The participation and engagement of Mäori in decision-making processes and other government initiatives:
An annotated bibliography prepared for the Electoral Commission
04 December 2006
The participation and engagement of Mäori in decision-making processes and
other government initiatives: An annotated bibliography prepared for the Electoral
Prepared for The Electoral Commission
Prepared by Louise Alliston and Debbie Cossar
Contact Details Debbie Cossar
Research New Zealand
Phone 04 499 3088
Project number #3400
This annotated bibliography is a companion document to The participation and engagement of Mäori in
decision-making processes and other government initiatives: A literature review. The aim of the research
programme, of which the review is one part, is to help the Electoral Commission and others in policy
development and the planning of outreach and education programmes to increase Mäori electoral
participation. It is also hoped that the review and annotated bibliography, will be useful for a broad range of
local government and government agencies that want to encourage Mäori to participate in decision-making
processes or to reach Mäori to encourage attitude or behaviour change.
The information objectives of the literature review were to use literature, information and research primarily
produced by or for New Zealand government departments and agencies to help identify:
? what underpins Mäori engagement with and participation in public decision-making, and particularly the
? what external factors can impact on the engagement and participation of Mäori in public decision-making,
changing Mäori attitudes and behaviours, and encouraging compliance by Mäori with public sector
? how other government departments and agencies have engaged with Mäori, and what strategies they
have employed (such as social marketing), and what lessons can be learnt from their experiences, and
applied to the work of the Electoral Commission and others working in the electoral field. For
programmes or initiatives to be included, they must have either a 'whole community approach' i.e. they
have been adapted to the needs of a local community, or a national approach. Methodology
The literature and information search looked primarily at the years 2000-2005, although publications from
1995-2000 or earlier seminal publications have been included where they have ongoing relevance, and
particularly where they fill a gap that exists in the later period. The aim of this approach was to ensure a focus
on recent findings, initiatives or evaluations.
Material from government sources make up the bulk of the literature included. However, other relevant
material was identified in articles published in academic journals, conference presentations and on websites.
Only material in English was sourced.
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 3
In completing this review, we took the following steps to source information.
1. An initial literature search was conducted using the following databases: Te Puna, INNZ, Google, and
Google Scholar. Combinations of the following search terms were used to identify relevant material: New
Zealand, Mäori, participation, democratic, health, parliament, elections, voting, local authorities, local
government, government, politics, Treaty of Waitangi.
2. Items found in the initial literature search were checked for additional references.
3. A search was done on the websites of many New Zealand government and local government agencies.
In addition, further Internet searching was undertaken. Relevant organisational websites searched
? Human Rights Commission (NZ) - http://www.hrc.co.nz
? Mäori & Psychology Research Unit, The University of Waikato - http://psychology.waikato.ac.nz/mpru/
? Te Pütahi-ä-Toi School of Mäori Studies, Massey University - http://maori.massey.ac.nz/ ? Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington - http://www.vuw.ac.nz/ips/index.aspx
? Health Services Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington -
? International Research Institute for Mäori and Indigenous Education, The University of Auckland –
http://www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/research/index.cfm?P=447 ? Injury Prevention Research Unit - http://www.otago.ac.nz/ipru/ ? Injury Prevention Research Centre - http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/ ? SHORE (The Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation) and Whariki (Te Ropu
Whariki), Massey University - http://www.whariki.ac.nz/
? Social marketing downunder – http://www.socialmarketing.co.nz 4. Local government, district health boards, and government organisations were contacted for information
on the programmes that they delivered.
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 4
The bibliography includes all of the literature discussed in the review as well as other relevant material
sourced during the project. Where possible, online links to reports have been included.
This bibliography is available on the Elections New Zealand website www.elections.org.nz in a variety of
downloadable formats. Acknowledgement or citation of this bibliography would be appreciated in work making
use of it.
Note: The original format of the titles of the source documents is retained, with macrons represented as they
are in the title of the document.
ACC. (2005). Guidelines on Mäori cultural competencies for providers. [Wellington]: ACC.
These guidelines have been developed to assist providers in improving access and delivering appropriate
advice, care and treatment to Mäori claimants. The document includes information about cultural
considerations for Mäori and guidance on achieving compliance with the ACC Mäori Cultural Competency
ACC/Clemenger BBDO. (2004). Encouraging Mäori to claim their entitlements: Qualitative investigation. Wellington: Clemenger BBDO. This extensive PowerPoint presentation was prepared for ACC by State of Mind, the strategic planning unit of
Clemenger, BBDO. It reports on a qualitative research study commissioned to determine barriers to
accessing health providers and ACC among Mäori. The research offers guidance on how ACC can
encourage Mäori to engage with ACC and focus on early intervention in the future. NOTE: This is an internal
report. While it has not been published, copies of the report are available from ACC upon request.
Akroyd, S. & Borell, S. (2005). Project to assist the future development of the Te Mana campaign: Research exploring the motivators and barriers for hard to reach rangatahi engaging in
learning/education, and identifying communications themes and concepts that are credible to them.
Wellington: Akroyd Research & Evaluation. This research was commissioned to assist in the development of the Te Mana campaign and to identify how
best to engage effectively with “hard to reach” rangatahi. The authors note that, while the campaign is currently seen as impacting effectively on the majority of its intended target audience, research suggests that
the campaign is impacting less upon “hard to reach” adolescents. The research seeks to identify ways in
which the future development of the Te Mana campaign could increasingly inspire and motivate this group
toward engaging and/or re-engaging in learning/education. Affinity groups involving hard to reach rangatahi,
and individual in-depth interviews involving key informants, were employed as the main research primary data
collection method. The key informants interviewed are pouwhakataki (employed by the Ministry of Education
to work with whänau, hapü and iwi to help Mäori get the most out of education), and rangatahi were selected
from schools or learning centres from around the country. A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with
participants; three interviews with pouwhakataki, and 21 interviews (involving 10 affinity groups) with Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 5 rangatahi.
Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. (2004). Hui Whakakotahi 2004: 16 - 18 February 2004: Te Papa-i-oura and Tunohopu Marae Rotorua. Wellington: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.
The report of a hui that brought together 150 - 200 Mäori alcohol and drug practitioners (kaimahi), Mäori
communities and those working to reduce alcohol-related harm to Mäori. Presentations focused on leadership
issues, including the role of leaders within the alcohol and drug sector and the process of appointing these
leaders. Other issues discussed included service development, cultural concepts and competencies, and a
proposed way forward for kaimahi practising within the sector. Collaboration between kaimahi and kaupapa
Mäori services was identified as an approach to address alcohol and drug issues for Mäori.
Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. (2005). Planning for alcohol in the community: Local government toolkit. Wellington: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.
This toolkit aims to enable councils and communities to include reducing local alcohol-related harm as a
desirable outcome in their Long Term Council Community Plans and District Plans. It provides best practice
examples from a number of innovative councils, along with tools for use in regulatory, operational and
leadership work that touches on alcohol issues. The toolkit includes discussion of community
development/community action in a Mäori context.
Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. (2006). Te Piringätahi: He tohu wairua. Wellington: Alcohol
Advisory Council of New Zealand.
This cultural concepts framework was developed to allow Mäori drug and alcohol workers to practice within a
Mäori context, based on Mäori cultural practices. The framework is based in tikanga and kawa, and upon
traditional Mäori cultural concepts still relevant today.
Boulton, A., Simonsen, K., Walker, T., Cumming, J. & Cunningham, C. (2004). Indigenous participation
in the 'new' New Zealand health structure. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 9(Suppl 2),
S2:35 - S32:40.
This paper presents preliminary evaluative findings from research on key areas of concern to Mäori from the
2001 health system reforms. The authors (from Te Pumanawa Hauora at Massey University, the Ministry of
Health and the Health Services Research Centre) use key informant interviews with 35 Mäori and non-Mäori
respondents and data from five case study districts. They conclude that there is support for the post-2000
model. However, challenges remain, including concerns over strategy implementation, sustainability and
Bramley, D., Riddell, T., Whittaker, R., Corbett, T., Lin, R.-B., Wills, M., et al. (2005). Smoking cessation
using mobile phone text messaging is as effective in Maori as non-Maori [Electronic Version]. New
Zealand Medical Journal, 118. Retrieved 13 June, 2006 from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/118-1216/1494/
Reports on the results of a randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation service using mobile phone text
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 6 messaging. The trial was specifically designed to maximise participation by young Mäori. Those participants
self-identifying as Mäori received Mäori-specific text messages.
Brewin, M. & Coggan, C. (1999). Tai Rawhiti CIPP formative evaluation report development phase.
Centre report series, no. 41. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland.
Retrieved 17 May, 2006, from http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/pdf/cr41.pdf
An external evaluation of the Tai Rawhiti Community Injury Prevention Project. The aim of the evaluation is to
ascertain the progress and impact of the Project on the reduction of the frequency and severity of injuries
within the rohe of Tai Rawhiti, particularly in the areas of child, road traffic and alcohol-related injury, and with
a particular focus on Mäori.
Brewin, M. & Coggan, C. (2004). Evaluation of the Ngati Porou Community Injury Prevention Project.
Ethnicity & Health, 9(1), 5-15.
The two authors, from the Injury Prevention Research Centre, report on the evaluation of the Ngäti Porou
Community Injury Prevention Project based in a rural district with an extensive Mäori population. The main
activities undertaken were road safety campaigns, alcohol and drug programmes, family violence initiatives,
and the development of a playground safety audit. The evaluation found a significant increase in awareness
of injury prevention among Ngäti Porou whänau and a significant decrease in injury rates for all age groups.
Burke, K. (2004). Engaging with communities over outcomes: A review of innovative approaches to
meeting the LGA 2002 challenge of identifying community outcomes. [Wellington]: Local Government
New Zealand. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from
Describes some innovative examples of local government engagement processes, with a specific focus on
the identification of community outcomes, as required under the Local Government Act 2002.
Cameron, G. (2004a, October). Evidence in an indigenous world. Paper presented at the Australasian
Evaluation Society 2004 International Conference, Adelaide, South Australia.
The author, from the Quit Group suggests quantitative research methodologies are often more highly valued,
while experiential evidence is often used to provide substance but not the foundations of evaluation and
research. He points to the growth in fourth world (indigenous) movements and acceptance of post-modernism
as providing a challenge to these assumptions, with fourth world societies valuing experiential evidence as
valid and reliable. Alternative forms of evidence are examined in this paper through a case study of New
Zealand Mäori experiential evidence stored in mythology, proverbs, sayings, and people, and the possible
use of this style of evidence in research and evaluation.
Cameron, G. (2004b, October). Whole population services: Evaluating their impact on Mäori. Paper
presented at the Australasian Evaluation Society 2004 International Conference, Adelaide, South
The author, from the Quit Group notes that, despite a rise in Mäori service provision, the majority of Mäori
access social services through whole population services. Consequently, whole population services have an
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 7 obligation to provide services that benefit Mäori, and are required to undertake evaluation and monitoring to
determine if this is occurring. This paper is based on the experiences of The Quit Group, a national whole
population smoking cessation provider. The Quit Group has an average of 21% Mäori clients and its
organisational objectives requires that it meets specific Mäori needs. This paper explores the practicalities of
undertaking whole population evaluation and research that seeks to measure both Mäori and whole
population outcomes. It considers the challenges for a whole population service that is effective for Mäori in
an environment of a by-Mäori-for-Mäori preference, Mäori research paradigms, and a relevant evaluation and
research process for Mäori.
Cameron, G. (2005). He Ara Oranga: Pretesting. [Wellington]: [The Quit Group].
The author, from the Quit Group, describes pretesting of a resource for Mäori callers to Quitline. The aim was
to test the resource at the stage of development where the illustrations, design and content had been drafted
to establish cultural appropriateness, ease of understanding, relevancy, geniality, and barriers to use. The
design and illustrations of the draft booklet received most criticism, including the colours used and the use of
Capital & Coast District Health Board. . Maori health strategy: Te Plan 2002-2007. [Wellington]:
Capital & Coast District Health Board. This document sets Capital & Coast District Health Board's direction by identifying the actions it sees as
necessary for the improvement of Mäori health.
Catt, H. & Northcote, P. (2006, 25 - 27 September). Prompting participation: Can a personalised message to the newly enrolled have an impact on turnout? Paper presented at the Australasian
Political Studies Association Conference, University of Newcastle, Australia.
The Electoral Commission undertook two experiments for the 2005 general election testing the efficacy of a
message delivered directly to the newly enrolled to vote, that encouraged them to vote. One sample group
was sent items through the post while the other received text messages to their mobile phone. Two areas
were covered, South Auckland and the central North Island, and in both cases names were also taken from
the relevant Mäori electorate. While no statistically significant relationship was found between the
personalised messages and turnout to vote, the authors note that there were different reactions by the
various sub-groups of voters to both the number and form of the messages. For example, they found the
highest impact among groups that are usually hard to motivate: Mäori voters, Mäori electorates and low
turnout areas. On the other hand, there was also a negative impact for some of these same groups. The
authors point to the main differences as being the number of messages delivered and the form of the
message. They go on to say that more research would be needed to determine exactly what works for each
sub-group but also on what would be an effective common approach. They point to one message, the call to
action on election day itself, as being an effective element and propose that future projects should build on
the “it‟s now!” feeling.
Coggan, C., Bennett, S., Patterson, P. & Borne, H. (2003). The ACC ThinkSafe Community Projects:
Formative evaluation. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre.
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 8 This is a formative evaluation of the establishment of the ACC ThinkSafe Community Projects within New
Zealand. It includes discussion of the World Health Organization model of community injury prevention. It also
includes case studies of 10 ThinkSafe projects and findings from those case studies.
Coggan, C. & Brewin, M. (1999). Process and impact evaluation of the implementation phase of the
Turanganui a Kiwa Community Injury Prevention Project. Centre report series, no. 34. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland. Retrieved 17 May, 2006, from
http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/pdf/cr34.pdf Evaluates the process and impact of the Turanganui a kiwa Community Injury Prevention Project (CIPP). In
particular, the report looks at the progress toward the reduction of the frequency and severity of injuries within
Tai Rawhiti, particularly in the areas of child, road traffic and alcohol related injury. The authors report that
positive impacts on the community were evident in the evaluation, for example, a positive increase in
awareness and knowledge of injury prevention. Significant features of this project included the integration of
injury prevention initiatives into existing programmes, targeting of critical areas, that expertise gained was
built on, and that the Mäori coordinator was highly skilled and a good communicator.
Coggan, C. & Simpson, J. (2000). Policy implications: Pilot community injury prevention projects.
Centre report series, no. 47. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland.
Retrieved 17 May, 2006, from http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/pdf/cr47.pdf
This report examines five New Zealand Community Injury Prevention Projects (CIPP): Waitakere, Turanganui
a kiwa, Ngäti Porou, Kawerau, and Rangiora. It includes recommendations for policy makers and funders
about the establishment of future programmes. It highlights specific cultural considerations that need to be
addressed when establishing programmes for Mäori and Pacific communities.
Collie, C. (2002). Strengthening community action on alcohol. [Wellington]: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.
This 178 page resource is written for those working to facilitate community action around alcohol issues. It
aims to stimulate and foster best practice in reducing alcohol-related harm by providing theory, strategy and
skills. It is specifically designed for those new to the field of alcohol health promotion, but could be used as a
reference tool for those with more experience. As well as providing background on Mäori and alcohol and the
Treaty of Waitangi, and discussion of alcohol health promotion, the resource includes a chapter on Mäori,
with discussion on Mäori health promotion and working with Mäori communities.
Colmar Brunton. (2005). Service delivery strategy development for the Maori Customer Group.
[Wellington]: Colmar Brunton.
Inland Revenue commissioned this research in order to assist them to develop a service delivery strategy for
their Mäori customers. This particular research uses both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies
to look at Mäori customer experiences with Inland Revenue and how these can be made more effective and
Community-Government Relationship Steering Group. (2002). He waka kotuia: Joining together on a shared journey. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development. Retrieved 16 May, 2006, from
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 9 http://www.ocvs.govt.nz/documents/reports/he-waka-kotuia.pdf This report, produced by the Community-Government Relationship Steering Group, suggests new ways for
the Government to work with community, voluntary and Mäori organisations.
Comrie, M., Gillies, A. & Day, M. (2002). The Mäori Electoral Option campaign: Problems of measuring
success. Political Science, 54(2), 45 - 58.
This article, by academics from Massey University, considers the Mäori Electoral Option campaign and its
effectiveness as a communication campaign. They suggest that the Option challenges traditional
assumptions about objective political communication.
Controller and Auditor General. (2006). The Treasury: Capability to recognise and respond to issues for Mäori. [Wellington]: Controller and Auditor General.
This is the report of a performance audit of the Treasury's capability to recognise and respond to issues for
Mäori. The author concludes that Treasury is well placed to respond to issues for Mäori, largely due to the
ongoing support of senior staff to ensure that the expert knowledge held by a few individuals is widely shared
throughout the organisation by a range of means.
Cram, F., Karehana, M. & Pitama, S. (1999). He Oranga Poutama: Third year evaluation report.
Auckland: International Research Institute for Mäori and Indigenous Education, The University of
He Oranga Poutama is an initiative that promotes Mäori sporting and leisure activity as well as Mäori health
and well-being more generally. A network of Kaiwhakahaere throughout New Zealand are responsible for
making He Oranga Poutama work within their respective communities. This research is the third year
evaluation of the programme. The aims of the evaluation were to identify the successes and failures of the
programme and issues which would improve its implementation; to provide information on how to replicate
the programme in other areas, and to report on progress towards meeting the overall project objectives.
Thirty four stakeholders were interviewed for the research and a hui was held where evaluators held a
general discussion with Kaiwhakahaere about He Oranga Poutama.
Creative New Zealand. (2000). A survey of Mäori arts participation: Tirohanga ki te iwi Mäori kei roto i ngä toi Mäori. Wellington: Creative New Zealand. Retrieved 25 August, 2006, from
The findings in this survey come from a survey of arts participation in New Zealand carried out by Creative
New Zealand in partnership with the Hillary Commission over a 12 month period during 1997 - 1998. This
report focuses on participation in traditional Mäori arts by Mäori and participation in general arts by Mäori.
The report includes analysis by region, gender and age.
de Bonnaire, C. & Falloon, J. (2000). Increasing electoral (re)enrolment among New Zealanders: Adult segment. Wellington: BRC Marketing & Social Research.
Focusing on the adult population over 21 years who are eligible to vote, this qualitative research study builds
on a previous piece of qualitative research which segmented youth (i.e. 18-21 years) on the basis of the
motivations and barriers to enrol. Both studies were part of a research programme to assist the Electoral
Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 10 Enrolment Centre to develop strategies and tactics to reduce the abstention rates for enrolment to vote.