Communication 618C Health Communication Campaigns

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Health Communication ,4(1): 1-17. Sciacca, J.P., Phipps, B.L., Dube, D.A., et al. (1995). Influences on Breast-Feeding by Lower-Income Women: An

    Communication 618C

    Health Communication Campaigns

    Spring 2002


    Professor Mohan J Dutta-Bergman, Ph.D., MA, B.Tech

    2152 LAEB

    Office: 494-2587



    Office Hours:

Course Philosophy

It takes more than mere intellectual talk to make social change…A Step Beyond the

    Ivory Tower

Hunger, substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, terrorism- we live in a world fraught with social

    problems. The willingness and intent to make positive changes in society brings us

    together in this course. Although intellectual fervor and critical thinking are the

    essential tools to the process of social change, a commitment to apply the knowledge

    in different social change settings lies at the heart of our endeavor. In a nutshell,

    Health Communication Campaigns ultimately strives toward theory-based


Course Overview

Using examples of public campaigns in the United States and in other parts of the

    world, this course provides a starting point to think about what does and does not

    work with public health campaigns. Blending theory and practice, the course

    encourages thoughtful criticism of past campaigns based on solid theoretical ideas

    and the subsequent development of worthwhile applications. The theoretical

    emphases encompass mass mediated, community-based, workspace-based, school-

    based, and interpersonal approaches to public health interventions. The problems

    and subsequent interventions are studied both at macro and micro levels.

Course Objectives

The student is expected to attain the following goals:

    ? Understand the significance of theory in health communication campaigns.

    ? Examine existing theories of public communication campaigns and understand

    the philosophical underpinnings of these theories.

    ? Juxtapose extant and current campaigns with the theoretical approaches to

    understand how theory can help in shaping effective campaigns.

    ? Compare, contrast and synthesize the different theoretical foundations with

    the aim of developing “new knowledge.”

    ? Develop an understanding of methodological fit, how research methodology is

    shaped by the research objectives

    ? Develop, implement, and report a research project.

Evaluation Criteria

    1. Course Readings & Effective Class Participation (10%): Effective class

    participation is based upon thorough engagement with the assigned course

    readings. Special attention must be paid to understanding the objectives of

    the individual paper, the research methodology, and the presentation of the


    2. Research Proposal (25%): The research proposal (10-15 pages) would

    present the research problem, the objectives, the theoretical framework, and

    the choice of research methodology. Emphasis should be on the presentation

    of adequate rationale, building support for the research. Students work in a

    group of two/three.

    3. Research Paper (40%): The research paper will address a relevant social

    change problem, for instance substance abuse, unsafe sex etc. The choice of

    topic must be relevant to the current social environment. After the

    development of an appropriate approach that fits the problem (in the

    proposal), students are required to design and implement a research project

    that enhances current understanding of health campaigns. The end product

    is a high quality paper that may be presented at a professional conference.

    4. Final Examination (25%): A take-home final will test your ability to compare,

    analyze, synthesize and apply the content discussed in class. The emphasis

    here will be on your ability to effectively critique the current knowledge of

    public campaigns.

Academic Misconduct

As a student in this course, it is assumed that you have read and imbibed the official

    position of Purdue University on matters of academic misconduct (see the University

    Regulations booklet). If misconduct occurs in the context of this course, it will be

    handled according to the procedures specified in the University Regulations booklet.

Course Policies

Late assignments will not be accepted except in case of documented emergency

    situations. The student is responsible to contact me and make other arrangements

    in case of an emergency.

Course Content Coverage

Week One: Health Communication Campaigns: Do they Work?

Week Two: Mass-mediated Approaches to Health Communication Campaigns

Week Three: Community-based Approaches to Health Communication Campaigns

Week Four: The Health Belief Model in the Context of Health Communication


    Week Five: The Theory of Reasoned Action and Health Communication Campaigns

    Week Six: Social Marketing Approaches to Health Communication Campaigns; Strategic Approaches to Design & Development of Health Communication Campaigns

    Week Seven: Selective Exposure Theory, Agenda-Setting, Framing, & Knowledge Gap

    Week Eight: The Elaboration Likelihood Model, Systematic-Heuristic Model & other Dual Processing Theories

    Week Nine: Tailored Communication Campaigns, New Media in the Context of Health Communication

    Week Ten: International Health Communication Campaigns: Understanding Health from a Cross-cultural Perspective

    Week Eleven: Core Areas of Social Change: Dietary Behavior, Smoking, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Alcohol Consumption

    Week Twelve: At-risk Populations, Part One: Adolescents & Health Communication Campaigns; Women as Targets; Men, Masculinity & Health Communication Campaigns

    Week Thirteen: At-risk Populations, Part Two: Aging & Health Communication Campaigns; Occupation-related Health Issues; Sex-workers & Intravenous Drug Users

Week Fourteen: Research Presentation Series, Part One

Week Fifteen: Research Presentation Series, Part Two

Health Communication Campaigns: Why Need a Theory?

Class Discussion. PowerPoint Presentation. No Readings.

Soaps, Ads & Stories: Using Mass Media to Make Social Change

    Hertog, J.K., Finnegan, J.R., Rooney, B., et al. (1993). Self-Efficacy as a Target Population Segmentation Strategy in a Diet and Cancer Risk Reduction Campaign. Health Communication ,5(1): 21-40.

    Klingle, R.S. and Aune, K.S. (1994). Effects of a Daytime Serial and a Public Service Announcement in Promoting Cognitions, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to Bone-Marrow Testing. Health Communication ,6(3): 225-245.

    Schooler, C., Flora, J.A., and Farquhar, J.W. (1993). Moving Toward Synergy: Media Supplementation in the Stanford Five-City Project. Communication Research ,20(4):


Michael T Stephenson Sensation seeking, perceived message sensation value,

    personal involvement, and processing of anti-marijuana PSAs. Communication Monographs, Annandale; Mar 2001; Vol. 68, Iss. 1; pg. 49, 23 pgs.

Suarez, L., Nichols, D.C., Pulley, L., et al. (1993). Local Health Departments

    Implement a Theory-Based Model to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Public Health Reports ,108(4): 477-482.

Hecht, M.L., Corman, S.R., and Miller-Rassulo, M. (1993). An Evaluation of the Drug

    Resistance Project: A Comparison of Film Versus Live Performance Media. Health

    Communication ,5(2): 75-88.

Gantz, W., and Greenberg, B.S. (1990). The Role of Informative Television Programs

    in the Battle Against AIDS. Health Communication ,2(4): 199-215.

Samuels, S.E. (1990). Project LEAN: A National Campaign to Reduce Dietary Fat

    Consumption. American Journal of Health Promotion ,4(6): 435-440.

Winett, R.A., Anderson, E.S., Moore, J.F., et al. (1992). Family/Media Approach to

    HIV Prevention: Results with a Home-Based, Parent-Teen Video Program. Health

    Psychology, 11(3): 203-206.

Beyond the Brochure: Alternative Approaches to Effective Health Communication


Healthy Homes, Healthy Neighborhoods, Healthy Cities & Healthy Nations

Altman, D.G., Endres, J., Linzer, J., et al. (1991). Obstacles to and Future Goals of

    Ten Comprehensive Community Health Promotion Projects. Journal of Community Health, 16(6): 299-314.

Eng, E., and Parker, E. (1994). Measuring Community Competence in the Mississippi

    Delta: The Interface between Program Evaluation and Empowerment. Health Education Quarterly ,21(2): 199-220.

Lacey, L.P., Phillips, C.W., Ansell, D., et al. (1989). An Urban Community-Based

    Cancer Prevention Screening and Health Education Intervention in Chicago. Public

    Health Reports ,104(6): 536-541.

Goodman, R.M., Wheeler, F.C., and Lee, P.R. (1995). Evaluation of the Heart to

    Heart Project: Lessons from a Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Project. American Journal of Health Promotion ,9(6), 443-455.

Lasater, T.M., Wells, B.L., Carleton, R.A., et al. (1986). The Role of Churches in

    Disease Prevention Research Studies. Public Health Reports ,101(2): 125-131.

Michielutte, R., Dignan, M.B., Wells, H.B., et al. (1989). Development of a

    Community Cancer Education Program: The Forsyth County, NC, Cervical Cancer

    Prevention Project. Public Health Reports ,104(6): 542-551.

Suarez, L., Nichols, D.C., Pulley, L., et al. (1993). Local Health Departments

    Implement a Theory-Based Model to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Public Health Reports ,108(4): 477-482.

Wallack, L., and Sciandra, R. (1991). Media Advocacy and Public Education in the

    Community Intervention Trial to Reduce Heavy Smoking (COMMIT). International Quarterly of Community Health Education ,11(3): 205-222.

Health Belief Model

Bletzer, K.V. (1995). Use of Ethnography in the Evaluation and Targeting of

    HIV/AIDS Education among Latino Farm Workers. AIDS Education and Prevention. ,7(2): 178-191.

Bosworth, K. (1994). Computer Games and Simulations as Tools to Reach and

    Engage Adolescents in Health Promotion Activities. Computers in Human Services ,11(1/2): 109-119.

Feigelman, S., Stanton, B., Rubin, J.D., et. al. (1993). Effectiveness of Family

    Notification Efforts and Compliance with Measles Post-Exposure Prophylaxis. Journal

    of Community Health ,18(2): 83-93.

Ramsdell, W.M., Kelly, P., Coody, D., et al. (1991). The Texas Skin

    Cancer/Melanoma Project. The Journal of Texas Medicine ,87(10): 70-73.

    Witte, K., Stokols, D., Ituarte, P., et al. (1993). Testing the Health Belief Model in a Field Study to Promote Bicycle Safety Helmets. Communication Research ,20(4): 564-586.

The Theory of Reasoned Action

Andrews, A.B., McLeese, D.G., and Curran, S. (1995). The Impact of a Media

    Campaign on Public Action to Help Maltreated Children in Addictive Families. Child

    Abuse & Neglect ,19(8): 921-932.

Burke, J.A., Salazar, A, Daughety, V., et al. (1992). Activating Interpersonal

    Influence in the Prevention of Adolescent Tobacco Use: An Evaluation of Iowa's

    Program Against Smoking. Health Communication ,4(1): 1-17.

Sciacca, J.P., Phipps, B.L., Dube, D.A., et al. (1995). Influences on Breast-Feeding

    by Lower-Income Women: An Incentive-Based, Partner-Supported Educational

    Program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association ,95(3): 323-328.

Winkleby, M.A., Flora, J.A., and Kraemer, H.C. (1994). A Community-Based Heart

    Disease Intervention: Predictors of Change. American Journal of Public Health ,84(5): 767-772.

Strategic Elements of Social Marketing: Conceptualizing Change

Social Marketing Institute Conference Report: Nonprofit Marketing Summit

    Conference (2000), Tampa, FL. The Social Marketing Institute.

Carrots, Sticks, and Promises: A Conceptual Framework for the Management of

    Public Health and Social Issue Behaviors (PDF format). Michael L. Rothschild,


    School of Business, University of Wisconsin, Madison

    Eadie DR and Smith CJ (1995). The role of applied research in public health

    advertising: some comparisons with commercial marketing. Health Education Journal, 54: 367-380.

    Abed, J., Reilley, B., Butler, M. O., Kean, T., Wong, F., & Hohman, K. (2000).

    Comprehensive Cancer Control Initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and

    Prevention: An Example of Participatory Innovation Diffusion. Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 6(2), 79-92.

Agenda Setting Theory: Getting Noticed

    Agenda setting and community consensus: First and second level effects; Esteban Lopez-Escobar; International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Oxford; Winter 1998; Vol. 10, Iss. 4; pg. 335, 14 pgs.

    National health care reform: An idea whose time came and went; Hacker, Jacob S; Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Durham; Winter 1996; Vol. 21, Iss. 4; pg.

    647, 50 pgs.

    Radon and asbestos: A study of agenda setting and causal stories; Scheberle, Denise; Policy Studies Journal, Urbana; Spring 1994; Vol. 22, Iss. 1; pg. 74

    Problems and opportunities in agenda-setting research; Kosicki, Gerald M; Journal of Communication, New York; Spring 1993; Vol. 43, Iss. 2; pg. 100, 28 pgs

    The anatomy of agenda-setting research; Rogers, Everett M; Journal of Communication, New York; Spring 1993; Vol. 43, Iss. 2; pg. 68, 17 pgs

    Testing alternative theories of agenda setting: Forest policy change in British

    Columbia, Canada; Sheldon Kamieniecki; Policy Studies Journal, Urbana; 2000; Vol. 28, Iss. 1; pg. 176, 14 pgs

Knowledge Gap Theory: Are the Rich Getting Richer, The Poor Getting


    Cecilie Gaziano. (2001). Knowledge gap on cervical, colorectal cancer exists among

    U.S. women. Newspaper Research Journal, Athens; Winter 2001; Vol. 22, Iss. 1; pg.

    12, 16 pgs.

    Cognitive access to negatively arousing news: An experimental investigation of the

    knowledge gap; Maria Elizabeth Grabe; Communication Research, Beverly Hills; Feb 2000; Vol. 27, Iss. 1; pg. 3, 24 pgs

    Revisiting the knowledge gap hypothesis; Nojin Kwak; Communication Research, Beverly Hills; Aug 1999; Vol. 26, Iss. 4; pg. 385, 29 pgs

    Local community ties, community-boundedness, and local public affairs knowledge

    gaps; Kasisomayajula Viswanath; Communication Research, Beverly Hills; Feb 2000; Vol. 27, Iss. 1; pg. 27, 27 pg

Framing Theory: Constructing Reality in Media

    News frames as social narratives: TWA flight 800; Frank D Durham; Journal of Communication, New York; Autumn 1998; Vol. 48, Iss. 4; pg. 100, 18 pgs.

    The socio-political framing of aging and communication research; Angela Williams;

    Journal of Applied Communication Research, Annandale; Feb 1998; Vol. 26, Iss.

    1; pg. 139, 16 pgs.

    Community structure and science framing of news about local environmental risks;

    Robert J Griffin; Science Communication, Thousand Oaks; Jun 1997; Vol. 18, Iss.

    4; pg. 362, 23 pgs

    The moderating effects of message framing and source credibility on the price-

    perceived risk relationship; Grewal, Dhruv; Gotlieb, Jerry; Marmorstein, Howard; Journal Of Consumer Research, Gainesville; Jun 1994; Vol. 21, Iss. 1; pg. 145, 9


    Message framing and persuasion: A message processing analysis; Smith, Stephen M; Petty, Richard E; Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Thousand Oaks; Mar 1996; Vol. 22, Iss. 3; pg. 257, 1 pgs

Listening to the Music or Thinking the Thoughts: Applying Dual-Processing

    Models to Understanding Health Messages

Allen, Mike; Reynolds, Rodney. (1993). The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the

    sleeper effect: An assessment of attitude change over time. Communication Theory,

    3(1), 73

    Beth L Dinoff; Robin M Kowalski. (1999). Reducing AIDS risk behavior: The

    combined efficacy of protection motivation theory and the elaboration likelihood


    Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18(2), 223-240.

    Ford, L.A. and Smith, S.W. (1991). Memorability and Persuasiveness of Organ

    Donation Message Strategies. American Behavioral Scientist, 34(6): 695-711. Haugtvedt, Curtis P; Schumann, David W; Schneier, Wendy L; Warren, Wendy L.

    (1994). Advertising repetition and variation strategies: Implications for

    understanding attitude strength. Journal Of Consumer Research, Jun, Vol. 21, (1), 176-190.

    Lord, Kenneth R, Lee, Myung-Soo, Sauer, Paul L. (1995). The combined influence

    hypothesis: Central and peripheral a. Journal of Advertising; 24(1), 73-86. Monique M Mitchell. (2000). Able but not motivated? The relative effects of happy

    and sad mood on persuasive message processing. Communication Monographs,

    Annandale; Jun 2000; Vol. 67, Iss. 2; pg. 215, 12 pgs

    Perse, E.M., Nathanson, A.I., and McLeod, D.M. (1996). Effects of Spokesperson Sex,

    Public Service Announcement Appeal, and Involvement on Evaluations of Safe-Sex

    PSAs. Health Communication, 8(2): 171-189.

    Petty, Richard E; Wegener, Duane T; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Priester, Joseph R;

    Cacioppo, John T . (1993). Conceptual and methodological issues in the elaboration

    likelihood model of persuasion: A reply to the Michigan State critics, Communication Theory, 3(4), 336.

    Verplanken, Bas. (1991). Persuasive Communication of Risk Information: A Test of

    Cue Versus Message Processing Effects in a Field Experiment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Thousand Oaks; Apr, 17(2), 188.

Communicating Across Boundaries: Cross-Cultural Elements of Campaign


     Jennifer L Aaker . (1997). The effect of cultural orientation on persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(3), 315-329.

Crawford, I. and Robinson, W.L. (1990). Adolescents and AIDS: Knowledge and

    Attitudes of African-American, Latino, and Caucasian Midwestern U.S. High School

    Seniors. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality ,3(2): 25-33.

Min-Sun Kim. (2000). A test of a cultural model of patients' motivation for verbal

    communication in patient-doctor interactions, Communication Monographs, Annandale; Sep 2000; Vol. 67, Iss. 3; pg. 262, 22 pgs.

    F Sushila Niles. (1998). Individualism-collectivism revisited. Cross - Cultural Research, Thousand Oaks; Nov 1998; Vol. 32, Iss. 4; pg. 315, 27 pgs

Stevenson, H.C., and Davis, G. (1994). Impact of Culturally Sensitive AIDS Video

    Education on the AIDS Risk Knowledge of African-American Adolescents. AIDS Education and Prevention ,6(1): 40-52.

Stevenson, H.C., Gay, K.M., and Josar, L. (1995). Culturally Sensitive AIDS

    Education and Perceived AIDS Risk Knowledge : Reaching the "Know-It-All" Teenager.

    AIDS Education and Prevention ,7(2): 134-144.

Turner, L.W., Sutherland, M., Harris, G.J., et al. (1995). Cardiovascular Health

    Promotion in North Florida African-American Churches. Health Values ,19(2): 3-9.

When Smoke Gets in Your Lungs: Smoking Readings

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best Practices for Comprehensive

    Tobacco Control ProgramsAugust 1999. Atlanta GA: U.S. Department of Health and

    Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for

    Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health,

    August 1999.


    Margaret Cooke. (2000). The dissemination of a smoking cessation program:

    predictors of program awareness, adoption and maintenance. Health Promotion International, 15, 113-124.

Flynn, B.S., Worden, J.K., Secker-Walker, R.H., et al. (1992). Prevention of Cigarette

    Smoking Through Mass Media Intervention and School Programs. American Journal of Public Health, 82(6): 827-834.

Hastings GB and MacFadyen L (2000). Keep Smiling: No one's going to die. An

    analysis of internal documents from the tobacco industry's main UK advertising

    agencies. The Centre for Tobacco Control Research and the Tobacco Control

    Resource Centre. London: British Medical Association. ISBN 0-7279-1600-9

Florida “Truth” Campaign (State of Florida, USA)

    Assessing Program Impacts, 1998-1999: Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. (1999).


    Department of Health.

Murray, D.M., Prokhorov, A.V., Harty, K.C., et al. (1994). Effects of a Statewide

    Antismoking Campaign on Mass Media Messages and Smoking Beliefs. Preventive Medicine , 23(1): 54-60.

J. Rugkåsa, O. Kennedy, M. Barton, P. S. Abaunza, M. P. Treacy, and B. Knox .

    (2001). Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes, Health Education Research, 16, 131-142.

Simon Chapman and Amanda Dominello. (2001). A strategy for increasing news

    media coverage of tobacco and health in Australia. Health Promotion International,

    16, 137-143.

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    review of options. Health Education Journal, 55(1): 31-54.

    Campaign for Tobacco-free Kids.

Do Like a Man, Die Like a Man: Men, Masculinity & Health Campaigns

    Men and AIDS - a gendered approach: 2000 World AIDS Campaign; Published by

    UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Changing the Attitudes and Behaviours of Men through Social Marketing

    Case studies from the International Council on Management of Population


Babes, Wives, Maids, And Whores: Gendered Social Change

G Durham. (2001). Displaced Persons: Symbols of South Asian Femininity and the

    Returned Gaze in U.S. Media Culture, Communication Theory, 11, 201-217.

Howze Harper, E., Broyden, R.R., and Impara, J.C. (1992). Using Informal

    Caregivers to Communicate with Women About Mammography. Health Communication, 4(3): 227-244.

Steven Prentice-Dunn, Donna L. Floyd, and James M. Flournoy. (2001). Effects of

    persuasive message order on coping with breast cancer information. Health Education Research, 16, 81-84.

Robert A. C. Ruiter, Gerjo Kok, Bas Verplanken, and Johannes Brug. (2001).

    Evoked fear and effects of appeals on attitudes to performing breast self-

    examination: an information-processing perspective. Health Education Research, 16,


Rebecca W Tardy . (1998). Getting "plugged in": A network analysis of health-

    information seeking among "stay-at-home moms". Communication Monographs,

    65(4), 336-358.

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    Strategies for Social Change, Journal of Communication, 49, 46-68.

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