Supporting Country Action on the CBD Programme of Work on

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Supporting Country Action on the CBD Programme of Work on

    Supporting Country Action on the CBD

    Programme of Work on Protected Areas


    Mongolia 1. Country

    Protected Areas Administration Department of 2. Agency and/or ministry responsible for

    the Ministry for Nature and Environment of protected areas


    December 1993 3. CBD ratification date

    A. Enkhbat, Director of Sustainable 4. GEF OFP endorsement

    Development and Strategic Planning

    Department of the Ministry for Nature and


    1.1.1, 1.1.5, 3.2.1 and 3.4.1 5. CBD PoWPA Activities (out of those

    eligible) to be supported

    No 6. LDC country (Yes/No)

    No 7. SIDS country (Yes/No)

    3 September 2007 8. Application submission date

    24 months 9. Duration: (24 months maximum)

    10. Contacts Contact for project substantial issues

    Name: Dr. A. Namkhai

    Title: Director of the Protected Areas

    Administration Department

    Ministry: Ministry for Nature and


    Phone: 976-11-267675

    Fax: 976-11-267283


    Contact for budget issues

    Name: Same person as above






    11. Financing plan, in US$* Funding requested from GEF: USD150,000 Co-financing total, including: USD172,860, including:

     Government USD25,000, In kind contribution

     Bilateral -

     NGOs: USD147,860 (Total for TNC and WWF

    Mongolia’s in kind and in cash contributions)


     TNC USD103,360

    In-kind and cash related to biodiversity gap

    analysis for 2 grassland ecoregions in eastern

    Mongolia starting in March 2007 and staff in-

    kind for funding gap analysis

    WWF Mongolia USD44,500

    Related projects activities in western


     International multilateral -


     Private Sector -

     Other -

    TOTAL FOR PROJECT BUDGET USD322,860 * Details to be provided in the Financing Section of the proposal document below


    I.1.A Rationale and objective of the country project

    The Government of Mongolia (GoM) has made the legislative commitment to set aside 30%

    of its territory (46.9 million ha) as Protected Areas (PA) by 2030. The Biodiversity Action

    Plan (1996) and National Programme on PAs (1998) provide the legal basis for those

    extensions of Mongolia’s Protected Area network. Currently, 13.79% of the territory is

    designated in 60 protected areas, totalling 21.58 million ha. Threats to Mongolia’s unique

    ecosystems include increased pressure from mining (licenses for exploration and exploitation

    for around 44% of the country’s territory have been issued) and climate change impacts on

    Mongolia’s biodiversity as just two of the primary issues that require urgent action. WWF

    Mongolia Programme Office (WWF MPO) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) recognize

    the urgent need for responses and in 2006 began an ecological and representative gap analysis

    for the Protected Areas network in Mongolia. The PA gap analysis includes the Daurian

    Forest Steppe/Mongol-Manchurian Grassland Ecoregions in the East, and the Altai-Sayan

    Ecoregion in the West of the country (see attached the map on WWF Mongolia’s Ecoregions).

    The work will be completed by June 2008. The Mongolia project to advance the PoWPA will

    provide the Ministry of Nature and Environment of Mongolia with a timely opportunity to

    conduct a PA gap analysis for the rest of country.

    In 2003 the Ministry for Nature and Environment completed an ―Assessment of Capacity Building Needs and Country Specific Priorities in Biological Diversity of Mongolia‖ with the

    financial support of the GEF/World Bank. Thereby, attention was given to human and

    technical resources with special regard to the PA’s of Mongolia. Recommendations from this

    work with highest priority were: (1) a need for training programmes for PA staff (2) further

    identification of mechanisms for the sustainable financial management of PA’s. These

    recommendations need to be implemented, and this is very much in line with the PoWPA

    Goals 3.2 Capacity building and 3.4 Financial Sustainability. Using the opportunity of this

    programme, we will elaborate training programmes and explore sustainable financing

    mechanism, and start actual implementation of these programmes. The WWF Mongolia

    Programme Office will be a partner to this programme, and it provides co-financing for these

    activities in their priority ecoregions of the Altai-Sayan and the Daurian Forest Steppes

    (which in turn are part of the Amur/Heilong River Basin ecoregion).


Also, the Government of Mongolia has made an important legislative commitment to the

    CBD and is obliged to deliver time-bound and measurable national level PA targets and

    indicators. Back in 1998 the parliament of Mongolia approved ―The National Programme on

    Protected Areas‖ – with the ambitious goal to designate 30% of Mongolia’s territory under

    PA status. One year later, this programme was adopted by the Government of Mongolia with

    the ―The Action Plan for the Implementation of the National Programme‖.

Given the time elapsed since this declaration, it is time that the above described documents

    are further aligned with the CBD’s PoWPA, and especially Goal 1.1 Strengthening PA

    systems. Fortunately, we will be able to use the results of the PA biodiversity gap analysis

    (initiated by the partnership between TNC and WWF, see above), which was designed and

    initiated with private funds.

Thus, it is the objective of the GEF Early Action Grant (EAG) to intensify the implementation

    of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) in Mongolia, through

    achieving the following outcomes:

    1) A countrywide Protected Area representative and ecological gap analysis completed

    (Contributes to PoWPA Activity 1.1.5).

    2) National PA capacity building programme is developed. (Contributes to PoWPA

    Activity 3.2.1).

    3) Sustainable financing mechanisms for PA’s is developed and tested for viability.

    (Contributes to PoWPA Activity 3.4.1).

    4) The implementation status of the National Programme on PA is evaluated and aligned

    with PoWPA. (Contributes to PoWPA Activity 1.1.1).

TNC and WWF funded ecological gap analysis in eastern (Daurian Steppe Ecoregion) and

    western (Altai-Sayan Ecoregion) Mongolia will be ended by June 2008. These gap analyses

    were region-specific and no national gap analysis has been available since 1996.

A first initial gap analysis was conducted in 1996, where priority actions for PA’s were

    determined and summarized in the National Biodiversity Action Plan for Mongolia (BAP, 1996). This Action Plan was approved by the Government of Mongolia in 1996. (see page 13).

    By now this is outdated, so the idea is to update it, first by brining the data from the WWF

    and TNC analyses in the loop, and second by doing additional gap analysis studies for

    regions that have not been covered by TNC and WWF.

    I.1.B Expected outcomes, indicators, risks and mitigation measures

    Expected outcomes Indicators Risk associated with Risk mitigation

    attaining the indicator measures

    (high, medium, or

    low) 1. A countrywide After 18 months, a Spatial Quality and availability Secure active Protected Area Gap Analysis and gap tables of information is poor. participation of representative and of Protected Areas for the (medium risk) different ecological gap analysis entire country compiled and institutions in the completed (PoWPA narrative report is written. process through Activity 1.1.5,) Evidence (protocols, establishing

    minutes) of participatory working groups,

    process (discussions, consist from

    contributions) behind the leading experts.

    Gap Assessment.

    2. National PA capacity Documentation (TOR, Time-table to implement Select best building programme is short-list) confining the activity needs to be international and developed (Contributes to selection of an appropriate adjusted (maybe lagging national PoWPA Activity 3.2.1) national institution as a PA behind schedule). consultants and


    Expected outcomes Indicators Risk associated with Risk mitigation

    attaining the indicator measures

    (high, medium, or


    training center. Draft PA (Low risk) set up clear time

    training curriculum line for every

    available after 12 months, activities.

    with sign of approval by

    Ministry of Education,

    Culture and Science, and

    Ministry of Nature &


    By end of full 24 months, Co-financing and post-The project will

    trainers trained project financing for strive to achieve

    (questionnaires confirming conducting trainings. allocation of

    their skills and (low risk) necessary

    qualification), and all PA resources in state

    central government staff budget and

    participates at least in one coordinate with

    training course, issued other donor

    certificate being indicators activities

    of successful course


    3. Sustainable financing A report containing a menu Some legislative barriers, Ensure close mechanisms for PA’s is of PA financing options especially state budgetary cooperation with stdeveloped and tested for developed by end of 1 legislation (medium risk). Finance Ministry viability. (PoWPA year. A partnership formed and advocacy Activity 3.4.1) (a MoU signed between work among

    partners, as indicator) to test member of

    viability of the most parliament.

    promising financing option

    starting from month 20 of

    the project.

    Financial PA scorecard is

    integrated as an instrument

    to track the financial

    sustainability of the PA 1system.

    4. The implementation By end of the project, the Lack of clear Awareness status of the National new amended version of the understanding of the activities on Programme on PA is National Programme on PAs PoWPA and consensus PoWPA among evaluated and aligned contains explicit linkages to building on targets and relevant with PoWPA. Goals and Activities of the indicators among stakeholders and

    PoWPA, with time-tables stakeholders. wide range

    and measurable targets for (Low risk) stakeholder

    the national PA system. consultation

    process at



    The following analytical activities have been completed to date with relevance to the PoWPA:

     1 The scorecard is an instrument developed by UNDP/GEF for countries to track the financial

    sustainability of their PA systems. The scorecard will be made freely available to the country by the

    Global Project Management Unit, and some capacity building about its use will be rendered within the



    - The Ministry of Nature and Environment is aware about the CBD’s PoWPA and has

    held several meetings with key environmental NGOs, like WWF and TNC

    encouraging support to implement Government commitments to the CBD PoWPA.

    - A detailed workplan for the biodiversity gap analysis (both terrestrial and freshwater)

    is in place. Spatial information, including ecosystems and species information, for the

    whole country has been gathered by TNC and WWF. Sub-regions, which will be used

    for assessing ecological representativeness, have been refined for the grassland

    ecoregions. A multi-organization technical team is established to conduct the gap

    analysis. An Advisory Committee for the Eastern grassland ecoregion gap analysis

    being conducted by TNC and WWF that includes the Ministry of Nature and

    Environment, Academy of Science, and NGOs is formed and has met twice. It is

    anticipated that this Advisory Committee will be expanded countrywide to support

    the countrywide gap analysis.

    - WWF Mongolia is helping to translate the PoWPA brochure into Mongolian

    language in order to widely communicate the relevant issues.

Based on the above, as well as on all relevant/complementary actions related to the PoWPA

    in Mongolia up to date, the following priority issues have been identified as least covered, and

    therefore requesting support from the UNDP/GEF Programme:

    1) To complete Protected Area and Ecological Gap analyses in whole Mongolia

    2) Develop and implement National PA Capacity Building Programme

    3) Develop sustainable financing mechanisms for PA.

    4) Update existing National Programme on PA (1999) in line with international



    The activities described in the previous section do relate directly to the PoWPA. However, as

    such the Government of Mongolia has not elaborated any formal action plan for the

    implementation of PoWPA in Mongolia, but is rather looking to reconcile its national

    activities with goals and activities of the PoWPA. The Parliament of Mongolia adopted ―The

    National Programme on Protected Areas‖ in 1998. The National Programme on Protected

    Areas, envisioning targets for 20 years, provides 10 key elements for its implementation, such

    as the establishment, legal framework, governance, human capacity, management, research,

    public awareness and education, public participation, funding and infrastructure, and

    international cooperation of PA’s. These elements mostly align with the goals of the CBD

    Programme of Work on Protected Areas. The Government of Mongolia has elaborated and

    adopted also ―The Action Plan for the Implementation of the National Programme on

    Protected Areas‖ in 1999. As party to the CBD, Mongolia is committed to achieve the targets

    of PoWPA by 2010. Within this request, the National Programme and its Implementation

    Action Plan will be evaluated and adjusted and aligned according to the PoWPA targets. This

    proposal put forward here exactly targets this outcome. It will put more attention on the

    implementation of the National Programme and its Action Plan, with will be measurable and

    achievable, and aligned with the PoWPA targets.


    I.4.A. Overview of the national protected area system

    There are currently 60 protected areas in Mongolia, which cover about 21.58 million ha of

    territory in 19 aimags (provinces) or 13.79 % of the country’s entire territory (see details

    below in the table). Of this total, mountain and desert habitat types are well represented,

    however, grasslands and wetlands are under-represented. There are significant opportunities

    for incorporating local protected areas into the network. There are roughly 115 areas


encompassing 5.09 million ha of land are under local protection (designated by local


The Protected Area Administration Department at the Ministry of Nature and Environment is

    responsible for Protected Area issues in Mongolia. Under the direct supervision of the

    department, there are 22 PA’s administration throughout the country. The current department

    consists of 5 people besides the director. The Protected Areas Administrations have a

    common organizational structure and consist of a director, an administration section,

    specialists and rangers and a number of staff for each administration which varies depending

    on the size of the territory they are responsible for. Also, the Governors of the aimag, capital

    city, soum and district have to manage the administration of the Nature Reserves and Monuments according to the law. However, most cases lacking management of last two

    categories (Nature Reserves and Monuments) or attached to PA administration, responsible

    for first two categories (SPA and National Parks).

All, the Mongolian Law on Special PA’s (1996) , the law on Buffer zones (1998) and the

    National Programme on PA’s (1998) are legal binding documents for establishing and

    managing PA’s. They are not legally binding for multilateral environmental agreements.

    PA category/type Quantity Surface Corresponding Management

    area, IUCN category authority


    Strictly Protected 12 10,494,283 Ia and Ib State Areas

    National Parks 21 8,939,222 II State Nature Reserves 19 2,049,218 IV Local (with some

    exceptions) Natural Monuments 8 97,645 III Local TOTAL 60 21,580,368

I.4.B Threats to the protected areas

    Threat 1. Poaching

    Poaching is the most significant threat in Protected Areas, affecting rare and once common

    species, especially mammals,. A recent nationwide study estimates that between 1992-2004

    the populations of 8 species, such as Saiga, Marmots, Red Deers, Mongolian Gazelle, Saker

    Falcon, Wolves, have declined by 50-90% (Wingard J.R. and P.Zahler.2006.). Within

    Protected Areas, populations of animals also appear to be in decline primarily due to

    poaching due to insufficient law enforcement.

Threat 2. Overgrazing

    Mostly, today’s Protected Areas overlap land that has traditionally been used by herder

    families. However, in the past livestock numbers in the past and seasonal movements (moving

    3-4 or even >10 times per year) offered enough fallow land for wildlife. With the exception

    of Strictly Protected Areas, livestock grazing is allowed within Protected Areas. However, without management, this practice does not comply with biodiversity’s habitat requirements.

    Currently, the Mongolia’s livestock population is very high with 33 millions which puts enormous pressures on grassland steppes within Protected Areas.

    Threat 3. Mineral resource exploration and exploitation Mongolia is emerging as a major player in mining with more than 8,000 deposits of valuable

    oil and minerals, particularly copper, fluorspar, gold, molybdenum, oil, and coal. Half the

    economy is related to mining and this activity is predicted to double in the next decade.

    Currently 45 % of the country have mining exploration leases by Mongolian, Russian,

    Chinese, Canadian and South African companies. In addition to that, there are independent


illegal so-called ―ninja‖ miners, who pan for gold using dangerous and polluting extraction

    methods. The Protected Area network protects lands and waters from mining; however,

    mining affects water quality of rivers and lakes that are an integral part to Protected Areas and

    it is slowing and/or preventing the expansion of the Protected Area system in Mongolia. Also,

    there are enough examples of incursions by prospectors into the zones of official Protected


Threat 4. Infrastructure development

    As Mongolia develops its mining sector and creates links to the greater world, new roads,

    railroads, bridges, and pipelines are being planned and built. Poorly located roads, bridges

    and railroads can lead to habitat fragmentation and degradation, thereby affecting Protected

    Areas and their surrounding landscape. Development springing up along the new roadsides

    may create new population centers in immediate proximity of Protected Areas , thereby

    leading to secondary impacts.

Threat 5. De-gazetting

    There have been efforts in 2002 as well as 2004 to degazette Protected Areas in order to open

    them up to mining exploration. Fortunately, the Mongolian parliament prevented this from

    happening. As the mining sector expands in Mongolia, there may be increased pressure to the

    complete removal of Protected Areas.

Threat 6. Climate change

    Global warming has had considerable impacts on Mongolia. The permafrost zone of Lake

    Hovsgol Strictly Protected Area in the north of the country is showing signs of rapid change.

    There, the annual air temperature has increased by 1.44?C since 1963. Overgrazing and

    deforestation exacerbates the effects of climate change. Extended droughts that are likely to

    be related to climate change have caused the drying-up of an estimated 500 rivers and lakes,

    including those in Protected Areas.

    Threat 7. Incompatible development for tourism Some Protected Areas, such as Lake Hovsgol, Bogd Khan Uul, and Terelj, are popular with

    tourists. In recent years, a proliferation of Ger (national housing) resorts and hotels have been constructed within the Protected Areas, including even within Strictly Protected Areas. This

    development is leading to the degradation of Protected Areas.

    I.4.C. Barriers and limitations preventing the existing PA system from

    achieving the targets of the CBD PoWPA

    Barrier 1.

    There is a great conflict between the conservational needs of the land and its economic value

    (grazing, mining activities, and other economic development). In addition, other types of

    single-use and private leases are beginning to limit Protected Area expansion (State and Local


Barrier 2.

    There is insufficient management and law enforcement capacity on all levels (lack of trained

    staff, transportation, communications, and field equipments).

Barrier 3.

    There is no civil service law also showing in the low salaries for park management staff.

    Therefore, there is lack of accountability.

Barrier 4:

    Currently, there are no priorities and strategies that focus on the limited resources that would

    enable the strengthening and expansion of a PA network in the country.


Barrier 5:

    Almost half of all types of Protected Areas are lacking Management Plans (Currently, 53%

    have approved Management Plans). Current Law on Special Protected Areas does not include

    any references to Management Plans. However, National Programme of Protected Areas

    requires it. Thus, proposals to amend the law are being prepared for submission to the

    Parliament. Also recently, the Ministry of Nature and Environment developed model

    Management Plan (guideline) based on IUCN guidelines and distributed to all National Parks

    to develop own management plans.

Barrier 6:

    Current efforts to monitor biodiversity are opportunistic, and limited in spatial and temporal

    scale, and primarily focused on the status of species.

    I.4.D Project outcomes and activities, and PoWPA Activities related to


    PoWPA activities to Project outcomes Activities per each outcome

    be addressed that correspond to

    PoWPA activities

    Activity 1.1.5 1. A countrywide 1.1 Develop and maintain a database management

    Protected Area system and collect basic data, such us types of

    representative and ecosystems, hydrological, vegetation, relief, etc;

    ecological gap analysis 1.2 Define and map terrestrial and freshwater

    completed ecosystems to serve coarse filter targets;

    1.3 Identify a set of targets for a gap analysis and

    establish conservation goals for each target;

    1.4 Identify and map major threats to biodiversity and

    determine protection levels for gaps;

    1.5 Conduct a spatial gap analysis and compile gap


    1.6 Write report, conduct participatory consultations

    with all relevant stakeholders.

    1.7 Approve the Gap Assessment Report as an Annex

    to the National Programme For Pas (links to the last


    Activity 3.2.1 2. National PA capacity 2.1 Review/assess current capacity needs (human,

    building programme is technical and financial) for PA system and update the

    developed and assessment report that was conducted by the MNE in

    implementation started 2003;

    2.2 Assess current capacity of higher education

    institutes and select appropriate institutions for training

    courses for PA staff;

    2.3 Elaborate training programmes and curricula by

    selected institutionss educational staff;

    2.4 Elaborate materials and conduct a series of training

    to ensure that all government staff on PAs are covered;

    2.5 Write final report on the need of capacity

    programmes and include lessons learned from the first

    implementation on activities into the report.

    2.6 Ensure financial sustainability of the training center

    by lobbying for government funding after the project


    Activity 3.4.1 3. Sustainable financing 3.1. A comprehensive study on the current situation

    mechanisms for PA’s are with PA financial sustainability in Mongolia and

    developed and the key options for changing it to the better. The Study will

    option is tested for presuppose application of the UNDP/GEF financial

    viability scorecard. Training on the introduction and use of the

    financial sustainability scorecard will be conducted.


    PoWPA activities to Project outcomes Activities per each outcome

    be addressed that correspond to

    PoWPA activities

    These will be followed by the initial filling out of the

    scorecard by the government to quantify, using the

    scorecard, the baseline situation with regard to the PA

    financial sustainability in Mongolia. Thus the baseline

    situation with financing will be clear. Next, a set of

    mechanisms will be developed for different regions and


    3.2 Select 1-3 suitable option on sustainable

    mechanism and develop a partnership to test its

    viability modeled on different ecoregions.. Activity 1.1.1 4. The implementation 4.1 Review the implementation status of the National

    status of the National Programme on PAs against the targets and indicators of

    Programme on PA is PoWPA;

    evaluated and aligned 4.2 Develop recommendations for the further

    with the CBD PoWPA. improvement of the National Programme to be aligned

    with the PoWPA, including new time-bound and

    measurable targets and indicators. I.4.E. Related projects and initiatives (not to be included in co-financing)

    Project name Funding: source Implementing Which PoWPA activities

    and amount, US$ agency(ies) are supported The National Programme Government budget Ministry for Nature and Relevant for all activities on PA and its and international Environment

    Implementation Action donor contributions


    The Eastern Steppe USAID $903,216 Wildlife Conservation Activities 1.1.4 (indirectly), Living Landscape (2004 Society 1.2.2, 2.1.2, 3.1.6 2008)

    Community-based GEF- 3,070 mill. UNDP Mongolia Activities 1.2.2, and all Conservation of US$, Ministry for Nature and activities under goal 2.2 Biological Diversity in Dutch government- Environment

    the Mountain Landscapes 1,540 mill. US$

    of Mongolia’s Altai-

    Sayan Ecoregion (2005


    Rural development and Swedish International WWF Mongolia Activity 2.1.2 education for sustainable Development Programme Office

    development (2004 Cooperation Agency

    2009) (SIDA), 6.5 mill.SEK

    Saiga Conservation (2007 MAVA foundation WWF Mongolia Activity 2.1.2 -2010) 0,6 mio. US$ Programme Office

    Amur/Heilong River WWF-US and WWF-WWF Mongolia All activities under goal 1.4. Basin Programme NL 60,000 US$ for Programme Office (site-based Protected Area development (2007 2007 planning and management) 2010)

    WWF’s Altai-Sayan WWF-NL 200,000 WWF Mongolia Activities 1.3.4, and 2.1.2 project (2007 -2010) Euro. Programme Office

    Additional for co-

    financing part for PA

    gap ecological gap


    Conservation and Government of GTZ Mongolia All activities under goal 1.4. in Sustainable Management Germany, GTZ selected two sites of Natural Resource Dutch Government

    Programme (2005 2008)



    Stakeholder Mechanism for involvement in the project Universities and Contract relevant scientists for consultancy services through the participation of research institutions different working groups, use research results for analyses and assessments, invite to

    stakeholder workshops and meetings.

    Higher environmental Elaborate on training programme and curricula jointly with higher educational education institutes institutes’ staff, conduct teachers trainings, and contract with institutions for

    conducting trainings for PA staff.

    Environmental NGOs Invite to participate in different working group activities and stakeholder

    consultation meetings, and conduct certain activities on a contractual basis. Ministry for finance Invite relevant staff of the Ministry to participate in working groups to elaborate on

    sustainable financing mechanisms for PAs.

    Agriculture Ministry, Gather necessary information (such as information on mining, livestock, pasture and Trade and Industry management, land use planning, etc) and invite authorities of relevant Ministries to Ministry, Ministry for participate in working groups and stakeholder meetings. Urban Planning and


    Relevant authorities at Gather necessary information on local PAs, biodiversity and socio-economic data, local level capacity needs, etc and invite to relevant stakeholder meetings Donor communities, Organise annual donor coordination and consultation meetings to discuss on the international project effective implementation and progress of implementation of the PoWPA in leaders actively Mongolia.

    working in Mongolia



    Overall project implementation will be managed by the Ministry of Nature and Environment

    (MNE). The MNE will establish Project Implementation Unit (PIU) under supervision of the

    Department of Protected Areas Administration of the MNE, but no project funds will be used

    to pay salaries to the Government officials. The PIU will manage the project activities

    through sub-contracting experts and also partner organizations. All expected outcomes of the

    project will be monitored by the PIU and MNE. The UNDP/GEF Financial Scorecard will be

    used as a monitoring instrument for the Outcome which deals with sustainable PA financing.

In the second year of the project, a 3-day mission of a peer-reviewer will be undertaken to

    Mongolia, to assess project progress (conducting meetings with project partners, and possibly

    having site visits to model community protected areas), and report back, on an independent

    basis, to the Project Management Unit. USD 3,000 has been allocated for 3-day international

    fee and travel (in lump sum) in the project budget (International Consultants, split between

    the outcomes). The consultant will be selected based on UNDP/UNOPS procedures.

The following table describes specific M&E activities.

    Type of M&E activity Responsible party (ies) Timeframe

    1 month after the money Ministry of Nature and 1. Inception report has been deposited in the Environment (MNE) project bank account th2. Quarterly technical and MNE By the 30 of the month financial reports following the end of each

    calendar quarter. The

    report should contain both

    a technical and financial

    section. 3. One-page travel reports MNE Within 10 days of the

    conclusion of a trip


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