals of silica. During Colonial times
these plants were used to scour pots and pans.
1) What are two similarities between ferns and horsetails? (Hint – refer to your notes.
What are the main characteristics of the plants in the pteridophyte group?)
Compared to the pteridophytes, gymnosperms have three additional adaptations that
make survival in diverse land habitats possible. These adaptations include a smaller
gametophyte, pollen, and the seed.
Gymnosperms are plants that bear “naked” seeds, meaning that the seeds are not enclosed in an ovary. One common group of gymnosperms is the conifers, which
usually bear cones and have needle-like leaves.
Angiosperms are plants that use flowers as their reproductive structures.
Observe the plant samples and determine whether each is an example of a
gymnosperm or angiosperm.
Plant Name Gymnosperm or angiosperm
1) What is a difference between the seed plants and the ferns/horsetails?
2) How are the seed plants similar to the ferns/horsetails?
3) Looking at the characteristics of the bryophytes, pteridophytes and seed plants which group would be considered the most complex. Explain.