Health Communication Campaigns
Professor Mohan J Dutta-Bergman, Ph.D., MA, B.Tech
It takes more than mere intellectual talk to make social change…A Step Beyond the
Hunger, substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, terrorism- we live in a world fraught with social
problems. The willingness and intent to make positive changes in society brings us
together in this course. Although intellectual fervor and critical thinking are the
essential tools to the process of social change, a commitment to apply the knowledge
in different social change settings lies at the heart of our endeavor. In a nutshell,
Health Communication Campaigns ultimately strives toward theory-based
Using examples of public campaigns in the United States and in other parts of the
world, this course provides a starting point to think about what does and does not
work with public health campaigns. Blending theory and practice, the course
encourages thoughtful criticism of past campaigns based on solid theoretical ideas
and the subsequent development of worthwhile applications. The theoretical
emphases encompass mass mediated, community-based, workspace-based, school-
based, and interpersonal approaches to public health interventions. The problems
and subsequent interventions are studied both at macro and micro levels.
The student is expected to attain the following goals:
? Understand the significance of theory in health communication campaigns.
? Examine existing theories of public communication campaigns and understand
the philosophical underpinnings of these theories.
? Juxtapose extant and current campaigns with the theoretical approaches to
understand how theory can help in shaping effective campaigns.
? Compare, contrast and synthesize the different theoretical foundations with
the aim of developing “new knowledge.”
? Develop an understanding of methodological fit, how research methodology is
shaped by the research objectives
? Develop, implement, and report a research project.
1. Course Readings & Effective Class Participation (10%): Effective class
participation is based upon thorough engagement with the assigned course
readings. Special attention must be paid to understanding the objectives of
the individual paper, the research methodology, and the presentation of the
2. Research Proposal (25%): The research proposal (10-15 pages) would
present the research problem, the objectives, the theoretical framework, and
the choice of research methodology. Emphasis should be on the presentation
of adequate rationale, building support for the research. Students work in a
group of two/three.
3. Research Paper (40%): The research paper will address a relevant social
change problem, for instance substance abuse, unsafe sex etc. The choice of
topic must be relevant to the current social environment. After the
development of an appropriate approach that fits the problem (in the
proposal), students are required to design and implement a research project
that enhances current understanding of health campaigns. The end product
is a high quality paper that may be presented at a professional conference.
4. Final Examination (25%): A take-home final will test your ability to compare,
analyze, synthesize and apply the content discussed in class. The emphasis
here will be on your ability to effectively critique the current knowledge of
As a student in this course, it is assumed that you have read and imbibed the official
position of Purdue University on matters of academic misconduct (see the University
Regulations booklet). If misconduct occurs in the context of this course, it will be
handled according to the procedures specified in the University Regulations booklet.
Late assignments will not be accepted except in case of documented emergency
situations. The student is responsible to contact me and make other arrangements
in case of an emergency.
Course Content Coverage
Week One: Health Communication Campaigns: Do they Work?
Week Two: Mass-mediated Approaches to Health Communication Campaigns
Week Three: Community-based Approaches to Health Communication Campaigns
Week Four: The Health Belief Model in the Context of Health Communication
Week Five: The Theory of Reasoned Action and Health Communication Campaigns
Week Six: Social Marketing Approaches to Health Communication Campaigns; Strategic Approaches to Design & Development of Health Communication Campaigns
Week Seven: Selective Exposure Theory, Agenda-Setting, Framing, & Knowledge Gap
Week Eight: The Elaboration Likelihood Model, Systematic-Heuristic Model & other Dual Processing Theories
Week Nine: Tailored Communication Campaigns, New Media in the Context of Health Communication
Week Ten: International Health Communication Campaigns: Understanding Health from a Cross-cultural Perspective
Week Eleven: Core Areas of Social Change: Dietary Behavior, Smoking, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Alcohol Consumption
Week Twelve: At-risk Populations, Part One: Adolescents & Health Communication Campaigns; Women as Targets; Men, Masculinity & Health Communication Campaigns
Week Thirteen: At-risk Populations, Part Two: Aging & Health Communication Campaigns; Occupation-related Health Issues; Sex-workers & Intravenous Drug Users
Week Fourteen: Research Presentation Series, Part One
Week Fifteen: Research Presentation Series, Part Two
Health Communication Campaigns: Why Need a Theory?
Class Discussion. PowerPoint Presentation. No Readings.
Soaps, Ads & Stories: Using Mass Media to Make Social Change
Hertog, J.K., Finnegan, J.R., Rooney, B., et al. (1993). Self-Efficacy as a Target Population Segmentation Strategy in a Diet and Cancer Risk Reduction Campaign. Health Communication ,5(1): 21-40.
Klingle, R.S. and Aune, K.S. (1994). Effects of a Daytime Serial and a Public Service Announcement in Promoting Cognitions, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to Bone-Marrow Testing. Health Communication ,6(3): 225-245.
Schooler, C., Flora, J.A., and Farquhar, J.W. (1993). Moving Toward Synergy: Media Supplementation in the Stanford Five-City Project. Communication Research ,20(4):
Michael T Stephenson Sensation seeking, perceived message sensation value,
personal involvement, and processing of anti-marijuana PSAs. Communication Monographs, Annandale; Mar 2001; Vol. 68, Iss. 1; pg. 49, 23 pgs.
Suarez, L., Nichols, D.C., Pulley, L., et al. (1993). Local Health Departments
Implement a Theory-Based Model to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening.
Public Health Reports ,108(4): 477-482.
Hecht, M.L., Corman, S.R., and Miller-Rassulo, M. (1993). An Evaluation of the Drug
Resistance Project: A Comparison of Film Versus Live Performance Media. Health
Communication ,5(2): 75-88.
Gantz, W., and Greenberg, B.S. (1990). The Role of Informative Television Programs
in the Battle Against AIDS. Health Communication ,2(4): 199-215.
Samuels, S.E. (1990). Project LEAN: A National Campaign to Reduce Dietary Fat
Consumption. American Journal of Health Promotion ,4(6): 435-440.
Winett, R.A., Anderson, E.S., Moore, J.F., et al. (1992). Family/Media Approach to
HIV Prevention: Results with a Home-Based, Parent-Teen Video Program. Health
Psychology, 11(3): 203-206.
Beyond the Brochure: Alternative Approaches to Effective Health Communication
Healthy Homes, Healthy Neighborhoods, Healthy Cities & Healthy Nations
Altman, D.G., Endres, J., Linzer, J., et al. (1991). Obstacles to and Future Goals of
Ten Comprehensive Community Health Promotion Projects. Journal of Community Health, 16(6): 299-314.
Eng, E., and Parker, E. (1994). Measuring Community Competence in the Mississippi
Delta: The Interface between Program Evaluation and Empowerment. Health Education Quarterly ,21(2): 199-220.
Lacey, L.P., Phillips, C.W., Ansell, D., et al. (1989). An Urban Community-Based
Cancer Prevention Screening and Health Education Intervention in Chicago. Public
Health Reports ,104(6): 536-541.
Goodman, R.M., Wheeler, F.C., and Lee, P.R. (1995). Evaluation of the Heart to
Heart Project: Lessons from a Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Project. American Journal of Health Promotion ,9(6), 443-455.
Lasater, T.M., Wells, B.L., Carleton, R.A., et al. (1986). The Role of Churches in
Disease Prevention Research Studies. Public Health Reports ,101(2): 125-131.
Michielutte, R., Dignan, M.B., Wells, H.B., et al. (1989). Development of a
Community Cancer Education Program: The Forsyth County, NC, Cervical Cancer
Prevention Project. Public Health Reports ,104(6): 542-551.
Suarez, L., Nichols, D.C., Pulley, L., et al. (1993). Local Health Departments
Implement a Theory-Based Model to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening.
Public Health Reports ,108(4): 477-482.
Wallack, L., and Sciandra, R. (1991). Media Advocacy and Public Education in the
Community Intervention Trial to Reduce Heavy Smoking (COMMIT). International Quarterly of Community Health Education ,11(3): 205-222.
Health Belief Model
Bletzer, K.V. (1995). Use of Ethnography in the Evaluation and Targeting of
HIV/AIDS Education among Latino Farm Workers. AIDS Education and Prevention. ,7(2): 178-191.
Bosworth, K. (1994). Computer Games and Simulations as Tools to Reach and
Engage Adolescents in Health Promotion Activities. Computers in Human Services ,11(1/2): 109-119.
Feigelman, S., Stanton, B., Rubin, J.D., et. al. (1993). Effectiveness of Family
Notification Efforts and Compliance with Measles Post-Exposure Prophylaxis. Journal
of Community Health ,18(2): 83-93.
Ramsdell, W.M., Kelly, P., Coody, D., et al. (1991). The Texas Skin
Cancer/Melanoma Project. The Journal of Texas Medicine ,87(10): 70-73.
Witte, K., Stokols, D., Ituarte, P., et al. (1993). Testing the Health Belief Model in a Field Study to Promote Bicycle Safety Helmets. Communication Research ,20(4): 564-586.
The Theory of Reasoned Action
Andrews, A.B., McLeese, D.G., and Curran, S. (1995). The Impact of a Media
Campaign on Public Action to Help Maltreated Children in Addictive Families. Child
Abuse & Neglect ,19(8): 921-932.
Burke, J.A., Salazar, A, Daughety, V., et al. (1992). Activating Interpersonal
Influence in the Prevention of Adolescent Tobacco Use: An Evaluation of Iowa's
Program Against Smoking. Health Communication ,4(1): 1-17.
Sciacca, J.P., Phipps, B.L., Dube, D.A., et al. (1995). Influences on Breast-Feeding
by Lower-Income Women: An Incentive-Based, Partner-Supported Educational
Program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association ,95(3): 323-328.
Winkleby, M.A., Flora, J.A., and Kraemer, H.C. (1994). A Community-Based Heart
Disease Intervention: Predictors of Change. American Journal of Public Health ,84(5): 767-772.
Strategic Elements of Social Marketing: Conceptualizing Change
Social Marketing Institute Conference Report: Nonprofit Marketing Summit
Conference (2000), Tampa, FL. The Social Marketing Institute.
Carrots, Sticks, and Promises: A Conceptual Framework for the Management of
Public Health and Social Issue Behaviors (PDF format). Michael L. Rothschild,
School of Business, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Eadie DR and Smith CJ (1995). The role of applied research in public health
advertising: some comparisons with commercial marketing. Health Education Journal, 54: 367-380.
Abed, J., Reilley, B., Butler, M. O., Kean, T., Wong, F., & Hohman, K. (2000).
Comprehensive Cancer Control Initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention: An Example of Participatory Innovation Diffusion. Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 6(2), 79-92.
Agenda Setting Theory: Getting Noticed
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National health care reform: An idea whose time came and went; Hacker, Jacob S; Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Durham; Winter 1996; Vol. 21, Iss. 4; pg.
647, 50 pgs.
Radon and asbestos: A study of agenda setting and causal stories; Scheberle, Denise; Policy Studies Journal, Urbana; Spring 1994; Vol. 22, Iss. 1; pg. 74
Problems and opportunities in agenda-setting research; Kosicki, Gerald M; Journal of Communication, New York; Spring 1993; Vol. 43, Iss. 2; pg. 100, 28 pgs
The anatomy of agenda-setting research; Rogers, Everett M; Journal of Communication, New York; Spring 1993; Vol. 43, Iss. 2; pg. 68, 17 pgs
Testing alternative theories of agenda setting: Forest policy change in British
Columbia, Canada; Sheldon Kamieniecki; Policy Studies Journal, Urbana; 2000; Vol. 28, Iss. 1; pg. 176, 14 pgs
Knowledge Gap Theory: Are the Rich Getting Richer, The Poor Getting
Cecilie Gaziano. (2001). Knowledge gap on cervical, colorectal cancer exists among
U.S. women. Newspaper Research Journal, Athens; Winter 2001; Vol. 22, Iss. 1; pg.
12, 16 pgs.
Cognitive access to negatively arousing news: An experimental investigation of the
knowledge gap; Maria Elizabeth Grabe; Communication Research, Beverly Hills; Feb 2000; Vol. 27, Iss. 1; pg. 3, 24 pgs
Revisiting the knowledge gap hypothesis; Nojin Kwak; Communication Research, Beverly Hills; Aug 1999; Vol. 26, Iss. 4; pg. 385, 29 pgs
Local community ties, community-boundedness, and local public affairs knowledge
gaps; Kasisomayajula Viswanath; Communication Research, Beverly Hills; Feb 2000; Vol. 27, Iss. 1; pg. 27, 27 pg
Framing Theory: Constructing Reality in Media
News frames as social narratives: TWA flight 800; Frank D Durham; Journal of Communication, New York; Autumn 1998; Vol. 48, Iss. 4; pg. 100, 18 pgs.
The socio-political framing of aging and communication research; Angela Williams;
Journal of Applied Communication Research, Annandale; Feb 1998; Vol. 26, Iss.
1; pg. 139, 16 pgs.
Community structure and science framing of news about local environmental risks;
Robert J Griffin; Science Communication, Thousand Oaks; Jun 1997; Vol. 18, Iss.
4; pg. 362, 23 pgs
The moderating effects of message framing and source credibility on the price-
perceived risk relationship; Grewal, Dhruv; Gotlieb, Jerry; Marmorstein, Howard; Journal Of Consumer Research, Gainesville; Jun 1994; Vol. 21, Iss. 1; pg. 145, 9
Message framing and persuasion: A message processing analysis; Smith, Stephen M; Petty, Richard E; Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Thousand Oaks; Mar 1996; Vol. 22, Iss. 3; pg. 257, 1 pgs
Listening to the Music or Thinking the Thoughts: Applying Dual-Processing
Models to Understanding Health Messages
Allen, Mike; Reynolds, Rodney. (1993). The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the
sleeper effect: An assessment of attitude change over time. Communication Theory,
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combined efficacy of protection motivation theory and the elaboration likelihood
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Public Service Announcement Appeal, and Involvement on Evaluations of Safe-Sex
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Petty, Richard E; Wegener, Duane T; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Priester, Joseph R;
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Communicating Across Boundaries: Cross-Cultural Elements of Campaign
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When Smoke Gets in Your Lungs: Smoking Readings
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