Unit 5 Book four
Choose to Be Alone on Purpose
After learning this unit, Ss are supposed to be able to
? talk about the advantages and disadvantages of living alone
? find out two contrasting sides of solitude
? grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the texts in Section A and B . ? learn to write a short composition of comparisons
? improve their reading skill---- Recognizing paragraph patterns (II)
? conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities.
st nd1and 2 period------ Pre-reading Activities
rdth3 and 4 period------While-reading Activities
thth5 and 6 period -----Post-reading Activities and Section B
th th7and 8 period------Listening and Speaking
I. Important Points
A. Key words and phrases:
Section A: solitary, tame, inspiration, ego, humble, soak, waterproof, choke, supreme, seal,
on purpose, cast out, speak highly of, stretch out, back up, might as well do sth. Section B: vibrate, stale,depression, tolerate, undergraduate, abstract, resort, slap, strike out,
cut up, end up, spring from, resort to, head off
B. Key Sentence Patterns
1) The more modest and humble we feel, the more we suffer from solitude, feeling ourselves
2)It may not be where we expected to be ,but for the time being we might as well call it home.
II. Difficult Points
1.Some of us divorced, some widowed, some never yet committed.
I. Pre-reading Activities
A. Warm-up activities
? a) Work in pairs to discuss the following questions to learn about the advantages and
disadvantages of living alone
1)Which would you prefer, living alone or living with other people?
2) Do you long for being likeable in social life? What are the advantages of it?
3) What qualities do you need to achieve this ?
4) What do you think is the best way to live well?
5) What are the disadvantages of living alone?
6) Why are we eager for interacting with each other?
b) Work in groups to discuss the following questions.
1) What problems do you have in living alone or living with other people? 2) What other things do you think we can gain through living alone?
3) Why do you think living alone can help you in learning knowledge?
From our discussions, different conclusions can be drawn as follows:
1) First of all, you need to make a strong connection to your “best self”. The stronger
connection you have to your best self now, the greater attraction you will hold to others.
Secondly, you need to find in yourself as much grace and virtue in common with others as
possible. Such common ground can offer you more chances to share your expertise and
talents with others, thus leaving more of your mark on them. Thirdly, you need to breed
optimism.he quality of being optimistic enables you to seek opportunity for those stuck in
2) In addition, our modern social life requires more of our interaction with each other. Faced
with growing heat of competition in every field of our life, we need more frequent
interactive activities between us to improve our competence in struggle for survival and
meanwhile separate the superior from the inferior. In reality, however, we count much more
on cooperation for a better existence of our nation. All-round interplay between areas of
study in science and technology makes more and more room for coordination between us.
Another attribute of the likable person is optimism. There is an old saying, “The pessimist
sees the difficulty in every opportunity and the optimist sees the opportunity in every
difficulty.” If you are optimistic about life, others like to turn to you for help when they are
stuck in straits.
3) And the most weighty quality is the ability to make others comfortable. The likable people
prefer to keep their emotions under control but put others‟ at ease. Underlying this ability is
the sense of humor that fills others‟ life up with joy.
4)Last, certainly not the least, you need to cultivate the ability to make others comfortable.
Underlying this ability is the sense of humor that fills up others‟ world with happiness. To
sum up, the qualities of being at your best, sharing common ground with others, being
optimistic, and keeping others comfortable, as mentioned above, will place you on the way
to being the kind of person others enjoy being around
B. Background Information
1). William Wordsworth:
Wordsworth (1770—1850), English poet, the leading figure of the English romantic poetry Orphaned at 13, Wordsworth attended Cambridge Univ., but remained rootless and virtually penniless until 1795, when a legacy made possible a reunion with his sister D. Wordsworth. He became friends with S. T. Coleridge, with whom he wrote Lyrical Ballads (1798), the collection often considered to have launched the English Romantic Movement.Wordsworth‟s contributions
include “Tintern Abbey” and many lyrics controversial for their common, everyday language. Around 1798 he began writing the epic autobiographical poem that would absorb him intermittently for the next 40 years, The Prelude (1850). His second verse collection, Poems, in Two Volumes (1807), includes many of the rest of his finest works, including Ode: Intimations of Immortality. His poetry is perhaps most original in its vision of the almost divine power of the creative imagination reforging the links between man and man, between humankind and the natural world.The most memorable poems of his middle and late years were often cast in elegiac mode; few match the best of his earlier works. By the time he became widely appreciated by the critics and the public, his poetry had lost most of its force and his radical politics had yielded to conservatism. In 1843 he became England‟s poet laureate. He is regarded as the central figure in the initiation of English Romanticism.He had produced some of English poetry's greatest works and influenced future generations of poets. He was born in Cockermouth ，a town in the
northern Lakes：?educated at Hawkshead Grammar school?and spent much of his adult life in
Grasmere and Rydal； right in the heart of the Lake District. He died at Rydal Mount in 1850；
and is buried,with his family,in Grasmere churchyard. He was witness to great social ,political and artistic change and his experiences and attitudes are reflected not only in his poetry, but also in letters and prose works. The most important contribution he has made is that he has not only started the modern poetry, the poetry of the growing inner self, but also changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the language and by advocating a return to nature. 2) John Milton
John Milton: English poet (1608 —1674). Milton attended Cambridge University (1625
—1632), where he wrote poems in Latin, Italian, and English; these included L‟Allegro and Il Penseroso, both published later in Poems (1645). During 1632—1638 he engaged in private
study— writing the masque Comus (1637) and the extraordinary elegy Lycidas (1638)—and
toured Italy.Concerned with the Puritan cause in England, he spent much of 1641—1660
pamphleteering for civil and religious liberty and serving in Oliver Cromwell's government. His
best-known prose is in the pamphlets Areopagitica (1644), on freedom of the press, and Of Education (1644). He lost his sight in the year of 1651, and thereafter dictated his works. His disastrous first marriage ended with his wife‟s death in 1652; two later marriages were more
successful. After the Restoration he was arrested as a noted defender of the Commonwealth, but was soon released. In Paradise Lost (1667), his epic masterpiece on the Fall of Man written in blank verse, he uses his sublime “grand style” with superb power; his characterization of Satan is a supreme achievement. He further expressed his purified faith in God and the regenerative strength of the individual soul in Paradise Regained (1671), an epic in which Christ overcomes Satan the tempter, and Samson Agonistes (1671), a tragedy in which the Old Testament figure conquers self-pity and despair to become God‟s champion. Considered second only to W.
Shakespeare in the history of English-language poetry, Milton had an immense influence on later literature; though attacked early in the 20th century, he had regained his place in the Western canon by mid-century.
3) Henry David Thoreau:
Thoreau ,U.S. thinker, essayist, and naturalist (1817 —1862). Born in Concord,
Mass., Thoreau graduated from Harvard University and taught school for several years before deciding to become a poet of nature.Back in Concord, he came under the influence of R. W. Emerson and began to publish pieces in the Transcendentalist magazine The Dial.In the years 1845 —1847, to demonstrate how satisfying a
simple life could be, he lived in a hut beside Concord‟s Walden Pond; essays recording his daily life were assembled for his masterpiece, Walden (1854). His A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849) was the only other book he published in his lifetime. He reflected on a night he spent in jail protesting the Mexican-American War in the essay Civil Disobedience (1849), which would later influence such figures as M. Gandhi and M. L. King.In later years his interest in Transcendentalism waned and he became a dedicated abolitionist. His many nature writings and records of his wanderings in Canada, Maine, and Cape Cod display the mind of a keen naturalist. After his death his collected writings were published in 20 volumes, and further writings have continued to appear in prints.
Thoreau was an early advocate of recreational hiking and canoing, of conserving natural resources on private land, and of preserving wilderness as public land. Thoreau was also one of the first American supporters of Darwin's theory of evolution. He was not a strict vegetarian, though he said he preferred that dietand advocated it as a means of self-improvement. Thoreau neither rejected civilization nor fully embraced wilderness. Instead he sought a middle ground, the pastoral realm that integrates both nature and culture. The wildness he enjoyed was the nearby swamp or forest, and he preferred “partially cultivated country.” His idea of
being “far in the recesses of the wilderness” of Maine was to “travel the logger‟s
path and the Indian trail,” but he also hiked on pristine untouched land.
4) Seven sins
It is said that these seven sins will not be forgiven easily and you will be sentenced to death if you just commit one of them
Each meal, you can just feed yourself seven tenth. That is enough.If you eat too much,you will expand your throat and even magnify your stomache.You will have some diseases in your throat and all over your body.So,do not eat too much,not for slimmer just for healthier.
Maybe that is all the humans' common points.Enough is enough.Although everyone knows it clearly.If you want get too much,on the other hand,you will lose too much.Finally,you will not find the original feature of youe life. Sloth.
Some of the thing,we can not do it,not for our limited ability but for sloth.Practice makes perfect.Just try your best to do it more and more,you will gain all the achievements.bandon the sloth and follow diligence ,life will be better Pride.
Modesty helps one go forward, whereas conceit makes one go backward.Do not be pride,that is not the virtue of human.Do not be pride,if so,you will pay too much for it. Do not be pride,it will make you lose yourself.
It is said that impulsion is devil. It will propel yopu to do wrongs.But why do people become impetuous? All because of wrath.
Lust is very similar to lost.So,if you just indulge in sex ,you will get lost.And all your life will be in a big mess.
Just keep far away from the ones who are jealous.He will not envy for your comfortable life,he will try his best to destoy it.Be cautious! Take good care of youself.If there are this kind of people around you.
C. Key Words and Their Collocations
1. solitary adj.1)Existing, living, or going without others; alone
2)Happening, done, or made alone
3) Remote from civilization; secluded
Collocation:— a solitary traveler. 单独的游客
— a solitary evening; solitary pursuits 唯一的夜晚?独自的追求
— a solitary retreat .隐居处
n. A person who lives alone; a recluse.
Word Building: solitude
solitude n. 1： The state or quality of being alone or remote from others.
2： A lonely or secluded place.
Synonym: solitude； isolation； seclusion； retirement
These nouns denote the state of being alone. 这些名词都表示处于单独一人的状态。
Solitude implies the absence of all others.
Isolation emphasizes total separation or detachment from others. Seclusion suggests removal or a setting apart from others, though not necessarily complete
inaccessibility; the term often connotes a withdrawal from social contact.
Retirement suggests a withdrawal from active life or to a retreat, as for serenity or privacy.
— The worst solitude is to be destitute of sincere friendship.
— The beast and the monk, robbed of the isolation that is life to either, will die. — After the funeral the widow and family spent several days in seclusion.
—June’s colleagues arranged a surprise party for her retirement.
2. tame adj.(tamer； tamest)
1)Brought from wildness into a domesticated or tractable stat
2)Naturally unafraid; not timid:
3)Submissive; docile; faing:
5)Sluggish; languid; inactive:
Collocation: —tame obedience. 奉承的顺从
—a tame Christmas party平淡无味的圣诞聚会
—a tame river. 一条潺潺缓流的河流
tame v.tr. (tamed； taming； tames)
1) To make tractable; domesticat
2) To subdue or curb
3)To tone down; soften.
Collocation: —tame nature 征服大自然
—tame the crowds制服人群
—tame a tiger 驯服老虎
3. inspiration n. 1：Stimulation of the mind or emotions to a high level of feeling or activity.
2：The condition of being so stimulated.
3：An agency, such as a person or work of art, that moves the intellect or
emotions or prompts action or invention.
4：Something, such as a sudden creative act or idea, that is inspired.
—a painting full of inspiration 充满灵感的绘画
—a flash of inspiration 灵感的闪现
—His work lacks inspiration. 他的作品缺乏灵感。
Word Building: inspire( v.)
inspire v.tr. (inspired； inspiring； inspires)
1) To affect, guide, or arouse by divine influence
2)To fill with enlivening or exalting emotion
3)To stimulate to action; motivate:
4)To affect or touch:
5)To draw forth; elicit or arouse:
6)To be the cause or source of; bring about:
Collocation: —an artist who was inspired by Impressionism.受印象派鼓舞的艺术家
—a sales force that was inspired by the prospect of a bonus
—The falling leaves inspired her with sadness. 落叶触动了她的伤感
—a teacher who inspired admiration and respect. 博得欣赏和尊敬的教师
—an invention that inspired many imitations. 招致很多仿造品的发明
v.intr. 1)To stimulate energies, ideals, or reverence:
2) To inhale. 吸入
— a leader who inspires by example. 一位身体力行的领袖
4. ego n.，egos：1. The self, especially as distinct from the world and other selves.自我；自己?
2. In psychoanalysis, the division of the psyche that is conscious, most
immediately controls thought and behavior, and is most in touch with external
3. An exaggerated sense of self-importance; conceit.自负?过度的自我重要感?
4. Appropriate pride in oneself; self-esteem. 自尊心?适度的自我骄傲?
superegos n.. In Freudian theory, the division of the psyche that is formed through the internalization of moral standards of parents and society, and censors and restrains the ego. Mostly unconscious, it is composed of the ego ideal and the conscience. 超我?弗洛伊德理论中
id n. In Freudian theory, the division of the psyche that is totally unconscious and serves as the source of instinctual impulses and demands for immediate satisfaction of primitive needs.
5. humble adj.，humbler； humblest：
1. Marked by meekness or modesty in behavior, attitude, or spirit; not arrogant or prideful.
谦逊的；谦卑的?以行为、态度或精神方面的温顺和谦卑为特征的?不傲慢的 2. Showing deferential or submissive respect:低声下气的；顺服的?表现出谦卑的 3. Low in rank, quality, or station; unpretentious or lowly:下贱的；朴实无华的?在级别
Collocation: — a humble apology. 低声下气的道歉
— a humble cottage.一座简陋的小屋
—a very humble man一位非常谦虚的人
— the man’s behavior这人谦恭的举止
v.tr.，humbled； humbling； humbles：
1：To curtail or destroy the pride of; humiliate.贬抑；使自卑
2：To cause to be meek or modest in spirit.使柔顺；使谦和
3：To give a lower condition or station to; abase.See Synonyms at degrade 压低；降低?
6. soak v. 1：To make thoroughly wet or saturated by or as if by placing in liquid.使浸透
2：To immerse in liquid for a period of time.浸?浸在水中过一段时间
3：To absorb (liquid, for example) through or as if through pores or interstices.吸?通
4：Informal To take in or accept mentally, especially eagerly and easily:吸收?精神上
Collocation: —soaked out the grease spots.把油渍浸洗掉
—soaked up the gossip.轻信闲话
v.intr. 1： To be immersed until thoroughly saturated. 浸泡?浸泡直到完全浸透
2：To penetrate or permeate; seep: 渗透或浸透?渗出?
— The speaker paused to let her words soak in.
n. 1：The act or process of soaking.浸湿?浸湿的动作或过程
2：The condition of being soaked.浸湿性?被浸湿的状态
7. waterproof adj. 1：Impervious to or unaffected by water.防水的?不透水或不为水所影响的
2： Made of or coated or treated with rubber, plastic, or a sealing agent to
prevent penetration by water. 用防水材料处理过的?以防止漏水而用橡胶、
Collocation: — air pervious waterproof fabric 透气雨布。
—shaped waterproof watch case 定型防水表壳。
—waterproof abrasive paper 水砂纸,水磨砂纸。
—waterproof cement 防水水泥。
—waterproof cloth 防水布。
n. 1：A material or fabric that is impervious to water.防水材料?不透水的材料或织物
2：Chiefly British A raincoat or other such outer garment. 雨衣或其它这样的外套 v.tr. (waterproofed； waterproofing； waterproofs)To make impervious to water.使不透水
proof adj. Fully or successfully resistant; impervious. Often used in combination:
耐…的；防…的?完全地或成功地抵制的?不能穿透的。常用于合成词中? Word Building:—waterproof防水的
— acid proof抗酸性,耐酸性。
— blast proof防弹的。
—childproof对儿童安全的?去除或改变可能的危险因素做成对儿童安全的? 8~choke v.tr. 1. To interfere with the respiration of by compression or obstruction of the
larynx or trachea.阻止
2. To check or slow down the movement, growth, or action of停止；放慢
3. To block up or obstruct by filling or clogging堵塞；阻碍
4. To fill up completely; jam:把…装得满满的?塞满
—Major commuter arteries were choked with stalled traffic.
—a garden that was choked by weeds.因杂草丛生而荒芜的花园
—Mud choked the drainpipe.淤泥堵塞了下水道 9~supreme adj.，supremer； supremest 缩写 supr：
1： Greatest in power, authority, or rank; paramount or dominant.至上的或居于统治地位的 2： Greatest in importance, degree, significance, character, or achievement.最重要的 3：Ultimate; final:极度的?终极的?最后的?
Collocation: — the supreme sacrifice .最后的牺牲
—Supreme Court 最高法院。
— supreme being 上帝。
— supreme end 最高的目的,至善。
—supreme good 最高的目的,至善。
10~seal n. 1) A die or signet having a raised or incised emblem used to stamp an impression on
a receptive substance such as wax or lead.印章?
2)The impression so made.封印?这样形成的印记
3)The design or emblem itself, belonging exclusively to the user:印信?图案或
4) A small disk or wafer of wax, lead, or paper bearing such an imprint and affixed
to a document to prove authenticity or to secure it.封缄?
—a monarch's seal.皇帝的御玺
v.tr. (sealed； sealing； seals)
1) To affix a seal to in order to prove authenticity or attest to accuracy, legal weight,
quality, or another standard.盖章?盖章并以此证明其真实性准确性
2) To close with or as if with a seal.封固加印?用印章或类似东西封
3) To apply a waterproof coating to:加封?给…盖上一层防水层
4)To establish or determine irrevocably:注定；确定?不可取消地建立或决定?
5)To close tightly or surround with a barricade or cordon:封锁?
—seal a blacktop driveway.在马路铺沥青
—Our fate was sealed.我们的命运是上天注
—An unused wing of the hospital was sealed off.一个未启用的医院侧厅被封锁了
Synonym: close endorse fasten lock mark shut sign stamp
Word Building: unseal
unseal v.tr.，unsealed； unsealing； unseals) To break or remove the seal of; open.
II. While-reading Activities
A. Fast reading and try to grasp the main idea of the text
As a sort of US national disease, lots of people are living alone, some divorced, some widowed and some never yet committed. But to be alone on purpose is of American hero. Solitude is liked by poets and philosophers for inspiration, and improved by being voluntary. Although those living with others may enjoy temporary solitude, those living in solitude may suffer from the need to talk, thus behaving strangely and talking at length to themselves or to their pets. The best cure for this is to stay rational, settle down and find grace and pleasure in one‟s own condition.
B. Structure Analysis
The whole passage falls into 4 parts:
Part I (para.1): Living alone is a common social phenomenon in USA.
Part II (para.2): While many people think living in solitude may be a sort of national disease,
others take it as a characteristic of an American hero.
Part III (para3-10): Poets and philosophers are for inspiration in solitude, which is improved
by being voluntary. Some artists go outdoors to be alone, with loved ones at
home, which suggests that the more confident we are, the less we desire to
keep company with others.
Part IV (para.11-16): Living with others, one enjoys the advantages of occasional solitude.
But living alone, one is stricken with it. Without the need to talk fulfilled,
one may even get into some embarrassing situations. Thus, the author
advises people to stay rational, settle down and enjoy grace and pleasure at
C. Difficult Sentences:
1. Some of us divorced, some widowed, some never yet committed.(Para 1)