DOC

Mountain Rescue Overview 6805

By Carol Lewis,2014-05-07 19:30
19 views 0
Mountain Rescue Overview 6805

     THE HEAT IS ON: UNDERSTANDING LOCAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    The Chicago Case

     Performance Assessment

    (Unlike with the Climate Unit, there is not a separate response sheet for your assessment answers. Put your answers on this form!)

Name or ID: ____________________________________________________________

Class Period: ____________________________________________________________

Overview

    The Chicago City Council wants to know:

    ? Is Chicago's climate getting warmer?

    ? Is there evidence to suggest that increases in Chicago's temperatures correspond to changes that humans have made to Chicago's

    environment?

    Chicago is on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan in the North Central United States. It is the largest city in the State of Illinois. It has very cold winters and very warm summers. It gets lots of cloudy days and precipitation all year round. Winds frequently blow across it from Lake Michigan. It has a short spring, when temperatures are moderate and nights frosty. Summers are hot, sunny and humid, from June to the end of September, with cool evenings when breezes blow in from Lake Michigan. Autumn is a lovely time of year when the air is crisp and cool, with blue skies and sunshine. Winters in Chicago are icy and prone to cold, harsh winds. Snow is common, and it is also 1very rainy during the winter months.

PART A. EXAMINING CHICAGO TEMPERATURES

    Chicago has a weather monitoring station at its airport. Chicago has a weather monitoring station at its airport. Examine data from that station. First, open the GHCN minimum temperature data file called "Chicago Min."

    A1. Produce a graph that allows you to compare the minimum monthly temperatures in 1948 and 2003. Put the graph below:

    A2. Look at the annual means in 1948 and 2003. Do they suggest there was a temperature increase? Explain your answer in a sentence

    or two.

    A3. Look at the month-by-month data in 1948 and 2003. Do they suggest there was a temperature increase? Explain your answer in a

    sentence or two.

     1 http://www.wordtravels.com/Cities/Illinois/Chicago/Climate

     1

    (Note: You also have access to the parallel maximum temperature data file called "Chicago Max." You can open that data and make graphs with it if you want but you do not have to answer the same set of questions about it as you just answered about the minimum temperatures.)

The bar graphs below of temperatures in Phoenix and Chicago contain the lowest (minimum) and highest (maximum) monthly ththtemperatures for every 8 or 9 year from 1948 to 2003. Compare the data from Phoenix and Chicago as you answer questions A4 and A5.

     2

A4. Which statement is most accurate about the minimum temperature data? Underline your choice:

a. There is more evidence of a warming trend in the Chicago climate data than there is in the Phoenix climate data.

3

    b. There is more evidence of a warming trend in the Phoenix climate data than there is in the Chicago climate data.

    c. There is evidence of a warming trend in the temperature data from both cities and the rate of warming in both seems about

    the same.

    d. Any temperature increases in either city are likely to be the result of normal changes in the weather and not evidence of

    climate change.

     Describe what you noticed in the graphs that supports your answer.

A5. Which statement is most accurate about the Chicago maximum temperature data? Underline your choice

    a. There is more evidence of a warming trend in the Chicago climate data than there is in the Phoenix climate data.

    b. There is more evidence of a warming trend in the Phoenix climate data than there is in the Chicago climate data.

    c. There is evidence of a warming trend in the temperature data from both cities, and the rate of warming in both seems about

    the same.

    d. Any temperature increases in either city are likely to be the result of normal changes in the weather and not evidence of

    climate change.

     Describe what you noticed in the graphs that supports your answer.

     4

PART B. COMPARING CHICAGO TEMPERATURE DATA WITH TEMPERATURE DATA ABOUT LARGER AREAS

    Map 1 below shows changes in mean (average) temperature differences around the world between 1976 and 2006. The box covers the area of Illinois. Chicago is in the upper right-hand corner of the square, on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. The square roughly represents Illinois, the state that Chicago is in. Use the map to answer questions B1 and B2. 2Map 1. Mean temperature changes, 1976-2006

     2 Pearce, Fred. One Degree and We're Done For. New Scientist. Vol. 191., Number 2571, September 30, 2006. p. 8.

     5

B1. Which answer describes how fast Chicago is warming compared to the rest of Illinois? Underline your choice.

     a. faster than the rest of Illinois

     b. slower than the rest of Illinois

     c. about the same as the rest of Illinois

     Describe what you noticed on Map 1 that supports your answer.

B2. How quickly is Chicago warming compared to how quickly other areas of the 48 states in the continental U.S. are warming?

    Underline your answer.

     a. The Chicago area is one of the fastest-warming places in the 48-state region

     b. The Chicago area is one of the slowest warming places in the 48-state region.

     c. The Chicago area is right about in the middle when it comes to how fast U.S. places are warming

     d. The Chicago area is not experiencing warming.

     Describe what you noticed on Map 1 that supports your answer.

     6

PART C. EXAMINING OTHER DATA

    Map 2 below show the results of a research study about total amounts of carbon that people emitted into the atmosphere from the burning

    of fossil fuels in the year 1987, as measured in kilograms per square kilometer. Please note: The carbon emissions data are only on 3the land masses, NOT over the oceans.

Map 2. Carbon emissions in the continental United States in 1987

     3 Carbon emissions data set copied from software program WorldWatcher: A Global Visualizer for Windows, Version 3. Created by the SSciVEE and WorldWatcher Curriculum Projects at Northwestern University. GIS images from MyWorld, Version 4.02. Copyright ? 2000-2006 Northwestern University. All Rights Reserved.

     7

    To answer the next question, assume that the relative amounts of carbon emissions in 1987 displayed on the map also accurately represent the relative amounts in the years since 1976.

C1. Agree or disagree with this statement: “The data on Maps 1 and 2 provide evidence that LOCAL COMMUNITIES can have a

    direct and powerful impact on their LOCAL CLIMATES.

    In a sentence or two, write if you agree or disagree and describe what you noticed on both Maps 1 and 2 that supports your answer. If you feel that the maps are not helpful enough for you to be satisfied with your answer, explain why.

     8

C2. The table and graph below show Phoenix’s and Chicago’s population every 10 years since 1940:

    Chicago PopulationPhoenix Population

    1,400,0004,000,0001,200,0003,500,000

    1,000,0003,000,000

    2,500,000800,000Population2,000,000Population600,0001,500,000400,0001,000,000200,000500,0000019401950196019701980199020001940195019601970198019902000

    YearYear

     In sentence or two, describe how Phoenix’s population changed compared with how Chicago’s population changed.

The images below show changes in physical size of the Greater Chicago area (the city and its suburbs) in 1973 and 1992 compared with 4the changes in the Greater Phoenix area, as measured in square miles. The developed land is colored red. Use these images to answer C3.

     4 http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1252/10.html

     9

10

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com