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Academic Competition Federation

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Academic Competition Federation

John Stuart Mill Bicentennial Open

    May 20, 2006

Packet # 8

Toss-Up Questions

1. One of its leading commanders became outraged after his mother was taken as a

    hostage and shot, which led to his being known as the Tiger of the Maestrazgo.

    After winning a victory at Maella, that commander was named Count of Morella.

    In addition to Ramon Cabrera, this war’s generals included Tomas de Zumalacarregui, who was killed after being shot in the leg while besieging Bilbao. It ended with the

    Convention of Vergara, which was reached by Rafael Maroto and Bartolomeo Espartero

    and concluded a conflict fought over the Salic Law. FTP, name this war which ended in

    1839, and which was fought between supporters of Maria Cristina and Don Carlos V,

    after whom it is named.

    ANSWER: the First Carlist War

2. He wrote about an officer who shoots a woman after reading her diary and

    discovering that she loathes him in his story “Gentle Breathing.” He wrote about a

    young man who pines for his former love, Katya, before sleeping with a peasant girl

    and shooting himself in the head in his story “Mitya’s Love.” He moved to France

    in 1920, where he settled in Grasse and wrote works like his autobiographical novel

    The Life of Arseniev. However, he’s best known for his stories, which include “Dry

    Valley,” “The Elaghin Affair,” and one about a titular millionaire who dies at a hotel on

    Capri. FTP, name this Russian winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature who wrote “The

    Gentleman from San Francisco.” ANSWER: Ivan Bunin

3. Xanthate esters react to form a thiol, carbonyl sulfide, and one other compound

    in the Chugaev type of this reaction. One type involves reaction of an N-oxide, while

    another follows exhaustive methylation of an amine. A carbanion [carb-AN-ion]

    intermediate is implicated in the conjugate base variation of one type of it that is

    favored in protic solvents. When it occurs in bicyclic compounds, reactivity can be

    determined by Bredt's rule; in general, product formation from this reaction can follow

    rules of either Hofmann or Zaitsev. Often resulting in the formation of a double bond,

    FTP identify this class of reactions that has unimolecular and bimolecular types and

    results in the loss of part of a molecule.

    ANSWER: elimination reactions

4. A woman of this name is poorly treated by her husband Probus but gets baptized

    anyway by Saint Paul in an apocryphal text describing the “acts” of this woman,

    Polyxena, and Rebecca. One person of this name is the subject of a poem written

    on March 16, 1925 by H. P. Lovecraft, while Edgar Allan Poe spelled this woman’s

    name with a “Z” to fit an acrostic poem he wrote for a woman named Elizabeth.

    The second of Cynthia Ozick’s “Puttermesser Papers” features a golem of this name.

The best-known woman of this name had three sons, Menexenos, Lamprokles, and

    Sophroniskos, and is said to have emptied a chamber pot on her husband’s head. FTP,

    identify this woman whose name has come to typify the shrewish wife, thanks to her

    shabby treatment of her husband Socrates.

    ANSWER: Xanthippe or Xantippe

5. An author who wrote about “western attitudes toward” this concept in a short

    book also wrote a much longer book whose title refers to the “hour” of its

    occurrence. A 1973 book which included discussions of “the depth psychology of

    heroism” and “Otto Rank and the closure of psychoanalysis on Kierkegaard” dealt

    with the “denial” of this concept. Chapters on “The Nosy Clergy” and “God’s Little

    Million-Dollar Acre” appear in a book on the “American Way of” this. FTP, name this

    concept discussed in books by Philippe Ariès, Ernest Becker, and Nancy Mitford, which

    is also discussed in a book by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross which pairs it with “dying.”

    ANSWER: death (accept Philippe Ariès or The Hour of Our Death during the first

    sentence)

6. It was announced two years after the Drago Doctrine was set forth, and three

    years after it was announced the U.S. adopted the Drago modification of the Calvo

    Doctrine through a convention authored by Horace Porter. 24 years after it was

    announced, it was abrogated by a memorandum written by J. Reuben Clark. It was

    put into practice after the government of Carlos Morales was overthrown by Morales’s vice president, Ramon Caceres, and also led to the signing of a treaty with Philippe

    Bunau-Varilla. It was announced in an address to Congress on December 6, 1904. FTP,

    name this statement which defined American interest in Latin America, a modification of

    the Monroe Doctrine by a president who like to say “Bully.”

    ANSWER: the Roosevelt Corollary

7. The total momentum of these particles is changed in Umklapp scattering

    processes, in which the incoming pair have wave vectors whose sum lies outside the

    first Brillouin zone. The dependence of the critical temperature for

    superconductivity on the isotopic mass showed that they mediate the formation of

    Cooper pairs. They can be created or destroyed in inelastic scattering of light via

    Brillouin or Raman scattering, which involve the acoustic and optical subtypes,

    respectively. The T cubed law for heat capacities was derived by Debye using a model

    based on these quasiparticles, incorporating the finite number of elastic modes in a finite

    solid. FTP, name these quanta of lattice vibrations.

    ANSWER: phonons

8. It deals with “The Friendship of Amis and Amile” and Aucassin and Nicolette in

    the chapter on “two early French stories.” The second chapter discusses the author

    of the Heptaplus, while a later chapter discusses a collection of sonnets thought to

    have been written to Vittoria Colonna. The last two chapters are devoted to

    Joachim du Bellay and Wincklemann, prior to a “Conclusion” omitted from the

    second edition which claims that success in life is to burn with a “hard, gemlike flame.”

Also including chapters on Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci, FTP, name this collection

    of “studies in art and poetry” by Walter Pater whose title refers to an artistic period.

    ANSWER: The Renaissance

9. Performances of the fifth of these works sometimes use a group of extra brass

    instruments known as the “eleven apostles,” who come in to supply extra energy for the conclusion of the piece. The seventh of them includes an Adagio movement in C sharp minor which features a notable cymbal clash. The first of them to be in a

    major key was the fourth, which is in E flat major, while the first two and the eighth

    are in C minor and the third and ninth are in D minor. The ninth was meant to be

    dedicated to God, but the composer died before he could finish it. FTP, name this group

    of works, one of which is nicknamed the “Romantic” and one of which is dedicated to Richard Wagner, a set of orchestral works by an Austrian composer.

    ANSWER: the symphonies of Anton Bruckner

10. This ruler of the Brigians was entertained for five days by fantastic stories of an

    immense continent lying beyond the Ocean’s stream told by a notorious drunkard

    found sleeping in this man’s celebrated rose gardens. He was adopted by a former

    peasant who was proclaimed king in Telmissus after a royal eagle perched on the pole of his ox-cart. This man wound up drinking bull’s blood some time after his disagreement with a ruling made by the River-god Tmolus earned him disgrace. The

    wealth of the sands of the river Pactolus was produced when this man succeeded in

    ridding himself of a gift which was causing him to starve, as his food became hard and

    inedible. FTP, name this king who was punished with ass’s ears and rewarded with the

    golden touch.

    ANSWER: Midas

11. This man wrote about the death of Dr. Estep in his story “Zigzags of

    Treachery,” while the protagonist is forced to attend a wedding on an island in San Pablo Bay after Dick Foley is incapacitated in his story “The Gutting of Couffignal.”

    His first published story, “The Parthian Shot,” appeared in The Smart Set, while some of his other stories were published under the pen name Peter Collinson. His

    first novel, originally entitled Poisonville, began appearing in 1927, and the next year

    he finished his novel The Dain Curse. Those books appeared serially in Black Mask, as

    did The Glass Key and a number of his stories about the Continental Op. FTP, name this

    author of The Thin Man and The Maltese Falcon.

    ANSWER: Dashiell Hammett

12. In a depiction of this by Joachim Wtewael, the namesake figure sits wearing a

    pink hat in the middle, while a bearded figure talks to a woman holding flowers in

    the lower right and a festive gathering takes place in the right background. In a

    depiction by Lucas Cranach, the namesake figure sits on the left in a suit of red

    armor, while an old man holding a glass sphere stands between him and a naked

    woman holding her right hand out to him. In a better known version painted in the

    1630s, Mercury stands over a man holding a shepherd’s crook, while three woman look

on at the apple in his hand. FTP, name this event depicted by Rubens, in which a Trojan

    prince favored Aphrodite.

    ANSWER: the judgment of Paris (accept alternatives)

13. The first ruler of this name set up a boundary stone at Kanisa Kurgus and

    sacked the kingdom of Kermah. The last ruler of this name married a daughter of

    Artatama I to cement an alliance with Mitanni. The last ruler of this name

    supposedly came to power after receiving instructions in a dream to clear the sand

    piled up around the Sphinx. Another ruler of this name was responsible for erecting

    Cleopatra’s Needles, and for defeating a coalition led by the Prince of Kadesh at Megiddo shortly after the death of his aunt Hatshepsut. FTP, give the name shared by 4

    pharaohs of the 18th dynasty, a name which honors the god Thoth.

    ANSWER: Thutmose or Thutmosis

14. The epilogue to this work describes the history of a female character who after

    getting married “quits her Nancy Dawson for Che Faro” and becomes the “Heinel

    of Cheapside.” One scene opens with a character singing a song about the Three

    Pigeons, which begins “Let school-masters puzzle their brain / With grammar, and nonsense, and learning.” That character, Tony, plays a trick on two other characters

    in this play by directing them to an ersatz inn. Once there, Hastings and Charles Marlow

    are waited on by Tony’s sister Kate Hardcastle, who pretends to be a servant to win Charles over. FTP, name this play subtitled “The Mistakes of a Night,” a work by Oliver

    Goldsmith.

    ANSWER: She Stoops to Conquer

15. Signals for it are processed in the piriform cortex without passing through the

    thalamus. Receptors for it synapse with mitral and tufted cells after passing

    through the cribriform plate. Neurons involved in this process are supported by an

    epithelium that contains Bowman's glands secreting mucus to provide the proper ionic

    environment to support it. It is associated with the first cranial nerve, which has been lost

    in cetaceans. It is also associated with a family of about 1,000 receptors according to

    Axel and Buck, who won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work. FTP identify

    this sense used by salmon to recognize where to spawn and that in humans is commonly

    associated with the nose.

    ANSWER: olfaction or sense of smell (accept reasonable equivalents)

16. Its most recent champion was a University of Houston dropout who is the owner

    of Lot 8. In its first incarnation, Vanessa was unable to meet the challenge of

    working for Sarah Hudson, while other installments featured Nancy O’Dell of

    Access Hollywood and Parker Posey. It features an older mentor figure who likes to say

    “Make it work” and who was imitated with surprising accuracy by Santino Rice in its

    latest version. That version was won by Chloe Dao, whose work was judged by Nina

    Garcia and Michael Kors. FTP, name this TV show on the Bravo network, which is

    hosted by Heidi Klum and is a competition between aspiring fashion designers.

    ANSWER: Project Runway

17. Two of his works are epitaphs for Timokritos and Agathias, who died fighting

    the Thracians, and his writings were compiled in six books by Aristarchos. He was

    born in Teos, but fled to Abdera when the Persians invaded, though he did much of

    his work at Samos after the tyrant Polycrates invited him to the court there. Leigh

    Hunt’s “Portrait of His Mistress” is an imitation of a poem by this man, while poems by this man about the grasshopper and drinking were paraphrased by Abraham Cowley.

    FTP, name this ancient Greek poet known for songs about alcohol and debauchery,

    whose putative experiences “in heaven” were the subject of a song composed around 1776 which later provided the tune for “The Star-Spangled Banner.” ANSWER: Anacreon

    18. He defended Communism in The Communists and Peace, while The Spectre of Stalin was written in response to the Soviet invasion of Hungary. His late works

    include a massive study of Gustave Flaubert entitled The Idiot of the Family, as well as the more theoretical Critique of Dialectical Reason. He discussed the “situation of the writer in 1947” in his seminal essay “What Is Literature?” while his earliest philosophical

    writings dealt with such subjects as the imagination and the transcendence of the ego.

    His major work of 1943 was subtitled “a phenomenological essay in ontology.” FTP,

    name this French author of Being and Nothingness as well as the novel Nausea and the play No Exit.

    ANSWER: Jean-Paul Sartre

19. This city’s second archbishop wrote a notable “Sermon on Law and Grace”

    which extolled its first Christian ruler. In addition to Hilarion, its illustrious

    citizens included Daniel the Pilgrim, the first known travel writer in his language.

    Its other citizens include the author of a text describing the fall of Constantinople,

    the Epistula lugubris, which was written by a patriarch named Isidore. Its Monastery

    of the Caves was founded by Anthony, who originated Russian monasticism. It was

    known as the Hero City under the Soviet Union, while its northern portion is home to a

    notorious ravine, Babi Yar. FTP, name this city on the Dnieper River which is now the

    capital of Ukraine.

    ANSWER: Kiev

20. One of the men who proposed this theory in a 1948 paper developed coordinates

    for null hypersurfaces named for himself and Sachs. Another of its proposers

    predicted a resonance in carbon-12 which allows the triple-alpha mechanism to

    work. An unrelated approximation of the same name applied to the concentration of the enzyme-substrate complex gives the Michaelis-Menten equation. That approximation

    sets time derivatives of intermediate concentrations to zero. The theory of this name

    allowed spontaneous matter creation to uphold the perfect cosmological principle. FTP

    name this rival of Big Bang theory which held that the global properties of the Universe

    are unchanging.

    ANSWER: steady state

John Stuart Mill Bicentennial Open

    May 20, 2006

Packet # 8

Bonus Questions

1. Answer the following about an experimental technique FTPE:

    [10] Fancy versions of it include INEPT, SIMBA, and COSY [co-see]. Data that gets

    spit out of this technique are chemical shifts resulting from spin flipping of atomic nuclei.

    ANSWER: nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy [10] In this effect named for a physicist, magnetization transfer from one nucleus to the

    other is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between them. It is thus

    very useful for determining through-space distances between atoms.

    ANSWER: nuclear Overhauser effect or enhancement, or nOe

    [10] The Karplus curve plots the magnitude of this constant against the dihedral angle

    between two hydrogen nuclei. It is the value given to the amount of splitting between

    peaks in a multiplet signal.

    ANSWER: coupling constant or J

    2. His most recent non-fictional work includes “Big Red Son,” an essay about his visit to the porn industry’s AVN awards. FTPE: [10] Name this writer, who also wrote about “How Tracy Austin Broke My Heart” in the

    collection Consider the Lobster. ANSWER: David Foster Wallace [10] David Foster Wallace is best known for this sprawling novel set at the Enfield

    Tennis Academy, whose title comes from Hamlet.

    ANSWER: Infinite Jest

    [10] Wallace’s most recent fictional work is this collection of short stories, which

    includes a short piece about a man with a disturbing obsession with spiders entitled

    “Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.” ANSWER: Oblivion

3. One of his early operas is set at the castle of Caldora and was adapted from a French

    translation of Maturin’s play Bertram. FTPE: [10] Name this composer, who wrote about the rivals Ernesto and Gualtiero in his opera

    The Pirate.

    ANSWER: Vincenzo Bellini

    [10] In the first act of this Bellini opera the title character sings “Come per me sereno” before signing a wedding contract with Elvino.

    ANSWER: The Sleepwalker or La Sonnambula

    [10] The title character of this Bellini opera sings the aria “Casta diva” and the opera ends

    with the trio “Deh, non volerli vittime” sung by Oroveso, Pollione, and the title character.

    ANSWER: Norma

4. After Numerian was found dead, this man accused Aper of the crime and killed him for

    it. FTPE: rd[10] Name this Roman emperor of the 3 century AD, who consolidated his power after

    his rival Carinus was assassinated.

    ANSWER: Diocletian [10] After becoming emperor, Diocletian named this man augustus in 286 AD; this ruler

    of the Western empire went on to abdicate twice before dying in 308 after leading a

    revolt against his son-in-law Constantine.

    ANSWER: Maximian [10] Diocletian’s persecution of Christians was encouraged by this man, a pagan who

    became augustus of the east upon Diocletian’s abdication; he made his buddy Licinius

    augustus of the west before dying in 311.

    ANSWER: Galerius

5. Identify these possibly tasty soups of Europe, FTPE:

    [10] The name of this stew comes from a Hungarian word for “cowherd,” and it consists

    of chunks of meat, red peppers, onions, and of course paprika.

    ANSWER: goulash [10] This creamy soup is served cold, and contains potatoes, onions, leeks, and chicken

    broth. It is thought to have been invented in 1917 by Louis Diat, a chef at the Ritz-

    Carlton in New York.

    ANSWER: vichyssoise [10] This Russian cabbage soup is sometimes made sour by including sauerkraut.

    Turgenev wrote a short story in which a peasant woman eats it, even though her son just

    died, because it is salted.

    ANSWER: shchi

6. Answer the following about convergence of Fourier series, FTPE:

    [10] This man’s inversion theorem states that if a non-vanishing function has absolutely

    convergent Fourier series, than one over the function also has absolutely convergent

    Fourier series. He also coined the term “cybernetics.”

    ANSWER: Norbert Wiener

    [10] This phenomenon is the non-vanishing oscillatory overshoot of the Fourier series

    near a jump discontinuity. It is named for a chemist with an eponymous phase rule.

    ANSWER: Gibbs phenomenon [10] A theorem due to this man gives conditions under which a function’s Fourier series

    converges to the average of its right- and left-hand limits at a jump discontinuity. His

    name is also given to the pigeonhole principle.

    ANSWER: Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet

7. The title character of this 1720 novel is put ashore in Africa after participating in a

    mutiny off the coast of Madagascar. FTPE:

    [10] Name this work about a pirate who is saved from a life of crime by his friend

    William Walters.

    ANSWER: Captain Singleton (or The Life, Adventures, and Piracies of the Famous

    Captain Singleton)

[10] This author of Moll Flanders and Roxana wrote Captain Singleton prior to his death

    in 1731.

    ANSWER: Daniel Defoe

    [10] This Daniel Defoe book was published in 1722, though it describes events which

    took place in 1664 and 1665. Its narrator is a saddler named H. F.

    ANSWER: A Journal of the Plague Year

8. His late works include the 1983 Woodbridge Lectures, which appeared in book form as

    Scepticism and Naturalism: Some Varieties. FTPE:

    [10] Name this English philosopher, whose exercises in so-called “descriptive

    metaphysics” include 1959’s Individuals.

    ANSWER: Sir Peter Strawson

    [10] Peter Strawson’s most widely-read book may be The Bounds of Sense, his study of ththis 18-century philosophical work which had a lot to say about synthetic a priori

    knowledge.

    ANSWER: Critique of Pure Reason or Kritik der reinen Vernunft [10] Strawson’s most widely-read essay is 1950’s “On Referring,” in which he presents a

    critique of this man’s Theory of Descriptions. The discussion hinges on an analysis of

    the always-interesting sentence “The King of France is bald.” ANSWER: Bertrand Russell

     th9. Identify these wacky 20-century artists, FTPE:

    [10] This pioneer of so-called “art brut,” or “raw art,” used unusual materials to diversify

    his works, which include a series of Ladies’ Bodies which itself includes a parody of Manet’s Olympia.

    ANSWER: Jean Dubuffet

    [10] This Belgian painter was fond of creating visual illusions, such as the painting of a

    landscape that blends seamlessly into a view out of a window in his The Human Condition.

    ANSWER: René Magritte

    [10] Before committing suicide in 1970, this American painter liked to amaze viewers

    with his enormous canvasses depicting variously-colored rectangles against a differently-

    colored background. Perhaps you are familiar with White and Greens in Blue.

    ANSWER: Mark Rothko

10. In a paradox named for this man, a person is presented with two choices of two

    gambles; the fact that most people choose one option violates the independence axiom of

    utility theory. FTPE:

    [10] Name this French winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, whose work helped give

    rise to the “prospect theory” of Kahneman and Tversky. ANSWER: Maurice Allais

    [10] Among the other achivements of Maurice Allais was a “fully compensated general

    equilibrium measure” of this. It is defined as the cost imposed by inefficient allocation of

    resources.

    ANSWER: deadweight loss

[10] There are two kinds of deadweight loss: one is named for Alfred Marshall, while the

    other is named for this Nobel Prize-winning British economist known for his IS/LM

    model.

    ANSWER: John Hicks

11. Answer the following about the work of Matthew Meselson FTPE:

    [10] With this scientist, Meselson experimentally proved that DNA replication is

    semiconservative.

    ANSWER: Franklin Stahl

    [10] Meselson is also credited with discovering a DNA mismatch repair pathway that

    involves the recognition of a DNA strand modified by this chemical group to determine

    the defective strand. This group is also involved with the silencing of gene expression.

    ANSWER: methyl group

    [10] Meselson's current research into the role of sexual reproduction in evolution uses

    this invertebrate as a model organism. This phylum of pseudocoelomates is named for

    the ring of cilia around the organism’s mouth. ANSWER: rotifers or Rotifera

12. The winning side was represented by Senator John Davis and Simon Greenleaf.

    FTPE:

    [10] Name this Supreme Court decision, which dealt with a grant made by a state

    legislature and found that rights which aren’t specifically conferred by a document cannot

    be inferred from it.

    ANSWER: Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge [10] The Charles River Bridge decision was reached under this Chief Justice.

    ANSWER: Roger Taney

    [10] This man represented the losing Charles River Bridge in the decision; he had more

    luck before the court in Dartmouth College v. Woodward. ANSWER: Daniel Webster

13. At the beginning of this novel, Gabriel Bagradian returns to his home village of

    Yoghonoluk after spending decades in France. FTPE:

    [10] Name this novel published in 1934, which tells the story of a Turkish attack on an

    Armenian stronghold in 1915.

    ANSWER: The Forty Days of Musa Dagh or Die Vierzig Tage Des Musa Dagh

    [10] This 1941 novel depicts the daughter of Francois Soubirous, a very special peasant thgirl from 19-century France.

    ANSWER: The Song of Bernadette or Das Lied von Bernadette

    [10] This author of the play Juarez and Maximillian wrote The Forty Days of Musa Dagh

    and The Song of Bernadette.

    ANSWER: Franz Werfel

14. Name these typically malevolent creatures from Asian mythology, FTPE.

    [10] These demons of Indian myth were sometimes said to have sprung from the foot of

    Brahma. Their leaders included the ten-headed Ravana.

    ANSWER: rakshasas

[10] Some sources mention several subtypes of these spirits of fire from Arabic folklore,

    including the marids and ifrits. They can be bound to objects such as rings and lamps.

    ANSWER: djinn or genie

    [10] These demons or ogres of Japanese mythology are frequently depicted with three

    eyes, wearing tiger skins and carrying large, iron clubs.

    ANSWER: oni

15. Answer the following related sciency questions FTPE:

    [10] This family of protein tyrosine kinases found in several cell signaling pathways was

    initially identified in an oncogenic chicken virus. It localizes to focal adhesions and

    contains SH2 and SH3 domains.

    ANSWER: Src ["Sarc"]

    [10] These transmembrane proteins that bind to components of the extracellular matrix

    provide the link between the interior and exterior of a cell at a focal adhesion.

    ANSWER: integrins

    [10] At a focal adhesion, integrin is associated with intracellular proteins that bind to this

    microfilament component. The myosin head associates with it in muscle cells. ANSWER: actin

16. It refers to children who “drank lemonade” as the morning lasted all day, and features

    a man who sits on stony ground while telling some people about life in 1963. FTPE:

    [10] Name this song, which reached #7 on the Billboard charts in 1986.

    ANSWER: “Life in a Northern Town

    [10] This group, whose lead singer was Nick Laird-Clowes, sang “Life in a Northern Town.”

    ANSWER: The Dream Academy

    [10] This man helped produce A Different Kind of Weather, the last Dream Academy album, and co-wrote the song “Twelve-Eight Angel” which appears on it. He’s probably better known for solo albums like On an Island and as the guitarist on such albums as A

    Momentary Lapse of Reason.

    ANSWER: David Gilmour

    17. He took power after emerging victorious from the so-called Count’s War, and in 1536 proclaimed Lutheranism the state religion at the Diet of Copenhagen. FTPE:

    [10] Name this monarch, who ruled as king of Denmark and Norway until his death in

    1559.

    ANSWER: Christian III

    [10] Christian III supported Germany’s Protestant princes until 1544, when he reached a

    peace agreement at Speyer with this Holy Roman Emperor, the son of Juana the Loca.

    ANSWER: Charles V (or Carlos I of Spain)

    [10] After signing the Peace of Speyer, Christian III was compelled not to intervene in

    Charles V’s war against this group, which was decisively defeated at the battle of

    Mühlberg.

    ANSWER: the Schmalkaldic League

    18. Name these characters from Orlando Furioso, FTPE:

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