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Guidelines for Students

Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    Guidelines for Students

    Unit 4 Book 4

Part I In-class Reading

1. Words & Phrases

    creativity (n.) (title)

     That elementary school offered many opportunities to its pupils to

    display their creativity.

     That dancer’s creativity on the stage is rather amazing.

    ; create v. to cause (something new) to exist; produce

    (something new)

    ; creative adj. 有创造力的?创造性的?独创的

    ; creation n. 1) 创造?建立 2) 作品?创造物

practically (adv.) (Line 4, Para. 2)

    1) almost; nearly 几乎?简直

     Practically all the movies starring Jackie Chan (Cheng Long) are

    closely related to Chinese kungfu.

    2) relating to experience, reality or action rather than ideas or imagination

    实际上

     In many people’s mind, the city of Shanghai has practically become

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    the center of finance and culture of East Asia.

     Practically most Chinese festivals are more culturally attractive than

    the western ones.

strategy (n.) (Line 11, Para.3)

    1) the art of planning in advance the movements of armies or forces in war 战略?战略学

     Strategy and tactics are different concepts.

    2) a particular plan for gaining success in a particular activity, e.g. in a war, a game, or a competition, or for personal advantage 策略?计谋

     It is necessary for us to work out a strategy to deal with the current

    situation.

function (Line 14, Para. 3)

    v. (esp. of a thing) to be in action; work; operate 活动, 运行, 行使职责

     This computer is not functioning/does not function properly. This cell phone can also function as an Mp3 player.

    n. a natural or usual duty (of a person) or purpose (of a thing) 职责?职

    能?功能?作用

     The function of a coach is to lead his team to get victory of various

    matches.

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    reach beyond (Line 15, Para. 4)

    beyond prep. (表示范围?限度)超出

     The medicine should be kept beyond the reach of children.

     beyond one’s reach=beyond the reach of somebody

     beyond one’s target

     beyond one’s power/ ability

     beyond the range of

approach (Line 16, Para. 4)

    v.

    1) to begin to consider or deal with 开始考虑?开始着手?动手处理

     He approached the lawyer’s advice with caution.

    2) to come near or nearer (to) in space, time, quality, or quantity 接近?走

    近?靠近

     When Christmas is approaching everyone is busy preparing gifts for

    their friends and relatives.

    n.

    1) a method of doing something or dealing with a problem 方法, 步骤

     It is unbelievable that such a young doctor presented a new approach

    to cancer treatment

     We suggest the conflicts be settled by diplomatic approaches.

    2) the act of approaching 走近?靠近

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

promote (v.) (Line 21, Para. 6)

    1) to help in the growth or development of 促进?发扬?宣传

     A good boss should know how to promote team spirit among his

    employees.

    2) to give (someone) a higher position or rank 晋升?提拔

     After that win, our team was eventually promoted to the Chinese

    Football Super League.

    3) to help actively in forming or arranging (a business, concert, play, etc.) 积极筹划

     To promote such a grand singing concert needs the financial support

    of the local enterprises.

sacrifice (Line 23, Para. 6)

    v. to lose or give up sth useful or important, esp. for good purpose or to gain a desirable result 牺牲?献身

     It is the factory’s decision to sacrifice short-term profits for the sake

    of long-term growth.

     She has sacrificed most of her leisure time for the preparation of the

    upcoming TOEFL exam.

    n. (a) loss or giving up of something of value, esp. for what is believed to be a good purpose 牺牲?献身

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

     Chinese table tennis team gave up the spring festival holiday as a

    sacrifice to continue their routine training.

multiplication (n.) (Line 28, Para. 6)

    n. the process of adding a number to itself a particular number of times 乘法运算

     My neighbor’s son could recite the multiplication tables at the age of

    three.

    ; multiply v.

    1) to combine by multiplication

     3 multiplied by 9 is 27.

    2) to greatly increase in number or amount (大量地)增加

     American military expenditure has multiplied in the last five years.

automatically (adv.) (Line 61, Para. 10)

    ; automatic adj.

    1) (esp. of a machine) able to work or move by itself without operation

    by a person 自动的?自动化的

     That machine has an automatic temperature control.

    2) done without conscious thought, esp. as a habit 习惯性的?不经思考

    的?机械的

     I automatically told him everything happened after we parted because

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    I can’t help myself.

     Avoiding making some automatic mistakes in routine jobs is not an

    easy thing.

    ; automate v. 使自动化, 自动操作

    ; automation n. 自动控制, 自动操作

     A lot of people have lost their jobs because of industrial automation.

    2. Difficult sentences or useful expressions from the text 1. Creativity is the key to a brighter future, say education and business experts. Here is how schools and parents can encourage this vital skill in children.

    2. If Dick Drew had listened to his boss in 1925, we might not have a product that we now think of as practically essential: masking tape. Drew worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, better known as 3M. At work he developed a sticky-side substance strong enough to hold things together. But his boss told him not to pursue the idea. Finally, using his own time, Drew perfected the tape, which now is used everywhere by many people. And his former company learned from its mistake: Now 3M encourages people to spend 15 percent of their work time just thinking and developing new ideas.

    3. It is a strategy that more and more companies are employing and one that experts around the country say we ought to be following with our

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    children, both at home and at school. The feeling is that if we teach

    them to think creatively, they will be better able to function in tomorrow

    s society.

    4. Creativitys benefits reach beyond music and art. Successful students and adults are the ones who discover a number of ways to approach problems.

    5. Creativity is not something one is just born with, nor is it necessarily a characteristic of high intelligence. Just because a person is highly

    intelligent does not mean that he uses it creatively. Creativity is the matter of using the resources one has to produce original ideas that are good for something.

    6. Unfortunately, schools have not tended to promote creativity. With strong emphasis on test scores and the development of reading, writing and mathematical skills, many educators sacrifice creativity for correct answers. The result is that children can give back information but cant

    recognize ways to apply it to new situations. They may know their multiplication tables, for example, but they are unable to apply them to story problems.

    7. In some schools, however, educators are recognizing the problem and are developing new approaches to teaching which should encourage creativity in their students. Some teachers are combining the basics with activities where the students must use their imagination. For example,

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    instead of simply asking WHEN Columbus discovered the New World, teachers might ask students to think about what would have happened if his trip had taken him to New York first instead of to the Caribbean area. With that question, students would have to use what they know about Columbus, what they know about New York, and what they know about the Caribbean. Teachers feel that even if the answers seem silly, it

    s OK, that sometimes being silly is an essential step toward creativity. In the classroom as well as at home, children must have the right to have crazy thoughts, experts say. Then it is up to parents and teachers to work with the children to develop those thoughts into workable ideas. The best strategy is to encourage children by asking them questions, meanwhile praising their ideas and new thoughts. Experts say that it is important to

    create an atmosphere in which there is no risk in being creativea

    place where wild ideas are honored and valued, never scorned or dismissed.

    8. There are things that parents can do at home to encourage creativity. They can involve children in decision-making if the problem is appropriate, asking the child for suggestions. Parents can help their children to understand the consequences of various decisions. Parents should also encourage their children to talk out loud about things they are doing. Thinking and language skills are closely related. Talking out loud improves language skills and thinking skills.

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    9. Having a sense of humor is also important in helping to develop creativity in a child. When parents show a sense of humor, children can see creativity in its purest form. By its nature, humor crosses conventional boundaries and breaks patterns. Creativity often does the same.

    10. It is important to give children choices. From the earliest age, children should be allowed to make decisions and understand their consequences. Even if it's choosing between two food items for lunch, decision-making helps thinking skills. As children grow older, parents should let their children decide how to use their time or spend their money, but not automatically help them too much if they make the wrong decision. This may be confusing for the child, but that is all right. This is because one of the most important traits of creative people is a very strong motivation to make order out of confusion.

    (765 words)

Students Tasks

    Practice as much as possible the in-class reading (including new words and phrases, text, grammar items etc.) so that you will be fully prepared to do the following in the class: 1. Dictation ( words, phrases or sentences from the text)

    2. Read aloud and learn them by heart

    (3) It is a strategy that more and more companies are employing and one that experts around the country say we ought to be following with our

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Unit 4 Book 4 Students Handout 2009

    children, both at home and at school. The feeling is that if we teach them to think creatively, they will be better able to function in tomorrows

    society.

    (5) Creativity is not something one is just born with, nor is it necessarily a characteristic of high intelligence. Just because a person is highly intelligent does not mean that he uses it creatively. Creativity is the matter of using the resources one has to produce original ideas that are good for something.

    (9) Having a sense of humor is also important in helping to develop creativity in a child. When parents show a sense of humor, children can see creativity in its purest form. By its nature, humor crosses conventional boundaries and breaks patterns. Creativity often does the same.

    3. Discuss the questions concerning the topic of the text 4. Finish exercises on Page 141~144

    5. Oral presentation: Creativity

Part II After-class Reading

    Students are encouraged to learn this part as much as possible:

    ; main ideas & implications of the reading materials

    ; new words & expressions

    ; useful sentences& grammatical points

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