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Prep_6__science_revision_2009.doc 125KB May 25 2009 1159 - Spring

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Understand about feeding relationships and be able to write a food chain.that there are different food types and that, to stay healthy we need a

Science Revision Notes

    These notes are written in a lot of detail so you can use them to revise from.

    You will also need your exercise books as these notes do not contain any diagrams or symbols.

    More information, including diagrams, can be found at www.supascience.co.uk.

    Click on KS2

1. Life Processes and Living Things

Ourselves and other animals

    Know the differences between living and non-living things:

     Know the names of life processes common to all living things including

    ? Nutrition (feeding)

    ? Movement

    ? Growth

    ? Reproduction

    Know the name of the main organs in the human body, what they are for and where they can be found:

    ? Brain: controls all the other organs

    ? Kidneys: filters poisonous waste from the blood

    ? Lungs: puts oxygen into the blood

    ? Intestine: digests food

    ? Skin: protects the body from germs

    ? Heart: pumps blood

    ? Arteries: carry blood away from the heart

    ? Veins: carry blood back towards the heart

    Teeth and eating Know the names of the three main types of teeth, their shape and what they are for:

    ? Incisors: thin, flat ends for cutting. Used for cutting food. Often used by an animal that eats plants

    ? Canine: sharp and pointed: used for tearing food. Often used by an animal that eats meat

    ? Molars: blunt. Used for crushing or holding food.

    Know how to keep teeth healthy:

    ? Brush teeth regularly (to remove plaque)

    ? Visit the dentist every 6 months

    ? Eat non-sugary food and avoid fizzy drinks

    Know that Plaque is made up mostly of bacteria.

    The bacteria in plaque feed on sugar and produce acid which weakens the enamel.

    Know that fluoride can be added to drinking water to strengthen tooth enamel.

    Moving and growing. Know that the skeleton gives us our shape.

    The bones are held together by muscles .

    Muscles are often attached to the bones by tendons .

    Muscles are responsible for making a bone move.

    Muscles usually come in pairs. One muscle contracts (gets shorter) and pulls while the other relaxes.

Know that as we get older we grow (increase in size).

    We grow steadily as a child, grow quite quickly between aged about 10 years and 15 and then do not grow very much.

    Variation and Classification You need to understand that there is a huge variety of animals and plants.

    Because of this variety it is important to be able to put the animals and plants into groups (classify them).

    You need to know the names of the main animal groups.

    Know the features of each group and an example from each group.

    Vertebrates (have a backbone):

    ? Mammals: have fur, young born alive. eg fox, mouse

    ? Birds: have feathers and can fly. eg robin, crow

    ? Reptiles: have a body covered in scales. Lay eggs on land. eg lizare, snake

    ? Amphibians: have a smooth skin. Live on land but lay eggs in water. eg frog, toad

    ? Fish: body covered in scales. Live under water. Have gills. eg goldfish, shark Invertebrates (have no backbone or internal skeleton)

    ? Insects: Have 6 legs and three parts to the body. Sometimes have wings. eh fly, wasp

    ? Spiders (arachnids): have 8 legs and two parts to the body. eg spider, scorpion

    ? Slugs: have no legs and a muscular foot

    Know how to make and use a key to identify an animal or leaf

    Living things in their environment

    Habitats

    ? You need to know that the place an animal or plant lives in is called its Habitat

    examples of different habitats are: pond, wood, field and garden

    ? Know the names of some different plants and animals found in different habitats

    Pond: pond weed, pond snail, minnow, duck

    Wood: tree, badger, blackbird, owl, mouse,

    Field: grass, rabbit, fox

    Garden: cabbage, caterpillar, thrush

    ? Know how animals and plants in two different habitats are suited to their environment

    Fish are streamlined so they can move through the water well.

    Bears have thick fur and a layer of fat under their skin so they are protected from the cold

Understand about feeding relationships and be able to write a food chain.

    Know that all food chains start with a green plant. That the plant is eaten by a herbivore and the herbivore is eaten by a

    carnivore.

    Know the meaning of the words connected with food chains:

    ? Producer: a green plant eg cabbage

    ? Herbivore: an animal that eats plants eg snail

    ? Carnivore: an animal that eats animals meat (ie eats other animals) eg fox

    ? Predator: a hunting animal eg fox

    Prey: the animal being hunted eg rabbit

Be able to give an example of a food chain from a particular habitat eg

    Pond habitat: pond weed tadpole small fish large fish

    Wood habitat: oak tree beetle owl

    Field habitat: grass rabbit fox

    Garden habitat: cabbage caterpillar thrush cat

Know how to study a habitat

    Studying a pond: equipment needed:

    ? Pencil and notebook

    ? Pooter

    ? Net

    ? hand lens

    Know how to keep safe:

    ? Wash hands after visiting the pond or touching pond water

    ? Do not lean out over the water

    ? Only go to the edge of the pond where you you know the water is shallow

    Know the life cycle of a frog and a butterfly:

    Frog: Adults frogs mate Eggs tadpole Adult

    Butterfly: Adults butterflies mate Eggs caterpillar Adult Keeping Healthy

    You need to know:

    ? that there are different food types and that, to stay healthy we need a balanced and varied diet.

    ? A diet high in fat is bad for us because the fat can block our arteries.

    ? that we need exercise to stay healthy and to maintain our muscles; and that when we exercise, our muscles

    work harder

    ? The pulse is a measure of our heart rate.

    If we exercise our heart rate goes up to get more oxygen to the muscles.

    When we stop exercising our heart rate goes down again to normal.

    The length of time it takes our heart rate to return to normal is called the 'recovery time' and a fit person will

    have a quicker recovery time .

    ? how to measure and record your pulse, collecting data to construct a graph and interpret your findings

    ? about the effects of drinking alcohol, smoking and drugs

    ? that medicines are drugs and that, although the effects are usually beneficial, they can be harmful

Life Cycles

    Know the names of the main organs in a flowering plant

    Know where the main organs are in the plant and what they are used for:

    ? Flower: Where seeds are made

    ? Stem: supports the leaves and the flower. Transports food and water around the plant

    ? Leaves: where food is made

    ? Roots: support the plant and take water plus dissolved food from the soil Know that flowering plants reproduce and consider conditions which might affect germination

To germinate plants need the following conditions

    ? water

    ? oxygen

    ? warmth

    (note: light and soil are NOT needed for germinate)

    You need to know how to sow seeds in order to test these conditions fairly and Know how to name the reproductive parts of plants and to understand their functions

    ? The stamens: make pollen

    ? The stigma receives pollen during pollination

    ? The ovary contains the ovules which wilkl become seeds

    ? The petals attract insects

    Know about the life cycle of plants:

    Know the main stages in the life cycle of a plant and the order in which they occure

    ? pollination: when pollen lands on the stigma

    ? fertilisation: when pollen grains join with the ovules

    ? seed production: the ovules swell and turn into seeds

    The ovary becomes a fruit

    ? seed dispersal: The seeds are spread away from the parent plant

    that seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways : by water, wind, explosions and animals.

    ? germination: the seed lands and starts to grow into a new plant Know about the life cycle of a human

    Know that adults have young and that these grow into adults which in turn produce young The main stages in the life cycle of a human are:

    ? Fertilization

    ? Development of the embryo

    ? Birth

    ? Childhood

    ? Puberty

    ? Adolescence

    ? Adulthood

    ? Death

    Know that puberty is the time in the life of a boy or girl when their body starts to develop into that of an adult and is the

    start of changes that will eventually allow them to have children of their own. Puberty happens roughly between the ages of 10 and 15 and happen sooner in girls than in boys.

Know the names of the man organs involved:

    ? The baby (embryo) develops in the womb (uterus)

    ? Before the egg can develop it needs to be fertilized by a sperm from a man. ? The time that an unborn baby is inside the mother is called the gestation period. ? In humans the gestation period is 9 months (36 weeks) Know that human young are dependent on adults for a relatively long period compared with other animals

    Know that if living things did not reproduce they would eventually die out Interdependence and Adaptation

    Know that green plants need sunlight and water to grow well and that they are the source of food for all animals.

    Know that plants produce a new material from air and water in the presence of light in a process known as

    photosynthesis.

    Know that plants and animals can adapt themselves to help them survive in the environment:

    ? A bramble has thorns to stop itself getting eaten

    ? A moth can camouflage itself so it cant be easily seen

    ? A shark has a streamlined shape to slide rapidly through water

    ? A petal has a nice colour and smell to attract insects to help get itself pollinated.

Micro-organisms

    Know that there are many very small organisms which can cause illness or decay.

    These organisms can get carried from one food source to another and how this can cause food poisoning.

    These organisms can be used in food production and that these micro-organisms feed, grow and reproduce like other

    organisms.

    Examples of useful microorganisms are:

    ? Bacteria in the soil help dead plants and animals to rot

    ? A fungus called yeast is used to make bread and wine

    ? Bacteria are used to make yogurt and cheese.

2. Materials and their properties

    Grouping and classifying

    materials

    Be able to sort everyday materials into the groups according to their properties:

    ? Hard or soft

    ? Heavy or light

    ? Flexible (bendy) or rigid (stiff)

    ? Rough or smooth

    ? Transparent or opaque

    ? Soak up water or do not soak up water

    Know that some materials are good thermal insulators (heat does not go through them easily)

    eg thick carpet, loft insulation, fur

    Be able to describe an experiment to show how effective a material is at being a thermal insulator.

    ? know how to make it a fair test

    ? know what to measure

    ? know what instruments to use

    Know some properties of a metal:

    ? Metals are good conductors of heat (heat goes through them easily)

    ? Metals are good conductors of electricity (electricity will travel through them) Understand the difference between solids, liquids and gases

    ? Solids do not flow and cannot be compressed (squashed).

    ? Liquids do flow but cannot be compressed.

    ? Gases can flow and can be compressed

    Rocks and soil

    Know the names, properties and uses of some common rock types:

    Granite: Impermeable ( not porous). Granite chips are used in road making because they are so hard. Slate: Impermeable (not porous and waterproof). Slate is used on roofs because it can be split easily. Limestone: Permeable (porous, water can seep through it). Used as a building material because it can be cut easily.

    Know that a hard rock can scratch a softer rock. Eg slate can scratch chalk, granite can scratch slate.

    Order of hardness: Granite; slate; chalk

    Know that rocks can be weathered and break down to smaller particles which form soil.

    Soils contain sand, clay, humus and living organisms

    ? Sandy soils drain very easily and are often dry

    ? Clayey soils do not drain very easily and are often waterlogged

    ? Humus is decaying plant material (dead leaves etc). Humus provides food for plants and also helps the soil

    retain moisture by acting as a sponge and soaking us water.

Be able to do careful experiments on soil to determine certain properties of soil

    Examples:

    1. Measure the amount of air in soil.

    This could be done by filling several similar beakers with different soils and then measuring the volume of

    water that could be added to each beaker.

2. Measure the how easily water flows through soil.

    This could be done by putting a measured amount of soil in a funnel and timing how long it takes for a certain

    amount of water to drip through

    ? For each experiment above you will need to know what factor you changed, what factor you

    measured and what factors you kept the same for each experiment.

    Changing materials ? Be able to say what conclusions you came to and your reasoning

    Know about the changes that occur when materials are heated and cooled

    ? heating:

    a substance may melt eg ice or chocolate will melt when heated

    a substance may expand (get larger) eg a metal bridge will be slightly shorter when it is cold

    ? cooling

    a substance may freeze or solidify eg water may freeze when cooled and turn into ice

    a substance may contract (get smaller) when cooled eg a metal bridge will be slightly longer when it is hot

    Know that temperature is a measure of how hot or cold things are

    Understand the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle

    Know that some changes are reversible eg

    ? melting: eg ice melting

    ? dissolving: eg sugar dissolving in water

    ? evaporating: eg water evaporating from a puddle in the sun

    ? condensation: eg steam condensing on a cold mirror

    ? freezing: eg water freezing in a freezer

    Know that some changes are permanent and cannot be reversed (irreversible) eg

    ? burning

    ? rusting

    ? baking clay

    ? cooking

    Understand that many new and useful materials can be formed during these changes eg making iron

Separating mixtures of materials

    Know about various ways to separate materials eg

    a) solid particles of different sizes could be separated by sieving (eg flour and rice)

    b) that some solids dissolve in water to give solutions but some do not.

    eg salt dissolves in water but sand does not

    Understand that if we were dissolving salt in water we can speed up the process a number of ways:

    ? crushing the salt so the particles are smaller

    ? stirring the water

    ? using warm water

    ? using more water

    Be able to plan an experiment to show how the temperature of water effects the speed of something dissolving:

    ? know what apparatus to use

    ? how to make it a fair test

    ? what to measure

    Know that a solution that cannot dissolve any more solid is known as a saturated solution c) know how to separate insoluble solids from liquids by filtering

    eg sand can be separated from water by filtering

    d) know that you can recover dissolved solids by evaporating the liquid from the solution

    eg we can get salt back from salty water by evaporating the water

Gases Around Us

    Know the following about gases

    1. know the difference differences between solids, liquids and gases

    2. know that air has weight, takes up space and is all around us

    3. Know that air is a mixture of different gases.

    4. know the name of the main gases in air

    Nitrogen (about 4/5). Nitrogen is an important food for plants

     Oxygen (about 1/5). Oxygen is vital for all life and is also needed for fires to burn

     Carbon dioxide. A tiny amount. Needed for plants to make food

     Water vapour.

    5. know that the air in the gaps between particles (in soil) can be observed by replacing it with water.

    6. know that gases have useful properties and can be used to pressurise and to inflate objects

    7. know that some gases are flammable and can be used as fuels (eg methane)

    8. know that gases are formed when liquids evaporate

    9. know that liquids are formed when gases condense

    10. know that gases flow in all directions and do not keep their shape or volume. Gases always completely fill

    their container

3. Physical Processes

     Electricity

    Know that some materials are conductors (allow electricity to flow through them)

    and some materials are insulators (do not allow electricity to flow)

    Metals (eg copper and aluminium) are good conductors of electricity

    Non-metals (eg glass and plastic) are insulators

    Simple circuits

    Know how to make a circuit using a battery (or power supply) and a range of switches to make various components

    (bulbs or buzzers) come on Be able to draw a circuit diagram using the correct symbols for switches, bulbs, cells, buzzers and motors.

    Know that a circuit needs to be complete before it will work.

    Know that when there is more than one cell then they all need to be facing in the same direction.

    Know various ways of changing the brightness of a bulb eg

    ? adding a battery (or cell). This will make a bulb brighter or a motor turn faster

    ? adding another bulb in series. This will make the bulb dimmer

    ? changing the length of the wire in a circuit (this makes the bulb dimmer)

    Types of force

    Know the names of various types of force eg

    ? Push or pull

    ? Magnetism

    ? Gravity

    ? Friction (and air resistance)

    ? Upthrust

    Know that forces are pushes and pulls

Know that forces can be measured using a spring balance (newton meter)

    Know that forces are measured in Newtons (1N is the force that the Earth’s gravity pulls on 100g)

    Know that forces are needed to do these for things:

    ? start and to stop things moving

    ? Make things speed up or slow down

    ? make things change direction

    ? make things change shape

    Know that gravitational attraction gives objects weight and that this can be measured in Newtons with a force meter

    (spring balance)

    Know that there are forces of attraction and repulsion between magnets and that there are forces of attraction between

    magnets and magnetic material.

    Know that magnets have two poles, the North seeking pole(N) and the South seeking pole(S)

    Understand that similar poles repel (push against) each other

    eg North repels North

    Understand that different poles attract (pull towards) each other

    eg North repels North

Know that objects are pulled downwards because of the gravitational attraction between them and the Earth. Know that

    the pull of gravity on the Moon is less than that on the Earth

    Understand that friction, including air resistance, as a force that slows moving objects and may prevent objects from

    starting to move.

    Balanced and Unbalanced Forces

    Know the following about forces

    ? that when objects are stationary, the forces acting on them are in balance

    ? that whenever a force is applied, there is a force in the opposite direction

    ? that when an object is submerged in water, the water provides an upward force called upthrust

    ? that when an object floats, its weight is balanced by the upthrust

    ? that unbalanced forces change the direction or speed of movement

    ? that air resistance slows moving objects by exerting an opposite force

    ? that friction is a force between two surfaces.

    ? That friction always produces heat

     Earth. Sun and Moon

    You need to know

    ? that the, Earth, Sun and Moon are approximately spherical

    ? about the relative sizes of the Sun, Earth and Moon

    (The Sun is about 100 times wider than the Earth which is 4 times wider than the Moon)

    ? about the Solar System and the planets that orbit the Sun

    ? That the planets are held in orbit around the Sun by the pull of the Sun’s gravity ? That the Sun appears to move across the sky over the course of a day because the Earth spins.

    ? Earth spins on its axis once every 24 hours, and it is this that causes night and day

    ? that the Moon takes approximately 28 days to orbit the Earth

    ? that it is daytime in the part of the Earth facing the Sun and night-time in the part of the Earth facing away

    from the Sun

    ? That the different positions of the sun in the sky account for different shadow lengths

    (longest in the evening and morning, shortest at mid-day)

    ? that the Sun rises in the general direction of the East and sets in the general direction of the West

    ? that the Earth takes one year to make one complete orbit of the Sun

    ? that the changing seasons and changing lengths of the day and night are caused by the Earth's tilt

    ? that the Moon gives out no light of its own but is seen due to the reflection of the Sun’s light

    ? that the different appearance of the Moon are known as phases and show us the Moon must be a sphere and we

    see different amounts of it lit up.

    Changing Sounds

    You need to know that sounds are made when objects/materials vibrate You need to know

    ? that vibrations from sound sources travel through different materials to the ear ? that some materials are effective in preventing vibrations from sound sources reaching the ear

    ? that sound travels better and faster through solids than it does through gases ? that the term pitch describes how high or low a sound is

    ? about factors affecting the pitch of a drum (the size, how tight the skin is) ? that sounds can be made by air vibrating

    ? about factors affecting the pitch of wind and stringed instruments

    (length of string, tightness of string, thickness of string)

    Understand how sound can be made in a range of musical instruments

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