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8 February 2006

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8 February 2006

The participation and engagement of Mäori in decision-making processes and other government initiatives:

An annotated bibliography prepared for the Electoral Commission

04 December 2006

Annotated bibliography

    The participation and engagement of Mäori in decision-making processes and

    other government initiatives: An annotated bibliography prepared for the Electoral

    Commission

    Prepared for The Electoral Commission

    Prepared by Louise Alliston and Debbie Cossar

Contact Details Debbie Cossar

    Research New Zealand

    Phone 04 499 3088

Project number #3400

Background

    This annotated bibliography is a companion document to The participation and engagement of Mäori in

    decision-making processes and other government initiatives: A literature review. The aim of the research

    programme, of which the review is one part, is to help the Electoral Commission and others in policy

    development and the planning of outreach and education programmes to increase Mäori electoral

    participation. It is also hoped that the review and annotated bibliography, will be useful for a broad range of

    local government and government agencies that want to encourage Mäori to participate in decision-making

    processes or to reach Mäori to encourage attitude or behaviour change.

    The information objectives of the literature review were to use literature, information and research primarily

    produced by or for New Zealand government departments and agencies to help identify:

    ? what underpins Mäori engagement with and participation in public decision-making, and particularly the

    electoral system

    ? what external factors can impact on the engagement and participation of Mäori in public decision-making,

    changing Mäori attitudes and behaviours, and encouraging compliance by Mäori with public sector

    programmes

    ? how other government departments and agencies have engaged with Mäori, and what strategies they

    have employed (such as social marketing), and what lessons can be learnt from their experiences, and

    applied to the work of the Electoral Commission and others working in the electoral field. For

    programmes or initiatives to be included, they must have either a 'whole community approach' i.e. they

    have been adapted to the needs of a local community, or a national approach. Methodology

    The literature and information search looked primarily at the years 2000-2005, although publications from

    1995-2000 or earlier seminal publications have been included where they have ongoing relevance, and

    particularly where they fill a gap that exists in the later period. The aim of this approach was to ensure a focus

    on recent findings, initiatives or evaluations.

    Material from government sources make up the bulk of the literature included. However, other relevant

    material was identified in articles published in academic journals, conference presentations and on websites.

    Only material in English was sourced.

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 3

In completing this review, we took the following steps to source information.

    1. An initial literature search was conducted using the following databases: Te Puna, INNZ, Google, and

    Google Scholar. Combinations of the following search terms were used to identify relevant material: New

    Zealand, Mäori, participation, democratic, health, parliament, elections, voting, local authorities, local

    government, government, politics, Treaty of Waitangi.

    2. Items found in the initial literature search were checked for additional references.

    3. A search was done on the websites of many New Zealand government and local government agencies.

    In addition, further Internet searching was undertaken. Relevant organisational websites searched

    included:

    ? Human Rights Commission (NZ) - http://www.hrc.co.nz

    ? Mäori & Psychology Research Unit, The University of Waikato - http://psychology.waikato.ac.nz/mpru/

    ? Te Pütahi-ä-Toi School of Mäori Studies, Massey University - http://maori.massey.ac.nz/ ? Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington - http://www.vuw.ac.nz/ips/index.aspx

    ? Health Services Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington -

    http://www.vuw.ac.nz/hsrc/index.aspx

    ? International Research Institute for Mäori and Indigenous Education, The University of Auckland

    http://www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/research/index.cfm?P=447 ? Injury Prevention Research Unit - http://www.otago.ac.nz/ipru/ ? Injury Prevention Research Centre - http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/ ? SHORE (The Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation) and Whariki (Te Ropu

    Whariki), Massey University - http://www.whariki.ac.nz/

    ? Social marketing downunder http://www.socialmarketing.co.nz 4. Local government, district health boards, and government organisations were contacted for information

    on the programmes that they delivered.

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 4

    The bibliography includes all of the literature discussed in the review as well as other relevant material

    sourced during the project. Where possible, online links to reports have been included.

Annotated bibliography

    This bibliography is available on the Elections New Zealand website www.elections.org.nz in a variety of

    downloadable formats. Acknowledgement or citation of this bibliography would be appreciated in work making

    use of it.

    Note: The original format of the titles of the source documents is retained, with macrons represented as they

    are in the title of the document.

    ACC. (2005). Guidelines on Mäori cultural competencies for providers. [Wellington]: ACC.

    These guidelines have been developed to assist providers in improving access and delivering appropriate

    advice, care and treatment to Mäori claimants. The document includes information about cultural

    considerations for Mäori and guidance on achieving compliance with the ACC Mäori Cultural Competency

    Standards.

    ACC/Clemenger BBDO. (2004). Encouraging Mäori to claim their entitlements: Qualitative investigation. Wellington: Clemenger BBDO. This extensive PowerPoint presentation was prepared for ACC by State of Mind, the strategic planning unit of

    Clemenger, BBDO. It reports on a qualitative research study commissioned to determine barriers to

    accessing health providers and ACC among Mäori. The research offers guidance on how ACC can

    encourage Mäori to engage with ACC and focus on early intervention in the future. NOTE: This is an internal

    report. While it has not been published, copies of the report are available from ACC upon request.

    Akroyd, S. & Borell, S. (2005). Project to assist the future development of the Te Mana campaign: Research exploring the motivators and barriers for hard to reach rangatahi engaging in

    learning/education, and identifying communications themes and concepts that are credible to them.

    Wellington: Akroyd Research & Evaluation. This research was commissioned to assist in the development of the Te Mana campaign and to identify how

    best to engage effectively with “hard to reach” rangatahi. The authors note that, while the campaign is currently seen as impacting effectively on the majority of its intended target audience, research suggests that

    the campaign is impacting less upon “hard to reach” adolescents. The research seeks to identify ways in

    which the future development of the Te Mana campaign could increasingly inspire and motivate this group

    toward engaging and/or re-engaging in learning/education. Affinity groups involving hard to reach rangatahi,

    and individual in-depth interviews involving key informants, were employed as the main research primary data

    collection method. The key informants interviewed are pouwhakataki (employed by the Ministry of Education

    to work with whänau, hapü and iwi to help Mäori get the most out of education), and rangatahi were selected

    from schools or learning centres from around the country. A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with

    participants; three interviews with pouwhakataki, and 21 interviews (involving 10 affinity groups) with Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 5 rangatahi.

    Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. (2004). Hui Whakakotahi 2004: 16 - 18 February 2004: Te Papa-i-oura and Tunohopu Marae Rotorua. Wellington: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.

    The report of a hui that brought together 150 - 200 Mäori alcohol and drug practitioners (kaimahi), Mäori

    communities and those working to reduce alcohol-related harm to Mäori. Presentations focused on leadership

    issues, including the role of leaders within the alcohol and drug sector and the process of appointing these

    leaders. Other issues discussed included service development, cultural concepts and competencies, and a

    proposed way forward for kaimahi practising within the sector. Collaboration between kaimahi and kaupapa

    Mäori services was identified as an approach to address alcohol and drug issues for Mäori.

    Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. (2005). Planning for alcohol in the community: Local government toolkit. Wellington: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.

    This toolkit aims to enable councils and communities to include reducing local alcohol-related harm as a

    desirable outcome in their Long Term Council Community Plans and District Plans. It provides best practice

    examples from a number of innovative councils, along with tools for use in regulatory, operational and

    leadership work that touches on alcohol issues. The toolkit includes discussion of community

    development/community action in a Mäori context.

Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. (2006). Te Piringätahi: He tohu wairua. Wellington: Alcohol

    Advisory Council of New Zealand.

    This cultural concepts framework was developed to allow Mäori drug and alcohol workers to practice within a

    Mäori context, based on Mäori cultural practices. The framework is based in tikanga and kawa, and upon

    traditional Mäori cultural concepts still relevant today.

Boulton, A., Simonsen, K., Walker, T., Cumming, J. & Cunningham, C. (2004). Indigenous participation

    in the 'new' New Zealand health structure. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 9(Suppl 2),

    S2:35 - S32:40.

    This paper presents preliminary evaluative findings from research on key areas of concern to Mäori from the

    2001 health system reforms. The authors (from Te Pumanawa Hauora at Massey University, the Ministry of

    Health and the Health Services Research Centre) use key informant interviews with 35 Mäori and non-Mäori

    respondents and data from five case study districts. They conclude that there is support for the post-2000

    model. However, challenges remain, including concerns over strategy implementation, sustainability and

    workforce development.

Bramley, D., Riddell, T., Whittaker, R., Corbett, T., Lin, R.-B., Wills, M., et al. (2005). Smoking cessation

    using mobile phone text messaging is as effective in Maori as non-Maori [Electronic Version]. New

    Zealand Medical Journal, 118. Retrieved 13 June, 2006 from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/118-1216/1494/

    Reports on the results of a randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation service using mobile phone text

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 6 messaging. The trial was specifically designed to maximise participation by young Mäori. Those participants

    self-identifying as Mäori received Mäori-specific text messages.

Brewin, M. & Coggan, C. (1999). Tai Rawhiti CIPP formative evaluation report development phase.

    Centre report series, no. 41. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland.

    Retrieved 17 May, 2006, from http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/pdf/cr41.pdf

    An external evaluation of the Tai Rawhiti Community Injury Prevention Project. The aim of the evaluation is to

    ascertain the progress and impact of the Project on the reduction of the frequency and severity of injuries

    within the rohe of Tai Rawhiti, particularly in the areas of child, road traffic and alcohol-related injury, and with

    a particular focus on Mäori.

Brewin, M. & Coggan, C. (2004). Evaluation of the Ngati Porou Community Injury Prevention Project.

    Ethnicity & Health, 9(1), 5-15.

    The two authors, from the Injury Prevention Research Centre, report on the evaluation of the Ngäti Porou

    Community Injury Prevention Project based in a rural district with an extensive Mäori population. The main

    activities undertaken were road safety campaigns, alcohol and drug programmes, family violence initiatives,

    and the development of a playground safety audit. The evaluation found a significant increase in awareness

    of injury prevention among Ngäti Porou whänau and a significant decrease in injury rates for all age groups.

Burke, K. (2004). Engaging with communities over outcomes: A review of innovative approaches to

    meeting the LGA 2002 challenge of identifying community outcomes. [Wellington]: Local Government

    New Zealand. Retrieved May 12, 2006, from

    http://www.lgnz.co.nz/library/files/store_005/CommunityOutcomesPaper.pdf

    Describes some innovative examples of local government engagement processes, with a specific focus on

    the identification of community outcomes, as required under the Local Government Act 2002.

Cameron, G. (2004a, October). Evidence in an indigenous world. Paper presented at the Australasian

    Evaluation Society 2004 International Conference, Adelaide, South Australia.

    The author, from the Quit Group suggests quantitative research methodologies are often more highly valued,

    while experiential evidence is often used to provide substance but not the foundations of evaluation and

    research. He points to the growth in fourth world (indigenous) movements and acceptance of post-modernism

    as providing a challenge to these assumptions, with fourth world societies valuing experiential evidence as

    valid and reliable. Alternative forms of evidence are examined in this paper through a case study of New

    Zealand Mäori experiential evidence stored in mythology, proverbs, sayings, and people, and the possible

    use of this style of evidence in research and evaluation.

Cameron, G. (2004b, October). Whole population services: Evaluating their impact on Mäori. Paper

    presented at the Australasian Evaluation Society 2004 International Conference, Adelaide, South

    Australia.

    The author, from the Quit Group notes that, despite a rise in Mäori service provision, the majority of Mäori

    access social services through whole population services. Consequently, whole population services have an

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 7 obligation to provide services that benefit Mäori, and are required to undertake evaluation and monitoring to

    determine if this is occurring. This paper is based on the experiences of The Quit Group, a national whole

    population smoking cessation provider. The Quit Group has an average of 21% Mäori clients and its

organisational objectives requires that it meets specific Mäori needs. This paper explores the practicalities of

    undertaking whole population evaluation and research that seeks to measure both Mäori and whole

    population outcomes. It considers the challenges for a whole population service that is effective for Mäori in

    an environment of a by-Mäori-for-Mäori preference, Mäori research paradigms, and a relevant evaluation and

    research process for Mäori.

Cameron, G. (2005). He Ara Oranga: Pretesting. [Wellington]: [The Quit Group].

    The author, from the Quit Group, describes pretesting of a resource for Mäori callers to Quitline. The aim was

    to test the resource at the stage of development where the illustrations, design and content had been drafted

    to establish cultural appropriateness, ease of understanding, relevancy, geniality, and barriers to use. The

    design and illustrations of the draft booklet received most criticism, including the colours used and the use of

    cartoon-style illustrations.

Capital & Coast District Health Board. [2002]. Maori health strategy: Te Plan 2002-2007. [Wellington]:

    Capital & Coast District Health Board. This document sets Capital & Coast District Health Board's direction by identifying the actions it sees as

    necessary for the improvement of Mäori health.

    Catt, H. & Northcote, P. (2006, 25 - 27 September). Prompting participation: Can a personalised message to the newly enrolled have an impact on turnout? Paper presented at the Australasian

    Political Studies Association Conference, University of Newcastle, Australia.

    The Electoral Commission undertook two experiments for the 2005 general election testing the efficacy of a

    message delivered directly to the newly enrolled to vote, that encouraged them to vote. One sample group

    was sent items through the post while the other received text messages to their mobile phone. Two areas

    were covered, South Auckland and the central North Island, and in both cases names were also taken from

    the relevant Mäori electorate. While no statistically significant relationship was found between the

    personalised messages and turnout to vote, the authors note that there were different reactions by the

    various sub-groups of voters to both the number and form of the messages. For example, they found the

    highest impact among groups that are usually hard to motivate: Mäori voters, Mäori electorates and low

    turnout areas. On the other hand, there was also a negative impact for some of these same groups. The

    authors point to the main differences as being the number of messages delivered and the form of the

    message. They go on to say that more research would be needed to determine exactly what works for each

    sub-group but also on what would be an effective common approach. They point to one message, the call to

    action on election day itself, as being an effective element and propose that future projects should build on

    the “it‟s now!” feeling.

Coggan, C., Bennett, S., Patterson, P. & Borne, H. (2003). The ACC ThinkSafe Community Projects:

    Formative evaluation. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre.

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 8 This is a formative evaluation of the establishment of the ACC ThinkSafe Community Projects within New

    Zealand. It includes discussion of the World Health Organization model of community injury prevention. It also

    includes case studies of 10 ThinkSafe projects and findings from those case studies.

Coggan, C. & Brewin, M. (1999). Process and impact evaluation of the implementation phase of the

    Turanganui a Kiwa Community Injury Prevention Project. Centre report series, no. 34. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland. Retrieved 17 May, 2006, from

    http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/pdf/cr34.pdf Evaluates the process and impact of the Turanganui a kiwa Community Injury Prevention Project (CIPP). In

    particular, the report looks at the progress toward the reduction of the frequency and severity of injuries within

    Tai Rawhiti, particularly in the areas of child, road traffic and alcohol related injury. The authors report that

    positive impacts on the community were evident in the evaluation, for example, a positive increase in

    awareness and knowledge of injury prevention. Significant features of this project included the integration of

    injury prevention initiatives into existing programmes, targeting of critical areas, that expertise gained was

    built on, and that the Mäori coordinator was highly skilled and a good communicator.

Coggan, C. & Simpson, J. (2000). Policy implications: Pilot community injury prevention projects.

    Centre report series, no. 47. Auckland: Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland.

    Retrieved 17 May, 2006, from http://www.health.auckland.ac.nz/ipc/pdf/cr47.pdf

    This report examines five New Zealand Community Injury Prevention Projects (CIPP): Waitakere, Turanganui

    a kiwa, Ngäti Porou, Kawerau, and Rangiora. It includes recommendations for policy makers and funders

    about the establishment of future programmes. It highlights specific cultural considerations that need to be

    addressed when establishing programmes for Mäori and Pacific communities.

    Collie, C. (2002). Strengthening community action on alcohol. [Wellington]: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.

    This 178 page resource is written for those working to facilitate community action around alcohol issues. It

    aims to stimulate and foster best practice in reducing alcohol-related harm by providing theory, strategy and

    skills. It is specifically designed for those new to the field of alcohol health promotion, but could be used as a

    reference tool for those with more experience. As well as providing background on Mäori and alcohol and the

    Treaty of Waitangi, and discussion of alcohol health promotion, the resource includes a chapter on Mäori,

    with discussion on Mäori health promotion and working with Mäori communities.

Colmar Brunton. (2005). Service delivery strategy development for the Maori Customer Group.

    [Wellington]: Colmar Brunton.

    Inland Revenue commissioned this research in order to assist them to develop a service delivery strategy for

    their Mäori customers. This particular research uses both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies

    to look at Mäori customer experiences with Inland Revenue and how these can be made more effective and

    efficient.

    Community-Government Relationship Steering Group. (2002). He waka kotuia: Joining together on a shared journey. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development. Retrieved 16 May, 2006, from

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 9 http://www.ocvs.govt.nz/documents/reports/he-waka-kotuia.pdf This report, produced by the Community-Government Relationship Steering Group, suggests new ways for

    the Government to work with community, voluntary and Mäori organisations.

Comrie, M., Gillies, A. & Day, M. (2002). The Mäori Electoral Option campaign: Problems of measuring

    success. Political Science, 54(2), 45 - 58.

    This article, by academics from Massey University, considers the Mäori Electoral Option campaign and its

    effectiveness as a communication campaign. They suggest that the Option challenges traditional

    assumptions about objective political communication.

    Controller and Auditor General. (2006). The Treasury: Capability to recognise and respond to issues for Mäori. [Wellington]: Controller and Auditor General.

    This is the report of a performance audit of the Treasury's capability to recognise and respond to issues for

    Mäori. The author concludes that Treasury is well placed to respond to issues for Mäori, largely due to the

    ongoing support of senior staff to ensure that the expert knowledge held by a few individuals is widely shared

    throughout the organisation by a range of means.

Cram, F., Karehana, M. & Pitama, S. (1999). He Oranga Poutama: Third year evaluation report.

    Auckland: International Research Institute for Mäori and Indigenous Education, The University of

    Auckland.

    He Oranga Poutama is an initiative that promotes Mäori sporting and leisure activity as well as Mäori health

    and well-being more generally. A network of Kaiwhakahaere throughout New Zealand are responsible for

    making He Oranga Poutama work within their respective communities. This research is the third year

    evaluation of the programme. The aims of the evaluation were to identify the successes and failures of the

    programme and issues which would improve its implementation; to provide information on how to replicate

    the programme in other areas, and to report on progress towards meeting the overall project objectives.

    Thirty four stakeholders were interviewed for the research and a hui was held where evaluators held a

    general discussion with Kaiwhakahaere about He Oranga Poutama.

    Creative New Zealand. (2000). A survey of Mäori arts participation: Tirohanga ki te iwi Mäori kei roto i ngä toi Mäori. Wellington: Creative New Zealand. Retrieved 25 August, 2006, from

    http://www.creativenz.govt.nz/resources/publications.html

    The findings in this survey come from a survey of arts participation in New Zealand carried out by Creative

    New Zealand in partnership with the Hillary Commission over a 12 month period during 1997 - 1998. This

    report focuses on participation in traditional Mäori arts by Mäori and participation in general arts by Mäori.

    The report includes analysis by region, gender and age.

    de Bonnaire, C. & Falloon, J. (2000). Increasing electoral (re)enrolment among New Zealanders: Adult segment. Wellington: BRC Marketing & Social Research.

    Focusing on the adult population over 21 years who are eligible to vote, this qualitative research study builds

    on a previous piece of qualitative research which segmented youth (i.e. 18-21 years) on the basis of the

    motivations and barriers to enrol. Both studies were part of a research programme to assist the Electoral

    Research New Zealand | 07 May 2010 10 Enrolment Centre to develop strategies and tactics to reduce the abstention rates for enrolment to vote.

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