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    Book4

    Unit One

Teaching Aims and Requirements:

    1) Get the students familiar with some useful expressions and the active words: penetrate, keen, propose, deserve tender, impose on, count on, make a fuss about, run down, drink to, yield to. 2) Explain some grammatical points and useful expressions to help the students catch idiomatic usage of some new word and enrich their vocabulary.

    3) Analyze the structure of the text to help the students improve their reading comprehension. 4) Do exercises to check what they have learnt in class.

    5) To give students a good opportunity to make speeches and to practice their oral English 6)Help students develop a good attitude toward marriage and love, to keep reasonable forever. 7) Learn one reading skill: read between the lines.

    Teaching procedure:

    1. Get the students warmed up by introducing a famous film :The Bridges of Madsion County 2. Have a group discussion on extramarital love and the temptations to us

    3. Explain the new words of section A.

    4. Analyze the text, including the difficult sentences and the text structure.. 5. Sum up the text: underline some useful expressions mentioned in the text, give a summary of

    the whole passage.

    6. Do the exercises and check the answers.

    7. Teach the new words of section B.

    8. Analyze the text and do the exercises.

    Teaching Methods and Time Arrangement:

    Unit one (350minutes,7 periods of time); the students-centered method

    Passage A The Temptation of a Respectable Women

    Part one:Preparation

    Listening to a short passage and then answer the following questions

    Initially Mrs. Baroda found her husband’s friend’s silence both puzzling and boring. Her husband, Gaston, had informed her that his friend, Gouvernail, would be staying at the plantation for a few weeks and that he had a great wit. But she found his solemn silence lacking in any interest. The truth was, however, that he was a run-down, exhausted man merely seeking a short rest from overwork. Once he opened up and revealed his true personality, Mrs. Baroda was surprised and shocked by the temptation and desire he created in her, a respectable married woman. She felt it best to depart from the plantation as soon as possible.

    1.Why was Gaston’s friend, Gouvernail, staying at the plantation?

    Because he was exhausted and run down by too much work, and he came here just to seek a

    short rest from over work.

    2.What did Mrs. Baroda think of Gouvernail?

    At first, in the eyes of Mrs. Baroda, Gouvernail, puzzling and boring, was far from a man of

    wit as her husband used to tell her. But one night on her plantation, her conversation with

    him changed her attitude toward him from dislike to desire for an intimacy with him. 3.Why did Mrs. Baroda leave the plantation?

    Mrs. Baroda chose to leave the plantation, because Mrs. Baroda was surprised and shocked

    to feel a strong temptation and desire her husband’s friend created in her, and, as a

    respectable married woman, she did not want that temptation to go out of control. 4.What do you know about temptation?

    Ways of thinking:

     1. What is temptation?

     2. Where does it stem from?

     3. What does it do with us?

     All temptation is an attack that falls upon you anytime and from anywhere. You may not find the same attack as you have now to encounter; but you will surely meet with attacks of some other kind, which you still find equally hard to withstand. According to Wilde, you can resist everything except temptation. Temptation is also something that you crave for now but regret later. In this light, it is intended to challenge your willpower, exploit your weak-nesses, and hit when you least expect it. Just as fire tries iron, temptation tries a just man.

    Now that temptation has found its way into every facet of our life and no one is immune to its attacks, it is wise of us to get to its root. In general, temptation stems from three major sources: lust for sensual pleasures, desire for material comfort and zeal for domination of others. As seen in extreme cases, burning thirst for sensual enjoyment tempts you to drain yourself of every shame; undue hunger for material wealth leads you to deprive your life of anything more vital than money; and unbridled ambition for power drives you to stop at nothing in climbing to it. 5.How to fight temptation?

    Ways of thinking:

     1. What kind of temptation attracts us most now?

     2. How to guard against a variety of temptations?

    That depends entirely upon circumstances. Cold teaches one to steal charcoal while poverty forces one to take the bread out of another’s mouth. Once a boy feels it too long to sit at his desk three minutes but thinks it too short to idle around with an attractive girl three hours, he is said to focus too much desire on sensual pleasure. If an official is best at polishing apples for his/her superiors, he/she is seized with deep hunger for power. Whenever we find one labor for money day and night, regardless of his health or larger interests of others, we can view him/her as a slave to the zeal for material.

    So it can be concluded that none of us can escape from the clutches of temptation, just as no one can take fire in his/her bosom without his clothes being burned. The problem is how to prevent such a fire from running wild in our hearts. My way out of its clutches is to map out in mind a set of principles as a guide to every conduct in life. Then all that needs to be done is to act upon the principles of conduct, within which boundaries, for example, beauty, no matter how alluring, is not for abuse but for appreciation. In sum, if we remain as true to our principles as ever, temptation can do nothing with us.

    Part Two: New Words

    idle

    a. 1. without any particular purpose

    an idle glance

    I don't know why I asked just idle curiosity.

    2. (of people) unwilling to work or be involved in any activity; lazy; wasting time

Men are left idle when machines break down.

    There are few idle people in their department.

    3. not working or operating productively

    We can't afford to have all this expensive machinery lying idle. The new financial supervisor intends to make full use of the company's idle capital.

    observation

    n. 1. [C] a spoken or written remark based on sth. one has seen, heard, or otherwise observed

    He made some interesting observations on the current economic situation. She made a few general observations about my work.

    2. [U,C] the action of watching sb. / sth. carefully; recording of what one observes

    close and careful observation of an animal's behavior The patient was kept under observation all night.

    They have published their observations of these birds. melt

    v. 1. slowly go away or disappear

    Her anger melted away when she read the letter.

    The crowd of demonstrators melted away when the police arrived. 2.cause toturn from sth. solid into sth. soft or liquid The spring sun usually melts the snow by mid March. It was so hot that the butter started to melt.

    keen

    a. 1. extreme; strong; active

    a keen eye

    a keen desire

    Many people are taking a keen interest in the result of the vote. 2. very interested; eager or wanting (to do) sth. very much He wanted to go to a movie but I wasn't keen.

    We were keen about going to the picnic.

    She's keen on (playing) tennis.

    overcome

    v. 1. defeat or succeed in controlling or dealing with (sth.) overcome the enemy

    overcome a bad habit

    2. make helpless or weak by smoke, fumes, or feelings She was overcome with emotion.

    deserve

    v. have earned by one's actions or character; be worthy of After all that hard work you deserve a holiday.

    He deserves our special thanks for all his efforts. Your suggestion deserves to be considered seriously. Some points in this report deserve being discussed in more detail. Part three:Structure analysis

    1.What is the text mainly about?

    At first, Mrs. Baroda didn’t like her husband’s friend, Gouvernail, whom she found far from a man of wit but a dull man hard to read. One night, however, a conversation between them opened up and revealed his true personality, which proved to be a strong temptation to her, a respectable woman. But in the end, she withstood and overcame that temptation. 2.How is the text organized?

     This reading passage is made up of several episodes organized according to time sequence, with the episodes centered on the narration, through cause-and-effect, of the changes in Mrs. Baroda’s emotion and attitude concerning her husband’s friend, Gouvernail. The whole process undergoes several distinct stages.

    Mrs. Baroda’s strong dislike for the man Paras. 1-10

    Her inner desire to get close to the man Paras. 11-18

    Her sensible resolve to move away from him Paras. 19-20

    Her further struggle against the temptation Para. 21

    Victory of her reason over the temptation Paras. 22-24

    Part I (Para. 1) : Mrs. Baroda was unhappy to know that Gouvernail, her husband’s friend, would come to stay on their plantation. (The story began with the narration of Mrs. Baroda’s

    psychological reaction to Gouvernail’s arrival.)

    Part II (Paras. 2-10): Mrs. Baroda felt puzzled about Gouvernail’s quiet personality and

    disappointed at being unable to penetrate his silence. (Cause-and-effect因果法)

    Effect: Gouvernail’s quiet personality puzzled Mrs. Baroda.

    Cause 1: After a few days with the guest, ___ _______________.

    Cause 2: She left her husband and his guest alone together but she found ______________. Cause 3: She imposed her company upon him and___________________ but without success. Part III (Paras. 11-20): One night Gouvernail came to sit beside Mrs. Baroda and talked about his past and present. His talk and voice was so great an appeal to her that she desired to touch him. But, she withstood the temptation and chose to stay away from her house. Deduction (演绎法)

    Part IV (Paras. 21); Despite her husband’s strong desire for Gouvernail’s another visit, Mrs. Baroda was bitterly opposed to it, which implies her further struggle against the temptation. Explanation (解释法)

    some talk: These two words conveys the general message concerning “having him back…”

    That is: This is a functional expression indicating that the following, as details, will serve to make the general message specific.

    Part V (Paras. 22-24): Before the year ended, Mrs. Baroda proposed, from the bottom of her heart, to have Gouvernail visit them again. For she had overcome everything, including the temptation. Dialogue (对话法)

    Para23:This sounds like an easy change of attitude. The husband is not aware of the fierce emotional struggle at all that his wife has experienced.

    para24: This means far more than what the husband called dislike. Rather, it is an announcement of emotional relief, behind which existed a painful and even shameful experience. Here the whole story ends up with the dialogue between the couple. For the husband’s part, it is no more than a change of his wife’s attitude to have Gouvernail come again. For the wife’s part, however, it is a noble victory of sense over temptation (理智对诱惑的辉煌胜利), which holds

    great significance for reality. In the dialogue, the key point lies in the different understandings of two wordsdislike and everything.

    Writing in chronological order is common in narrative, where events are presented according to time sequence. This kind of writing is much used in telling stories, in brief biographical and autobiographical sketches. This reading passage is made up of several episodes arranged according to time sequence even though the author employs many different writing techniques, especially cause-and-effect in developing the episodes. Look at the following chart and you will find that the story is structured according to time sequence as a whole.

    the second version: 1. The first part of the passage is Paragraph 1, which is the general situation of the story and also the starting point of the story. Mrs. Baroda was a little annoyed that her husband’s friend, Gouvernail, was to spend a week or two on their plantation.

     2. The second part consists of 9 paragraphs, from Paragraph 2 to Paragraph 10, telling us what happened and informing us about Mrs. Baroda's impressions of her guest Gouvernail. The

    descriptions are presented in chronological order. Paragraph 2 deals with Mrs. Baroda’s impression of her guest she was feeling puzzled, not being able to penetrate her silent guest. Paragraphs 3 to 10 are about a conversation between Mr. and Mrs. Baroda concerning their guest Gouvernail. Mrs. Baroda was troubled to find Gouvernail a terrible nuisance not a man of

    wit, but a dull man difficult to understand.

     Time markers: after a few days, then, one day, in the morning, until, etc.

     3. The third part is made up of 9 paragraphs, from Paragraph 11 to Paragraph 19, concentrating on what happened “that night”. The author uses a succession of verbs and adverbs to describe what happened that night in chronological order. In this part, the author also describes some sort of emotional change in Mrs. Baroda but all this came along with a succession of actions.

     Time markers: that night, the next morning, then, when, etc.

     4. The fourth part is Paragraph 20 only. Paragraph 20 is about what happened the day after “that night”. The next morning, Mrs. Baroda took an early train without even saying farewell. She

    did not return until Gouvernail was gone.

     Time markers: the next morning, not return until

     5. The fifth part is Paragraph 21. Paragraph 21 describes what happened during the time after “that night”. During the summer that followed, Mr. Baroda greatly desired that his friend should

    come to visit them again but this was vigorously opposed by Mrs. Baroda.

     Time marker: during the summer that followed

     6. The sixth part consists of Paragraph 22 to Paragraph 24, which is the continuing part of the story, still, according to time sequence. Before the year ended, Mrs. Baroda proposed to have Gouvernail visit them again as she had overcome everything.

     Time marker: before the year ended

    Part Four: Language Points

    1.Mrs. Baroda was a little annoyed to learn that her husband expected his friend, Gouvernail, up to spend a week or two on the plantation. (Para. 1)

    Meaning: Mrs. Baroda felt a bit angry when she knew that her husband wanted his friend, Gouvernail, to spend a week or two on the farm.

    2. Mrs. Baroda was a little annoyed to learn …(Para. 1)

    Please note that "annoyed" is modified by "a little". "Annoyed" can also be modified by other adverbs, like "somewhat / very / a bit / pretty / much / rather / quite", etc. I was a bit annoyed, for I forgot to put your name on.

    Eventually a senior official arrived for talks with the police, somewhat annoyed that he hadn't

been told of where the talks would be held.

    3.After a few days with him, she could understand him no better than at first. (Para. 2) Meaning: After a few days with him on her plantation, she knew no more about Gouvernail than at the very beginning.

    4. she could understand him no better than at first. (Para. 2)

    Here "no" means "not at all", and can be used as an adverb before comparatives. The exam is no more difficult than the tests you've been doing in class.

    It's no colder today than it was yesterday but it's no warmer either.

    If you turned to domestic politics, the news was no better.

    Are you really fifty? You look no older than thirty-five.

    Some people can eat what they like and get no fatter.

    5. she imposed her company upon him, accompanying him in his idle walks to the mill …

    Meaning: … she forced him to accept her company no matter whether he liked it or not, taking aimless walks with him to the mill …

    6. to press her attempt to penetrate the silence in which he had unconsciously covered himself. Meaning: … and she tried to understand the reserve in which he had enveloped himself unintentionally.

    7. For my part, I find him a terrible nuisance. (Para. 3)

    Meaning: As far as I'm concerned, he annoys me a lot / he tires me frightfully. 8. "You are full of surprises," he said to her. "Even I can never count upon how you are going to act under given conditions." (Para. 7)

    Meaning: He told his wife that she was always saying / doing some unexpected things and he, as her husband, could never know how she would behave in a certain situation.

    9. he went on, "taking poor Gouvernail seriously and making a fuss about him, the last thing he would desire or expect." (Para. 7)

    Meaning: … he continued saying that she was paying too much attention to Gouvernail and showing too much anxiety about him. That was what Gouvernail disliked.

    10. She had never known her thoughts to be so confused; like the bats now above her, her thoughts quickly flew this way and that. (Para. 11)

    Meaning: Her thoughts were so confused, which she had never experienced before, and she could not concentrate her mind on anything.

    11.She could gather nothing from them but the feeling of a distinct necessity to leave her home the next morning. (Para. 11)

    Meaning: She could only feel that it was definitely necessary for her to leave her home the next morning.

    12. He seated himself upon the bench beside her, without a suspicion that she might object to his presence. (Para. 12)

    Meaning: He sat down on the bench beside her without suspecting that she might dislike his staying there.

    13.He made some routine observations upon the unhealthy effect of the night breeze at that season. Meaning: He made some regular comments on the negative effect of the night breeze of that season on people's health.

    14.Then as his gaze reached out into the darkness, he began to talk. (Para. 14) Meaning: Then as he looked into the dark, he began to talk.

    15.Now, all there was left with him was a desire to be permitted to exist, with now and then a little breath of genuine life, such as he was breathing now. (Para. 16)

    Meaning: Now, he only hoped to be allowed to live, enjoying the genuine life as he was doing just then from time to time.

    16.His words became a meaningless succession of verbs, nouns, adverbs, and adjectives; she only drank in the tones of his voice. (Para. 17)

    Meaning: His words came in verbs, nouns, adverbs and adjectives, which didn't make any sense to her, and she was only attracted by the tones of his voice.

    17.She wanted to reach out her hand in the darkness and touch him which she might have done

    if she had not been a respectable woman. (Para. 17)

    Note the structure "might have done" is used to say that if a particular thing had happened, then there was a possibility of something else happening. The structure "could have done" can also be used in this way.

    She said it might have been all right, if the weather had been good.

    He could have got tickets if he had arrived there earlier.

    18.Mrs. Baroda was greatly tempted that night to tell her husband who was also her friend

    of this foolishness that had seized her. (Para. 18)

    Meaning: That night, Mrs. Baroda would like very much to tell her husband about her feelings that suddenly and deeply affected her when she was with Gouvernail.

    19.There was some talk of having him back during the summer that followed. (Para. 21) Meaning: During the following summer they sometimes talked about inviting him to visit them again.

    20. but this desire yielded to his honorable wife's vigorous opposition. (Para. 21) Meaning: … he had to give up his desire to invite Gouvernail to visit them again because of his wife's strong objection.

    21.However, before the year ended, she proposed, wholly from herself, to have Gouvernail visit them again. (Para. 22)

    Meaning: However, before the end of the year, she suggested having Gouvernail visit them again completely out of her own will.

    Part five: a summary of the passage

    Gouvernail was in no sense a shy man. He talked freely and intimately in a low, hesitating voice that was not unpleasant to hear. Mrs. Baroda only vaguely grasped what he was saying. She only drank in the tones of his voice. As she listened to him, she felt a foolish feeling seize her. Only the fact that she was a respectable and upright woman stopped her from touching him. Her strength of character forced her physically away from him while her internal feelings tried to push her towards him. As soon as she could politely leave him she felt relieved. Sensibly Mrs. Baroda did not share with her husband the feelings she had experienced. She did resolve, however, to get away from the plantation as quickly as possible. The next morning she left early and took an early morning train to the city. In summer Gaston spoke of his friend returning but his wife would not yield to the idea. However, before the year was over, much to her husband’ssurprise, she suggested

    that Gouvernail return. At that moment only she herself knew why.

    Section B The Obligations and Responsibilities to Marriage

    Part One: background information

    Changes in modern family: Families have undergone a major transformation in the past

    generation and are poised to change even more in the coming century. Households will move further away from the family-structure model of a stay-at-home mother, working father, and children, according to a new report from the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. Because of divorce, cohabitation and single parenthood, a majority of families rearing children in the next century will probably not include the children's two original parents. Moreover, most households will not include children. Marriage has declined as people marry older and divorce and cohabit more. A growing proportion of children has been born outside of marriage. Even within marriage the changes have been profound as more and more women have entered the labor force and gender roles have become more homogenous between husbands and wives. Those changes are having an impact on how people think about family life, and as a result, the concept of family tends to be more elastic.

    Part two:New Words and phrases

    afterward(s)

    ad. after the time mentioned; later

    Let's go to the theatre first and eat afterwards.

    We had tea, and afterwards we sat in the garden for a while.

    transmission

    n. 1. [U] the action or process of transmitting or the state of being transmitted the transmission of news / disease

    2. [C] a radio or television broadcast

    a live transmission from Beijing

    Millions would hear that transmission.

    obligation

    n. [C] a duty; a law, a promise, an influence, etc. that makes it necessary for sb. to do sth. I haven't got time to do this work for him ? I've got too many obligations as it is.

    If you have not signed a contract, you are under no obligation to pay them any money. guarantee

    vt. promise with certainty

    The watch is guaranteed for three years.

    n. 1. [C] a thing that makes sth. certain to happen or be the case

    There is no guarantee that it will be nice weather tomorrow.

    2. [C] a formal declaration that sth. will be done, esp. a written agreement by the maker of an article to repair or replace it within a certain period of time

    The system costs $ 150, including postage, packing and a 12-month guarantee. worship

    n. [U] strong feelings of love, respect, and admiration

    He does not conceal his skepticism about a worship of universities that hold the superiority of the academic over the practical, of the pure over the applied.

    v. 1. have a strong feeling of respect and admiration for people or objects, often without being aware of their faults

    As a child, I worshipped my elder brother.

    worship power / money

    2. have or show a strong feeling of respect and admiration for God or a god; go to a religious ceremony

They worship regularly.

    elastic

    a. 1. flexible; not fixed

    Our plans are fairly elastic.

    My timetable for this week is fairly elastic.

    2. able to spring back into the original size or shape after being stretched or bent

    This swimming costume is made of elastic material.

    sacrifice

    n. [U] the action of giving up sth. that one values for the sake of sth. more important or valuable

    a mother's day-to-day sacrifices for her children

    We had to make sacrifices and go without entertainment in order to pay for our children's

    education.

    v. give up (sth. that is valuable) for sth. more important or valuable He sacrificed his life trying to save the child from the burning house. The people are prepared to sacrifice everything to achieve victory. pursue

    vt. 1. try to achieve

    pursue happiness

    She is ruthless in pursuing her goals / aims / objectives. They tried to pursue peace with him.

    2. follow or search for (sb. / sth.) in order to catch or kill them The police pursued the wrong car.

    scatter

    v. (cause to) move far apart in different directions, or spread widely in all directions

    The students scattered in all directions.

    The soldiers came in and scattered the crowd.

    acknowledge

    vt. accept, admit or recognize

    She acknowledged that she had been at fault.

    You must acknowledge the truth of her argument.

    regulate

    vt. 1. control by means of rules and restrictions

    His mother strictly regulates how much TV he can watch. He has a well-regulated lifestyle.

    2. adjust

    Please regulate the sound of the radio.

    You can regulate the temperature in the house by adjusting the thermostat and radiators.

    subject ... to (usu. passive) make sb. experience sth. unpleasant In recent years, she has been subjected to attacks of depressions. They have been subjected to unjust treatment for too long. take offense feel upset or insulted

    Your parents will take offence if you leave early.

    He takes offence at the slightest criticism.

    if anything if anything definite can be said, this is it

Your suggestion could only make things worse if anything.

    The weather forecast is not for warmer weather; if anything, it is expected to be cooler. get out of hand get out of control

    When they arrived there, the angry crowd had already got out of hand.

    come apart fail or stop working effectively; separate into pieces

    How is it that the umbrella has come apart?

    I picked up the old book and it just came apart in my hands.

    throw in

    When they bought the house, the carpets and curtains were thrown in at no extra charge. by virtue of be cause of

    She succeeded by virtue of her hard work rather than her talent.

    The player defeated his rivals by virtue of greater experience.

    go off leave

    She went off to look at the flowers.

    He had gone off to work.

    take out one's anger on sb. treat sb. badly because one is upset or angry, even though they have done nothing wrong

    She tended to take her frustrations out on children.

    OK, so you had a bad day. Don't take it out on me.

    take on accept a particular job or responsibility and begin to do what is needed Don't take on more than you can handle.

    When I took this job on I didn't expect it to take all this time.

    Part three: Language Points

    1.At dinner afterwards I was subjected to a hostile quizzing by a group of women in their thirties who claimed that my whole analysis ignored the most basic change of all. (Para. 1) Meaning: At the following dinner I was questioned in an unfriendly manner by a group of women in their thirties, who stated that my whole analysis failed to consider the most basic aspect of family change.

    2.Marriage and having kids were now irrelevant, and in their opinion, that was the most basic social change. (Para. 2)

    Meaning: Marriage and having kids were not necessarily related to what was called a family, and in their view, that was the most basic social change of all.

    3.Looking back on it, I find they were right, but this rising tide of change is itself the problem. Meaning: When I think about what they said, I find they were right, but this trend of change itself creates some problems.

    4. Family is, if anything, the link between generations, … (Para. 3)

    Meaning: Family can be defined as the link between generations …

    5. It's not just a "big stadium" where everyone can enjoy the show. (Para. 3) Meaning: Family is not a place where everyone can come to have their enjoyment and then go, but a place where parents have their duty and responsibility.

    6.Both marriage and family involve long-term obligations and responsibility for shared care, not just the search of happiness, that hollow goal of the modern age. (Para. 3) Meaning: Both marriage and family include as their important parts long-term duties and responsibility to take care of each other, not just looking for happiness, which is an empty goal of

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