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NSVMA The Bond Animal Health Issues, Volume 3

By Rita Hughes,2014-05-20 15:42
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Feeding a good quality, balanced diet appropriate for his age group is essential.and serious ? please do your best to keep your pet's teeth healthy,

    NSVMA The Bond

    Animal Health Issues, Volume 3, October2002

    In This Issue: First Aid

THOSE PEARLY WHITES dental disease. Some breeds of treatment is often extraction to essential. There are a number

    dogs and cats are predisposed rid your cat of this oral pain. of premium pet foods now that

    to early tartar accumulation are formulated to help slow Your puppy or kitten starts and gingivitis pets with Large dogs who play hard and tartar accumulation. There are with glistening, white (and very shortened jaw structures fast, or chew on sticks and chews available for both dogs sharp) baby teeth. By the time and/or tooth crowding are rocks, are especially prone to and cats that can be beneficial, they are fully grown physically, especially prone. The smaller dental trauma fractured but choose carefully if they those baby teeth are replaced breeds of dogs are particularly canine teeth and premolars are are too hard, they can damage with adult, or permanent teeth. susceptible. In cats, viral very common, and often very the teeth. Recently, a new The insidious onset of dental diseases (feline leukemia or painful. Even chewing on program has been started by disease starts as soon as the FIV) can also contribute to softer objects, like tennis balls, North American veterinary teeth erupt through the gums. chronic oral infections. can wear the enamel over a dentists (yes, there are An invisible film of bacteria long time. veterinarians who specialize in known as plaque adheres to the dentistry) in which they So Why Worry? enamel surface of the teeth. In It is important to understand evaluate the testing results for time, this eventually is that dental disease is not just a a variety of dental products and Once dental disease starts to hardened into calculus (tartar) disease of the mouth the diets. You will soon see their progress, it causes oral pain by the deposit of mineral bacteria that contribute to the seal of approval on products and infection. It is easy to material this is visible as a plaque and gingivitis that pass their scrutiny, just as recognize at home because yellow to brown material periodically get into the blood you see the Canadian Dental pets develop bad breath, covering the surface of the stream through those inflamed Association seal on your yellow staining on their teeth, tooth when you lift your pet’s gums, and can go on to cause toothpaste. and red gums that bleed easily. lip. Along with plaque, we serious problems in other They may become sensitive start to see inflamed gums internal organ systems, The best home care of all is about having their mouths (gingivitis) and destruction of especially the heart valves, the daily brushing with a good handled, or may show signs of the soft tissue support of the liver, and the kidneys. quality, soft, children’s discomfort when they eat teeth (periodontal disease), toothbrush, or a brush designed dropping food, eating more leading, in time, to tooth loss. for pets, and a toothpaste slowly or smaller volumes, or What Can I Do? formulated for pets. Human pawing at their mouths. The Who Gets Dental Disease? toothpaste and baking soda are form of cavities that humans NOT appropriate for pets. Start develop (caries) are Absolutely everybody you, early, when your pet first joins uncommon in dogs and cats, me, Tiger, and Rover. It’s your family. For pets who do but cats are very prone to a inevitable .... dental disease is not accept brushing, there are different type of cavity known relentless. You brush your also some oral rinses that can as a cervical lesion. This is an teeth every day, but have you be useful. With your pet’s erosion that starts at the neck, ever gone to your dental annual check up, your or cervix of the tooth, and then hygienist and had her turn you veterinarian can evaluate his erodes away the crown and the away because there was Home care of your pet’s teeth teeth and gums and advise you root of the tooth these are nothing for her to do? Me can go a long way to slowing on home care, and the need for extremely painful, and often neither. the progression of dental more advanced care in the form too advanced by the time they disease. Feeding a good of a dental cleaning. are recognized to permit In animals, heredity plays a quality, balanced diet saving the tooth. The best large role in the progression of appropriate for his age group is

    A dental cleaning is done in will recommend a thorough questions you have about the dental cleaning consists of

    hospital, under a general evaluation before considering risk of general anesthesia and scaling with hand instruments,

    anesthetic. Your veterinarian anesthetic, and can answer any how we minimize that risk. A ultrasonic descaling, polishing

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    to smooth the enamel surface than these more visible reasons for maintaining our eggs are not visible to the and discourage plaque from parasites, most owners are not pets as parasite free as possible. naked eye. A far better adhering, evaluating and aware of other potential While hook worms and whip deworming method is to use cleaning the gingival pockets problems that may lurk below, worms are less common in our what is called “Strategic around the teeth, a thorough hidden away from the human climate, they still are diagnosed Deworming”, an ongoing exam of all surfaces of all teeth, eye. Indeed, often owners think on a regular basis, and are program of continuous parasite and the application of fluoride if no worms are being seen in potentially a much more control There are new drugs or a sealant. If periodontal stool or vomit, there is nothing serious problem for our pets. available that are very safe and disease is too advanced, or if to worry about. Unfortunately, Tape worms require an have efficacies approaching there are large cervical lesions, this does not hold up to closer intermediate host to complete 100% for all the parasites extractions may be necessary. examination. their life cycle, and so the two mentioned. Many veterinarians

     tape worms we see are picked are now advocating a monthly The effects of dental disease We are fortunate in our more up by our pets ingesting either preventive medication for our can be widespread and serious northern climate that we do not fleas, while grooming, or pets during the warm months of please do your best to keep have the great numbers of rodents in their hunting the year, and in some cases year your pet’s teeth healthy, and parasites that exist in the south, behaviour. We also now have round. This can be combined please ask us to help devise a but most are still present, albeit an added parasite in the with flea prevention and dental plan that suits both you in smaller numbers. The vast Maritimes, the “fox lung control where required. It is and your pet. majority of our puppies have worm” which is spread through often advocated that cats who

     round worms or ascarids in snails. As wildlife habitat is are hunters should be treated their system when they first go destroyed and foxes are forced for tapeworm at least four to a new home. They are closer to inhabited areas, this times per year, as they tend to LET’S TALK ABOUT WORMS...... shedding eggs from this parasite is being diagnosed become continually reinfected parasite into the environment, more commonly as it causes a with this parasite. Every pet Internal parasites, often serving as a reservoir to infect parasitic pneumonia in our should be evaluated as to their referred to by the general term other pets, or our children, and dogs. The last worm I will potential risk for parasites, “worms” is not a subject for indeed to reinfect themselves. mention is heart worm, a depending on where they live meal time discussion. Most pet In our climate, it takes two full parasite that came into the and what sort of life style they owners have at some time seen years to rid the environment of Maritime region during the have. Discuss this with your their young puppy or kitten potentially infective eggs and 1990s. This parasite is spread veterinarian, and they can vomit or pass spaghetti-like larvae. While our children are through the bite of an infected worms or round worms. Other considered an aberrant host for mosquito, and can lead to owners, particularly those with this worm, as these are a serious heart and major vessel cats have at some time seen the canine parasite, a large number disease. While it is not a little rice-like segments around of children ingest canine common disease, new cases are the cats anus, these being ascarid larvae into their system diagnosed every year in the tapeworm segments. Other with potential for serious eye area. or brain damage. Nearly one

    quarter of the children tested at In the past, deworming has

    the IWK in Halifax tested often been performed only on advise you as to what is best for positive for dog ascarids, and young animals, or on the basis your individual pet. while most of these showed no of a positive stool sample, or symptoms of the infection, a when parasites were seen. This small number suffer very method of deworming missed a

    serious, untreatable lot of infected animals, as many KIDS AND SAFETY AROUND CATS consequences. This risk alone of these parasites are passed

    should be one of the main infrequently in the stool and the

    Here are some important cat that is angry will have its remember around cats; leave

    things to remember when back in the air, may be hissing them alone when they are

    around your own cat, a friend’s at you, its ears will be flattened sleeping, eating or chewing cat or cat you don’t know. A back against its head and its fur their toys; don’t pet cats on Cats can be wonderful friends happy cat purrs, its tail is down will be puffed up. Its tail may their bellies as this area is very and if we treat them right they and relaxed and it may rub be striking back and forth. sensitive to a cat; pet them on will always be there for us. Pets against you. A frightened cat Angry cats can also stare their backs and not the top of talk to us not with words but may run, hide or hiss at you. A straight at you. Things to their head, don’t try to keep a with body actions and signs.

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    cat on your lap if they want to at the earliest convenience. than they should. Sprains and pet has gotten into something get off. Cats are free spirits and Very small wounds (less than muscle strains can be quite other than a lethal poison and is can get nervous if held tightly. 1-2cm in length) may heal on long-lived and sometimes vomiting, the first aid to apply

     their own as long as they are require surgery to fix. Never let is to remove both food and kept clean and dry. Remember, a limping animal go without water... YES water! Anything when animals are excited or medical attention for longer you put into their stomach will FIRST AID stressed their blood pressure than 2 days. simply act to stimulate the goes up and this can further nausea. If the vomiting persists Torn nail/claws: often we do With the warm weather upon exacerbate the bleeding - so try for more than 8-10 hours after not realize that our furry little us, we find ourselves and out to keep them calm and off the removing food and water then friend has “broken a nail” until pets spending more time in the affected limb. immediate medical attention is we see him or her licking at great outdoors. The incidence required as companion animals Lameness (limping): their foot. Sometimes, the nail of injury increases with this dehydrate much more quickly applying the same principles as has broken clean away or is exodus. The following is a than humans. Vomiting in in human medicine, limping hanging on by a thread. If the guide to the first aid care for a combination with diarrhea is indicates pain. Leg or limb nail is gone and the “quick” is few of the more common always a reason to head to the pain can manifest for many bleeding, holding an ice cube injuries that seem to afflict cats clinic. If the vomiting subsides different reasons. The cause of on the area for 5 minutes and dogs while they enjoy their after removing food and water lameness is often witnessed by should stop the bleeding and few months of freedom and then reintroduce water slowly - dog owners but in the cat can numb the pain (then apply a fresh air. once they can keep the water present a greater challenge bandage or see your vet if the Lacerations (cuts): paws and down then small meals may be with respect to a diagnoses. bleeding is persistent or pain is limbs most commonly fall prey offered. If diarrhea is the only Regardless of the cause, obvious). If the nail is still to the sharp and pointy hazards problem, then make sure to lameness indicates pain and present but broken, try of the ground and lakes. Most have lots of fresh water pain should always be trimming it back to the level of lacerations involve some available but take away their addressed. The degree of pain the break and if it bleeds apply bleeding. As in humans, the food for 12-18 hours. Compost may be reflected in whether or a bit of flour or cornstarch to first aid to provide is direct can be deadly as it contains not the animal is willing to bear the end. The flour/cornstarch pressure using your hand or a certain toxins that can lead to weight on the leg. Non acts as a clotting agent and clean cloth. If the bleeding seizures. Mulch may seem weight-bearing lameness or helps stop the bleeding. If seems to come in spurts then an innocent enough but it can stick one that persists for more than bleeding persists, bandage the artery is involved and you together in the stomach and 2 days warrants a trip to the paw and call your veterinarian. should proceed directly to your cause an obstruction. It is veterinarian. When you find Inappropriate ingestion veterinarian. If the bleeding is important to maintain visual that your pet is limping the first (garbage guts); dogs and cats slow and seems to stop after contact with your pet at all aid to apply is to restrict love to eat stuff that just isn’t applying pressure, then a clean times, because, if they get into activity immediately as good for them. Be it salt water, bandage should be applied and something and become ill that exercise may cause further mulch, grass or compost - most the wound assessed by your vet information could help save injury. If you can see that a dietary indiscretions result in

    their life. joint is swollen then apply ice vomiting, diarrhea or both.

    to the area for 15 minutes every During the warm weather

    2 hours until you can get in to vomiting and diarrhea can

    see your vet. Animals are very present a serious problem as

    stoic and can fool you into dehydration can set in quite

    thinking they feel better sooner rapidly. If you know that your

    objects. The spring and lips or puffy eyes) is a common having difficulty breathing,

    summer also bring with them symptom. If this should happen seek veterinary attention

    lots of flowers and pollen. We to your pet the first aid to apply immediately as this can

    often see our furry companions is warm compresses... yes indicate an anaphylactic

    chasing bees and wasps and WARM! Soak a small towel in reaction and is life threatening.

    will notice if they get stung very warm water, wring it out If the swelling is limited to the

    (yelping, a loud meow or and hold it over the swollen face or the area where the

    pawing at their face) but often area. The swelling should animal was stung, Benadryl

    the only sign we notice is after subside. Check inside the (antihistamine) can be Facial swelling and hives: the fact when “something” mouth to make sure the tongue beneficial. The dose to be used forsaking their own safety, cats starts to swell or little bumps is not swollen. If the tongue is 2mg/kg or approximately and dogs love to chase bees, develop. Facial swelling (big looks big or they seem to be 1mg/pound. Repeat the dose wasps and all manner of flying

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    We welcome your

    suggestions on animal

    health issues you would

    like to see addressed in

    future newsletters. every 8 hours until the swelling Dr. Troye McPherson or hives subside. If the -Any processed foods, such as Chair, Public Relations problems worsens or persists potato chips, corn chips, Committee40 minutes after the first dose popcorn, crackers or cookies. HEALTHY RABBIT - DIET AND then injectable medications -High carbohydrates or sugars, NUTRITION may need to be administered by such as bread, oats and other your vet. grain, rice, fruit, nuts, or breakfast cereal. This Newsletter is brought to Needless to say, there are many -Any processed treats made for you by the Public Relations warm weather hazards. Heat rabbits, such as honey sticks, Committee of the Nova Scotia exhaustion is one of the donuts, or mixed nuts and Proper dietary and nutritional Veterinary Medical deadliest. Never leave your pet seeds. requirements of a rabbit is a Association and your unattended in a car, even with -Drinks made for human subject in which many pet veterinarian. Contact: Nova the windows down. On hot consumption, such as milk, caregivers often have Scotia Veterinary Medical days, extra water is required. cream or fruit juices. questions. A good diet can Association, The minimal water increase the overall health and 15 Cobequid Road, requirement for a cat or dog on Reproduced with permission quality of life of your rabbit. Lower Sackville, NS a cool day is about 30 from the Healthy Rabbit However, it is an area B4C 2M9 ml/lb./day. That means that if Association. surrounded by many Phone: (902) 865-1876 you have a 75 pound dog www.heaalthyrabbit.org. misconceptions and inaccurate E-mail: he/she needs, at least, 2 ? litres truths. To aid in promoting the nsvma@ns.sympatico.ca of water per day - and more on health and well being of rabbits a hot day or when they have everywhere, the Healthy been playing on lot. Rabbit Association of Nova Keeping your pet safe is mostly Scotia has compiled a list of common sense. Keeping them Contact your local on a leash or in an enclosed, veterinary clinic at: supervised area is best. So finally - if your animal has suffered a major trauma (like being hit by a car) the first aid to apply is as follows: make sure they are breathing. If not, you can give mouth to nose breaths by holding the mouth shut and breathing 4 short, diet do’s and don’ts. quick breaths into the nose Do Feed Your Rabbit: (repeat every 5 seconds until -An unlimited amount of good they begin to breath or until you quality timothy or other grass reach the hospital). Check the hay gums for colour... they should -Fresh water be pink. You can listen for a -Pellets (in measured heartbeat by putting your ear to quantities according to your the chest just behind the rabbit’s requirements) shoulder. Look for bleeding - if

    -Grass from your lawn (if there is any major bleeding

    untreated with fertilizers or apply direct pressure. Keep the

    pesticides) animal calm and still (if -Dandelions and their greens possible). Even if they seem to

    -Fresh greens (in small be fine on the outside, life

    amounts), romaine lettuce, threatening problems can stem

    kale, carrot tops, and herbs, from internal injury - therefore

    such as parsley. a veterinarian should examine

     your pet in any case of major

    trauma. Don’t Feed Your Rabbit:

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