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Module 5 Health and Physical Development - Outline for

By Brenda Tucker,2014-05-20 16:02
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Increase independence with basic self-help skills (e.g., feeding oneself, Strategy: Model and discuss healthy eating habits and provide nutritious

    Time needed to complete this module is _ minutes

    Health and Physical Development focuses on various aspects of physical development. It includes Self Care, Safety Awareness, Motor Skills, and Physical

    Health and Growth. There is emphasis on both large and fine motor development, as well as

    eye-hand coordination. The subdomain Physical Health and Growth, although sounding

    almost like the domain name itself, includes nutrition, children’s awareness of personal health and fitness, and vision and hearing.

Domain Key Points

    1. Children begin to practice new motor skills such as balance, coordination, strength and

    the ability to grasp writing tools.

    2. Children must have received the required examinations and immunizations.

    3. Children need safe and accessible environments that respect cultural and individual

    differences.

Subdomain: Self Care

    Self-care refers to the development and use of eating, dressing, and hygiene skills, and other

    indications such as taking responsibility for possessions.

Children have a sense of pride when they are able to perform basic self care functions.

In the preschool years, children begin to...

    ? Develop an awareness of hygiene.

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    ? Follow basic hygiene practices (e.g., brushing teeth, washing hands).

    ? Increase independence with basic self-help skills (e.g., feeding oneself, toileting,

    dressing oneself).

    ? Develop the ability to care for personal belongings.

    ? Help with routine care of the environment (e.g., put toys away).

A great deal of time is spent in preschool helping children develop healthy routines. It is

    important to maintain environments that support self care and hygiene. The best way to

    teach hygienic practices is to model them.

How do Early Educators make this happen?

    Strategy: Provide instruction and facilitate ample opportunities for children to practice self

    care skills as independently as they are able.

How do families make this happen?

    Strategy: Demonstrate and talk with your child about hygienic practices such as hand-

    washing, bathing, and proper dental care.

Subdomain: Safety Awareness

    Safety awareness refers to development of the ability to

    identify potential risks and use safe practices to protect

    oneself and others. In the preschool years, children begin to... Remarkable advances in the ? Demonstrate an understanding of the development of fine motor skills importance of personal safety. occur during the preschool years ? Develop awareness of and the ability to follow (TRAWICK-SMITH). Outdoor play basic health and safety rules (e.g., fire and traffic is essential for both physical safety). growth and motor development. ? Trust and cooperate in a comfortable, safe (CHARLESWORTH) This is the environment. period of time during which young

    ? Recognize and avoid potentially harmful persons, children experiment and explore

    objects, substances, activities, and environments. their movement potential in a

     variety of movement tasks Again, it is important to model safe practices. Share (SPODEK & SARACHO).

    the process of developing rules with children, and help

    them understand the rationale behind rules.

How do Early Educators make this happen?

    Strategy: Teach and model appropriate responses to potentially dangerous situations.

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How do families make this happen?

    Strategy: Monitor what your child sees on television and at the

    movie theater and eliminate access to violent and inappropriate

    shows, video games, and films.

Subdomain: Motor Skills

    Fine motor refers to movement of the small muscles of the hand and arm that control the

    ability to scribble, write, draw, tie shoes, use a keyboard, and many other activities requiring

    finger, hand, and hand-eye coordination. Gross motor refers to movement of the large

    muscles in the upper and lower body that control the ability to walk, run, dance, jump, and

    other skills relating to body strength and stamina.

In the preschool years, children begin to...

    ? Develop small muscle control and coordination.

    ? Experiment with handheld tools that develop strength, control, and dexterity of small

    muscles (e.g., spoons, paintbrushes, crayons, markers, safety scissors, and a variety

    of technological tools, with adaptations as needed).

    ? Explore and engage in activities that enhance hand-eye coordination, such as using

    eating utensils, dressing themselves, building with blocks, creating with clay or play

    dough, putting puzzles together, stringing beads, and using other manipulatives.

    ? Develop body strength, balance, flexibility, and stamina.

    ? Develop large muscle control and coordinate movements in their upper and/or lower

    body.

    ? Explore a variety of equipment and activities that enhance gross motor development

    (e.g., balls, slides, locomotive toys, and assistive technology).

    ? Increase the ability to move their bodies in space (running, jumping, skipping).

Children should see teachers using drawing and writing tools in daily activities constantly.

    Teachers should supervise and participate in indoor and outdoor active play with children.

How do Early Educators make this happen?

    Strategy: Plan activities that use a variety of materials to support fine motor skill

    development, with adaptations as needed.

    Strategy: Plan daily physical activities that are vigorous as well

    as developmentally and individually appropriate.

How do families make this happen?

    Strategy: Supervise and take part in frequent periods of outdoor play and forms of

    exercise that enhance physical fitness.

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Subdomain: Physical Health & Growth

    Physical health and growth focuses on dietary habits and nutrition awareness, the

    development of healthy exercise habits, and attention to other wellness issues.

Physical activity has immediate benefits for children in relation to physical, cognitive and

    social development. (CHARLESWORTH)

In the preschool years, children begin to...

    ? Participate in a variety of physical activities for longer periods of time (e.g., exercise,

    games, and active play).

    ? Transition from high-energy to low-energy activities (e.g., calming or other relaxing

    activities).

    ? Recognize and eat nutritious foods.

    ? Develop an awareness of personal health and fitness.

    ? Participate in games, outdoor play, and other forms of exercise to enhance physical

    fitness.

    ? Engage in adaptive physical activities as appropriate.

    ? Make better use of their vision and hearing, and benefit from corrections and aids as

    needed.

Can we say “model” one more time? It is questionable practice if, while providing the best,

    most nutritional meals for children, the teacher models nutritional habits that are not up to the

    standards of what the children are eating.

How do Early Educators make this happen?

    Strategy: Model and discuss healthy eating habits and provide nutritious snacks and

    meals.

How do families make this happen?

    Strategy: Establish routines for bedtime and quiet time.

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Below are examples of widely held expectations from Health and Physical Development.

    Following those are examples of how other resources align with these specific widely held

    expectations.

    The first examples are of “vertical alignment” with NC Infant-Toddler Foundations and the NC Kindergarten Standard Course of Study. Then there are examples of “horizontal alignment” with other program standards, competencies, a teacher evaluation instrument, and two examples of early childhood curricula.

Foundations Widely Held Expectations (Motor Skills):

    “Children begin to develop body strength, balance, flexibility, and stamina.” “Children begin to explore a variety of equipment and activities that enhance gross motor

    development (e.g., balls, slides, locomotive toys, and assistive technology).

    “Children begin to increase the ability to move their bodies in space (running, jumping,

    skipping).

    Vertical Alignment

Infant-Toddler Foundations Guidelines (Physical Activity):

    “Infants may begin to show they enjoy physically active play by repeating actions (kick, wave

    arms, roll over).”

    “Young toddlers may begin to develop strength and stamina as they use large muscles and

    participate in physical activity for longer periods of time.”

    “Older toddlers may begin to engage in lively movements by choice for long periods of time

    indoors and outdoors.”

NC Kindergarten Standard Course of Study:

    Healthful Living 6.01: “Demonstrate non-locomotor movements using different parts of the

    body.”

    Healthful Living 6.02: “Demonstrate a variety of beginner locomotor and combination skills in

    a movement pattern.”

    Horizontal Alignment

    Standards for Birth-Kindergarten Teacher Candidates (State Board of Education): “Design indoor and outdoor spaces with many types and levels of challenges and stimulation

    and schedule opportunities for physical development each day.”

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“Create an environment and schedule that provides materials and daily opportunities for a

    variety of gross and fine motor activities.”

    NC PreKindergarten and Kindergarten Teacher Performance Appraisal Instrument: “Provides regular and appropriate gross motor experiences, both indoor and outdoor

    work/play time.”

    Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (Physical Health and Development Domain Gross Motor Skills): “Shows increasing levels of proficiency, control and balance in walking, climbing, running,

    jumping, hopping, skipping, marching and galloping.”

    “Demonstrates increasing abilities to coordinate movements in throwing, catching, kicking,

    bouncing balls, and using the slide and swing.”

    National Association for the Education of Young Children (Early Childhood Program Standards): Standard 2.C.04: “Children have varied opportunities and are provided equipment to engage

    in large motor experiences that

     stimulate a variety of skills, enhance sensory-motor integration.

     develop controlled movement (balance, strength, coordination).

     enable children with varying abilities to have large-motor experiences similar to those

     of their peers.”

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, revised edition:

    8. Gross motor equipment: “Gross motor equipment stimulates skills on different levels (Ex. tricycles with and without pedals; different sizes of balls; both ramp and ladder access to

    climbing structure).”

    29. Supervision of gross motor activities: “Staff assist children to develop skills needed to

    use equipment (Ex. Help children learn to pump on swing; help child with disabilities use

    adaptive pedals on tricycle).”

NC Division of Child Development Facility License:

    Child Care Handbook: “The purpose of these requirements is to guarantee that all children in

    child care are given the opportunity to play outdoors on a daily basis and the area where they

    play is safe.”

    Child Care Handbook: “Children should be exposed to many different experiences during

    their outdoor play time. Field trips and nature walks can greatly enhance the children’s learning. Remember to include these types of activities in your outdoor playtime.”

The Creative Curriculum? for Preschool, fourth edition (Gross Motor):

    Objective 14: “Demonstrates basic locomotor skills (running, jumping, hopping, galloping).” Objective 15: “Shows balance while moving.”

    Objective 16: “Climbs up and down.”

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Educating Young Children (High/Scope), second edition:

    Key Developmental Indicators, Physical Development, Health and Well-Being:

     * “Moving in nonlocomotor ways (bending, twisting, rocking, swinging one’s arms)”

     * “Moving in locomotor ways (running, jumping, hopping, skipping, marching,

     climbing)”

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Here are four widely held expectations from Foundations, all from the subdomain Motor

    Skills:

    ? Children begin to develop body strength, balance, flexibility, and stamina.

    ? Children begin to develop large muscle control and coordinate movements in their

    upper and/or lower body.

    ? Children begin to explore a variety of equipment and activities that enhance gross

    motor development (e.g., balls, slides, locomotive toys, and assistive technology).

    ? Children begin to increase the ability to move their bodies in space (running,

    jumping, skipping).

Consider this scenario:

    A principal returns from a playground safety training and tells the pre-kindergarten

    teachers, “All these regulations are too difficult. We’re going to remove all of the

    playground equipment and just have a big, empty fenced-in area where the children

    can run around as much as they want.”

That is, to say the least, a radical approach that does not take into consideration the

    needs of children and their development.

Children’s physical development involves all large muscles and small muscles, and cannot

    be addressed adequately by allowing them to run without alternative movement

    possibilities. The outdoor learning environment tends to address large motor development, although it certainly includes many opportunities for small motor

    development as well.

Exercise:

    1. Refer to Foundations for the Strategies for Early Educators AND Families for the

    subdomain Motor Skills.

    2. Choose at least three of these strategies that this teacher could use to help children

    develop the three widely held expectations bulleted above.

    Click HERE to see some of the strategies that we chose.

NOTE: “Making the Connection Health and Physical Development” in the box above

    lists specific guidelines, standards, objectives, etc., all of which support better practice.

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     for Health and Physical Development

A Toolbox of Training Resources for Foundations

     http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~scpp/pdfs/DPI_toolbox_prototype.pdf

NC Outdoor Learning Environment Alliance

     http://www.osr.nc.gov/ProfDevandResources/oleAlliance.asp

NC Be Active Kids

     http://www.beactivekids.org/

NC Child Care Health and Safety Resource Center

     http://www.healthychildcarenc.org/

NC Public Health Nutrition Services

     http://www.nutritionnc.com/

Resources for Educational Facilities on Outdoor Learning Environments

     http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/outdoor.cfm

Children and Nature Network Research Summary

     http://www.osr.nc.gov/_pdf/WhattheResearchShowsOLE.pdf

Tour a Nature Explore Classroom

     http://www.arborday.org/shopping/sourcebook/tour-redirect.cfm

    ? Maintain environments that support self care and hygiene.

    ? Teach and model hygienic practices.

    ? Encourage children to show independence in self care practices

    ? Share the rules and regulations for the use of equipment and materials.

    ? Share the rationale for the rules and regulations.

    ? Provide daily opportunities for children to use handheld tools and objects.

    ? Supervise and participate in daily outdoor play for long periods of time.

    ? Model the use of drawing and writing tools in daily activities.

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    ? Choose safe equipment and teach children to use the equipment safely.

    ? Increase opportunities, supervise and actively participate in children’s outdoor play.

    ? Encourage and support children’s needs for rest and relaxation.

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