SAGE Journal Editors Handbook Section 7

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SAGE Journal Editors Handbook Section 7

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

    SAGE House Style Guide for International Political Science Review


    Use US spellings. Use -ize and -yse spellings. The following list shows some

    common exceptions to the 'ize' rule:

    Advertise devise Merchandise Advise disenfranchise Misadvise Affranchise disguise Premise Apprise emprise Prise Arise enfranchise Promise Chastise enterprise Reprise Circumcise exercise Revise Comprise excise Supervise Compromise expertise Surmise Contrariwise franchise Surprise Demise improvise Televise Despise incise Treatise Note also: analyse, catalyse, dialyse, paralyse.

Make sure that spellings are consistent. Some common US variations in spelling are:

     analyze fulfill pediatrics

     behavior gray program

     color labor practice (noun and verb)

     counseling license (noun) traveler/traveling

     favor mold willful

Punctuation and Formatting

    US punctuation style should be used.

Follow author style regarding use of the possessive 's for proper names ending in s.

    However, 's is not used for classical names, e.g. Socrates' philosophy

Commas - follow author style but make consistent.

    Always use Oxford commas in lists:

     Italians, Norwegians, and Spaniards (US)

Parentheses are used throughout (square brackets are used only to enclose

    parenthetical material already in parentheses and to enclose an author's comment

    within a quote, e.g. [sic], [emphasis added]). Note: there should not be a comma or

    any other form of punctuation immediately before a parenthesis.

Quotes: use double quotes, with single quotes within quoted material.

Hyphenation: the basic rule is to follow author style when hyphenating words such

    as co-ordinate or non-negotiable but be consistent. Note down any decisions

    regarding hyphenation on the article cover sheet.

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

Upper and lower case: check the author's usage first, and make consistent. For

    specific titles use initial caps, for generic titles use lower case:

     (a) Institutions, movements, denominations, political parties

    e.g. the Roman Catholic Church he has catholic tastes.

     They were Bolsheviks bolshevism, communism

(b) Titles, ranks

    e.g. the President (referring to a a president

    particular one)

     the Spanish Foreign Minister several government ministers

(c) Geographical names

    Capitalize the politically defined or geographically named places, use lower case in

    all other instances.

    e.g. the West, the East western values, eastern culture

     South Africa the south of Scotland

(d) Periods, events

    e.g. World War II (or I) should be used note ‘rationing during the war’.

(e) Article and book titles

    Follow the style used in the references, see 7.6.


Use unspaced n dashes to indicate page and date spans, e.g. 3560; 198088

    Use spaced n dashes as dashes in the text, e.g. ‘only three – Mexico, the USA and

    Brazil occupy positions away from the predicted outcome’.

    Roman and italic:

Anglicized words should be roman with no accents. Common examples are:

ad hoc elite per capita

    a priori en masse per se

    a propos en route post hoc

    avant-garde et al. post mortem

    bona fide in situ raison d'etre

    bourgeois/bourgeoisie laissez-faire sine qua non

    cafe nouveau riche status quo

    coup d'etat op.cit. vice versa

    de facto per annum vis-a-vis

Foreign words - follow author style and make consistent.

Keep author's own emphasized words or phrases, unless excessive.

    Quoted text: spellings and punctuation in quoted texts should not be altered. If they are obviously incorrect, query with author or insert [sic].

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

     (a) Undisplayed quotes

    Short quotations should be indicated by double quotation marks, with single

    quotation marks for quotation material within the quote. A full point (or other

    punctuation) follows the reference for the quote, e.g. ‘’ the most decisive and

    important’’ (Smith, 1980: 45). US usage means that where there is no reference the

    final full point always comes before the end quote marks.

     (b) Displayed

    Lengthier quotes (50 words or more) should be clearly indicated and indented in

    the text.


    These should be clearly indicated in the text, ideally with bullet points.


    Abbreviations consisting of capital letters, and acronyms and contractions, should

    not take full points, e.g. USA, UK, MA, UN, WHO, PhD, NATO, UNESCO, AD, BC.

    The Journal does not use small caps.

Unfamiliar abbreviations should always be written out in full when first mentioned,

    with the abbreviated form following in parentheses.

    e.g. The Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA) was formed...

    Thereafter, use the abbreviation.

Contractions do not take a full point, e.g. Dr, Mr, St, Ltd, edn. However, the

    following abbreviations take full points: No., Co., p., pp., Vol., Ch. (but use Vols

    and Chs), e.g., ed. (but use eds), et al., etc., i.e., cf. (note that this means compare

    and not see), n.d., viz.

There should be no comma after e.g., i.e. or cf. Etc. is usually preceded by a comma

    in a list.

In reference lists, notes, footnotes and authors' biographical notes, please use the

    standard abbreviated form for American states:

    Alabama AL Alaska AK Arizona AZ Arkansas AR California CA Colorado CO Connecticut CT Delaware DE District of Columbia DC Florida FL Georgia GA Hawaii HI Idaho ID Illinois IL Indiana IN Iowa IA Kansas KS


    Kentucky KY Louisiana LA

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

    Maine ME Maryland MD Massachusetts MA Michigan MI Minnesota MN Mississippi MS Missouri MO Montana MT Nebraksa NE Nevada NV New Hampshire NH New Jersey NJ New Mexico NM New York NY North Carolina NC North Dakota ND Ohio OH Oregon OR Oklahoma OK Pennsylvania PA Puerto Rico PR Rhode Island RI South Carolina SC South Dakota SD Tennesee TN Texas TX Utah UT Vermont VT Virginia VA Virgin Islands VI Washington WA West Virginia WV Wisconsin WI Wyoming WY



    Roman Italic


    d.f. (degrees of freedom) F (F ratio) MS (mean square) M (mean) NS (not significant) N (number in sample) SD (standard deviation) n (number in subsample) SS (sum of squares) p (probability)

     r (correlation coefficient)

     t (Student's t test)

    22 ? (Chi)




SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

    For currency use the common symbol or abbreviation - US$, ?, ptas, DM, etc. - where the quantity is stated, but not when the unit of currency is being referred to in general terms. Do not leave a space between the unit and the amount e.g. The price of oil rose to US$25 per barrel.

     The US dollar was at an all-time low.

Use millions of lira but ?150m, not mlns.

    If contributors do not have access to the Euro symbol then it should be written out as 50 euros

Other Units

    Where units are referred to in the text in general terms they should be written out in full; where a specific quantity is used the abbreviated form of the unit must be used. Always use figures with the abbreviated unit and use abbreviated units wherever possible - in lists of statistics, in tables and line artwork.

Do not mix spelt-out numbers and units: 6 cm not six cm

    Units and numerals should have a thin space between them, i.e. 100 km not 100km.

    Abbreviations of units are the same for singular and plural (do not add an s) and they do not take a full point.

Use metric units wherever possible.

    Where a sentence starts with a specific quantity the number must be written out in full, but if at all possible rework the sentence


    Should follow the style below, i.e. one month, 11 months, four days, 21 days, etc.


    In text always use ‘percent’ not per cent or % and always with a figure i.e 64 percent except at the beginning of a sentence or a paragraph when it should be hyphenated i.e. ‘Sixty-four percent said that…’

    Spell out numbers one to nine, and for numerals 10 and over use figures. Always spell out a number if it begins a sentence or paragraph e.g. ‘Ten years later,…’. In a list avoid mixing numerals and figures except for quantities e.g. ‘four 20-kiloton

    bombs’ but ‘The amounts in each category were 4, 3, 20, and 29 respectively’.

    Use figures with percent, with units, in statistical passages, in tables, etc. Numbers, however, should be spelt out at the beginning of a sentence or the sentence rewritten.

Spell out and hyphenate one-half, two-thirds, etc.

    Do not use a comma in thousands but do use one in tens of thousands and above. e.g. 5643, 1298, 14,600, 342,885, 1,000,001

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

Use the least number of numerals possible in pagination and in dates:

    e.g. 425, 19756, 195467, 1301.

    But use 1014, 1011 as these represent single words.

Decimal points are never raised off the line. There is no zero before a point for

    probability and correlations where the number is always less than one.


    Write out dates as follows: September 30 1986

Do not use an inverted comma in decades, e.g. 1960s, mid-1930s. Avoid ‘80s, etc.

    Use figures for centuries (except in history journals where it is spelled out), e.g. a

    20th century dilemma.

Notes and Footnotes

    (a) Textual Notes

    Textual notes are indicated by a superscript arabic numeral placed after the

    punctuation. All textual notes should be collected and placed after the text and

    before the reference section. Any general note, author's acknowledgement or brief

    statement should be the first, unnumbered note.

(b) Authors' biographical notes

    e.g. YONG-KWAN YOON is Professor of International Political Economy at Seoul

    National Unversity, Korea. His reseach interests include East Asian political

    economy and foreign investments. He has published four books and many articles,

    most recently ‘’The Political Econonomy of Transition, ’’ World Politics 43(1)

    October 1990. ADDRESS: Department of International Relations, Seoul National

    University, Seoul 151-72, Korea [].

(c) Tables abcFootnotes to tables should be indicated by a superscript, lower case , , , etc. The

    notes themselves should be placed at the foot of the table (below any rule)

    preceded by the respective superscript letter. These notes should precede the

    source for the table, if included.

    Source for table: should be in italics and followed by a colon.

? Line

    This should appear on the opening page of every article, review article, book

    review section and index and is made up of the following information:

    [ISSN(yr & month)vol:issue;pp.-pp.;ID no.], e.g. [1368-4302(199807)1:1;81-


    The ID no. is an article identifier assigned in-house.

References and citations

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

    The preferred style for references is endnotes followed by a reference list.

(a) Text citations

    All references in the text and notes must be specified by the author(s)'s last name(s) and date of publication together with page numbers if given.

    Do not use ibid., op.cit., infra., citations. Instead, show the subsequent citation of the same source in the same way as the first.

Note the following for the style of text citations:

    1. If the author's name is in the text, follow with one year in parentheses:

     ...Roberts (1997) has argued....

    2. If author's name is not in the text, insert last name, comma and year:

     ...several works (Coser, 1997) have described...

    3. Where appropriate, the page number follows the year, separated by a colon: has been noted (Bell, 1997: 34) that...

    4. Where there are two authors, give both names, joined by 'and'; if three or more authors, use et al.: has been stated (Jones and Smith, 1996)...

     ...some investigators (Brown et al., 1995)...

    5. If there is more than one reference to the same author and year, insert a, b, etc. in both the text and the list: was described (Shaw, 1988a: 33-6)...

    6. Enclose alphabetically within a single pair of parentheses a series of references, separated by semicolons:

     ...and it has been noted (Black and Williams, 1986; Downey and Jones, 1985; Perry, 1977)..

    7. If two or more references by the same author are cited together, separate the dates with a comma:

     ...the author has stated this in several studies (Davis, 1988, 1993, 1997)... 8. Enclose within the parentheses any brief phrase associated with the reference:

     ...several investigators have claimed this (but see Jones, 1990: 123-4). 9. For an institutional authorship, supply the minimum citation from the beginning of the complete reference:

     ...a recent statement (Psychiatric Association, 1988: 45)...

     ...occupational data (US Bureau of the Census, 1994: 36) reveal.... 10. For authorless articles or studies, use the name of the magazine, journal, newspaper or sponsoring organization, and not the title of the article: was stated (American Law Review, 1997) that...

    11. Citations from personal communications are not included in the reference list:

     ...has been hypothesized (Taylor, September 15 1997, personal


     Check that it is quite clear from the surrounding text who is being referred to.

Reference Style

    All publications mentioned in the text or in endnotes must be fully cited in the reference list.

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

Journal article

    Leach, William (1984). ‘’Transformations in a Culture of Consumption: Women and

    Department Stores,1890-1925’’, Journal of American History 7(2): 31942.


    Shields, Rob, ed. (1996). Cultures of Internet: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories, Living Bodies. London: Sage.

    Chapter in book

    Sconce, Jeffrey (1997). ‘’The ‘Outer Limits’ of Oblivion,’’ in Lynn Spigel and

    Michael Curtin (eds), The Revolution Wasn’t Televised: Sixties Television and Social Conflict. New York: Routledge.


    Garton, L., Haythornthwaite, C. and Wellman, B. (1997) 'Studying Online Social

    Networks', Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3(1), URL (consulted Feb.

    1998): Official publications of an organization World Bank (1998). World Development Indicators, 1997. Washington DC.

    Articles in newspapers or magazines The Independent (Dhakar) (1999) “PKSF to hold NGOs in Leash.” 9 May.


Jolis, A (1996). “The Good Banker: Grameen Bank, Bangladesh.” The Independent

    (Dhakar) , 5 May.

(b) Reference List

    Check that the list is in alphabetical order (treat Mc as Mac).

Names should be in upper and lower case.

Where several references have the same author(s), do not use ditto marks or em

    dashes; the name must be repeated each time.

Surnames containing de, van, von, De, Van, Von, de la, etc. should be listed under

    D and V respectively. List them as: De Roux, D.P. and not Roux, D.P., de. When

    cited in the main text without the first name, use capitals for De, Van, Von, De la,

    etc. (Van Dijk, 1998)

Names containing Jr or II should be listed as follows:

    Vanderbilt, William, Jr (1996)

    Smythe-Pryce, P.P., II (1995)

References where the first-named author is the same should be listed as follows:

    Single-author references in date order;

    Two-author references in alphabetical order according to the second author's name;

    Et al. references in alphabetical order; in the event of more than one entry having

    the same date, they should be placed in alphabetical order of second (or third)

    author, and a, b, etc. must be inserted.

Brown, J. (1967)

    Brown, T.R. and Yates, P. (1962)

    Brown, W. (1978)

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]

Brown, W. (1986a)

    Brown, W. (1986b)

    Brown, W. and Jones, M. (1995)

    Brown, W. and Peters, P. (1984)

    Brown, W., Hughes, J. and Kent, T. (1980) Brown, W., Kent, T. and Lewis, S. (1979)

Check that all periodical data are included - volume, issue and page numbers,

    publisher, place of publication, etc.

    Check journal for further examples.

SAGE Journal Editor’s Handbook Section 7 [house.doc 19Nov98]


AUTHORS please note that in addition to above:

1. All elements of your paper must be double spaced.

2. All figures must be in Word.

3. Italicized items may be typed in an italic font or underscored to indicate


4. The production process at Sage does not permit us to incorporate late

    changes into your manuscript.

5. All articles must be accompanied by an abstract, three to five keywords, a

    biographical note (see above for style of bio note; see following example

    for style of abstract


ABSTRACT. The Japanese electoral system has been distinctive in its use of

    the single non-transferable vote (SNTV). Under SNTV three to five members

    were elected form each constituency based on a simple majority of votes.

    However, a series of corruption scandals damaged confidence in the political

    system, and undermined the one-party dominance of the Liberal Democratic

    Party. As a result, in March 1994 the national parliament (Diet) passed new

    measures transforming the electoral system into a mixed-member system,

    combining single-member districts and PR party lists. Campaign funding

    laws were also reformed. This article explores the politics behind these


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