Unit 1 Ways of Learning
Text A Learning, Chinese-style
1. attach: fasten or join (one thing to another) (used in the pattern: attach sth. to sth.)
Examples: Scientists discovered they could measure wind speed by attaching a wind meter to
a kite and sending it up.
Attached to this letter you will find a copy of the document you asked for.
amount to总计达, 相当于, 等于
appeal to向……呼吁; 诉诸于; 对……有吸引力
)申请 apply to向(某人
attend to处理, 料理; 照顾, 照料
confess to承认, 忏悔
confine…to把……限制在 consent to同意, 答应
contribute to捐献, 捐赠; 有助于 correspond to 相当于; 相符, 符合 devote…to为……而奉献 entitle…to给……权利(或资格) lead to(路等)通向; 导致
occur to被想到, 出现在脑海中 owe…to把……归功于
prefer…to喜欢……胜过…… propose to向……求婚
refer to提到, 涉及; 查阅, 参考 relate to有关, 涉及
resort to诉诸, 求助于
respond to回答, 响应
stick to坚持; 忠于, 信守 subject to使遭受, 使服从 submit to服从, 听从
surrender to投降, 屈服
yield to投降, 让步
2. not in the least: not at all
Examples: I am not in the least touched by the Marilyn Monroe kind of beauty.
Ann didn't seem in the least concerned about her study.
3. find one's way: reach a destination naturally; arrive at
Examples: Shanghai is not an easy city to find your way around.
Drunk as he was, Peter still found his way home.
struggle one’s way; make one’s way; push one’s way, etc.
4. phenomenon: (pl. phenomena) sth. that happens or exists and that can be seen or experienced
Examples: Hurricanes are a relatively common phenomenon in the Caribbean.
Thunder and lightening are natural phenomena.
5. Initial: of or at the beginning, first (adj., used only before n.)
Examples: If a car suddenly pulls out in front of you, your initial reaction may include fear
Their initial burst of enthusiasm died down when they realized how much work the job
6. assist: help (used in the pattern: assist sb. to do sth., assist sb. with sth.)
Examples: The professor was assisting his students to prepare their project.
The college student decided to assist the boy with his study.
Word choice: help, assist, give/lend a hand, help out, come to sb’s aid/assistance, aid, give/send aid
Help and assist can both describe people or institutions helping each other do a job. However, assist is more formal and often suggests that the person assisting is doing a simple or unimportant
part of what has to be done, e.g.
My company assists businesses in all their office cleaning requirements.
You will assist the administrative officer with day-to-day organization.
In more informal English people often use give/ lend a hand or help out, especially where
there is something practical to do and not enough people to do it:
Can you give me a hand with the drinks?
I sometimes lend a hand / help out at eh old folk’s home.
If someone is in danger or trouble, you may help them or more formally come to their aid/
My car’s broken down, can you help?
If you get into difficulties, the lifeguard will come to your assistance.
If a person, charity, or government helps with money or other necessary things, aid (formal)
or often give/ send aid may be used; help would be used informally:
Many projects are aided by Oxfam.
Aid will be sent to the area as soon as possible.
Please help the homeless.
7. insert: put, fit, place (in, into, between)
Examples: Wait for a couple of minutes with your mouth closed before inserting the
The doctor carefully inserted the needle into my left arm. 8. somewhat: to some degree, a little Examples:
It is reported that conditions in the village have improved somewhat since November.
____ "Are you concerned about your exam results?"
9. await: (fml) wait for
Await is a fairly common word in formal writing, but you do not usually use it in conversation. Instead you use "wait for." Examples:
We must await the results of field studies yet to come.
After I sent the letter asking for a job, I had nothing to do but await the answer. 10. on occasion: now and then
Examples: I was usually the only foreign participant, although on occasion I brought other
Americans in as guests.
Steve spent almost all his time doing his research, but, on occasion, he would take his son to
see a film.
11. neglect: give too little attention or care to
Examples: He gave too much attention to his career, working long hours and neglecting his
Their investment turned out to be a failure and the manager was accused of neglecting his
Cf.: ignore: pay no attention to sb./sth. on purpose, or as if sth. has not happened
Example: I said "Good morning" to her, but she just ignored me and walked on.
, opposite irrelevant) Examples: 12. relevant: directly connected with the subject (followed by to
Only a few people feel the debate about the cloning of human beings is relevant to their daily
While writing my term paper I was able to borrow all the relevant books from the school
13. investigate: try to find out information about (used in the pattern: investigate sth., investigate
+ wh-clause) Examples:
Police are still investigating how the car accident happened.
We can assure you that your complaint will be fully and properly investigated. 14. exception: sb./sth. that a comment or statement does not apply to Examples:
Normally, parents aren't allowed to sit in on the classes, but in your case we can make an
We feel that all the students in this class, with one or two exceptions, support the educational
When you are mentioning an exception, you often use the expression "with the exception of”.
Example: We all went to see the film, with the exception of Otto, who complained of feeling
15. on one's own: 1) without anyone's help
Examples: You needn't give me any help. I am able to manage on my own. There are jobs your child can do on her own.
Examples: The child was left on her own for hours as her mom had to deal with the emergency.
I'd rather not go to dance on my own. I do wish you'd come with me. 以on 开始的类似词组还有:
on a large (small) scale大；小？规模地
on account of由于？ 因为
on an/ the average平均？通常
on behalf of代表？为了
on condition that如果
on one’s guard警惕？提防
on second thoughts经重新考虑？继而想
on the contrary正相反
on the grounds of根据？以……为理由
on the point of即将……的时候
on the road在旅途中？在……过程中
on the side作为兼职？作为副业？正事以外
on the spot在场？到场！马上？当场
on the whole总的来说？大体上
16. accomplish: manage to do (sth.)
Examples: Unless you practice you'll accomplish nothing. If I work hard, I think I can accomplish my goal of getting 6 A's at the end of the semester.
17. in due course: at the proper time; eventually
Examples: Your book will be published in due course. Be patient. You'll get your promotion in due course.
18. critical: 1) very important
Examples: Environmentalists say a critical factor in the city's pollution is its population.
How well you accomplish this task will be critical to the success of your career.
2) very serious or dangerous
Examples: In yesterday's car accident, ten people were killed and five people are still in a
As the situation in Afghanistan became critical, the UN Secretary-General appointed a
special representative to tackle it.
19. principal: adj. (rather fml) main, chief
Examples: The couple's principal concern is to earn enough money to send their children to
Her principal interest in life was to be a world-renowned pianist.
n. The principal of a school or college is the person in charge of it.
Example: Complaints from the students began arriving at the principal's office.
Cf.: principle (see Confusable Words p.16 )
A principle is a basic rule that explains or controls how something works or a guiding rule for behavior.
Examples: These machines work on the same principle.
Mr. Ward is a man of high principles.
20. make up for: repay with sth. good, compensate for
Examples: I didn't travel much when I was younger, but I'm certainly making up for lost time
Her husband bought her a present to make up for quarreling with her the day before. 21. in retrospect: on evaluating the past; upon reflection
Examples: The young man knew in retrospect that he should have married his first love
In retrospect, I wish that I had chosen biology as my major.
in a sense从某种程度上？从某点上看 in any case/ event无论如何？不管怎样
in common共同的？共有的 in consequence因此？结果 in debt 欠债？欠情
in effect实际上？事实上 in favor of支持？赞成
in general一般来说？大体上 in hand在进行中？待办理 in honor of为庆祝？为纪念 in itself本质上？就其本身而言 in line成一条直线？ 成一排 in line with与……一致！与……符合 in memory of纪念
in no case无论如何不？ 决不 in no time立即？马上
in no way 决不
in order按顺序？按次序！整齐 in part部分地
in place of代替？取代？交换 in practice在实践中？实际上 in proportion to与……成比例 in public公开地？当众
in regard to关于？至于
in relation to有关？与……相比 in return作为报答
in sight看得见？被见到！在望？在即 in step齐步？合拍！一致？协调 in tears流着泪？在哭着
……期间, 在……过程中 in the course of在
in the event of如果……发生, 万一 in the face of 不顾, 即使; 在……前面 in the least丝毫, 一点儿
in (the) light of鉴于,由于
in the way挡道, 妨碍人的
in the world究竟, 到底
in touch 联系, 接触
in vain陡然, 白费力
22. extreme: adj. very great