Supporting Country Action on the CBD
Programme of Work on Protected Areas
APPLICATION FOR FUNDING
Mongolia 1. Country
Protected Areas Administration Department of 2. Agency and/or ministry responsible for
the Ministry for Nature and Environment of protected areas
December 1993 3. CBD ratification date
A. Enkhbat, Director of Sustainable 4. GEF OFP endorsement
Development and Strategic Planning
Department of the Ministry for Nature and
1.1.1, 1.1.5, 3.2.1 and 3.4.1 5. CBD PoWPA Activities (out of those
eligible) to be supported
No 6. LDC country (Yes/No)
No 7. SIDS country (Yes/No)
3 September 2007 8. Application submission date
24 months 9. Duration: (24 months maximum)
10. Contacts Contact for project substantial issues
Name: Dr. A. Namkhai
Title: Director of the Protected Areas
Ministry: Ministry for Nature and
Contact for budget issues
Name: Same person as above
11. Financing plan, in US$* Funding requested from GEF: USD150,000 Co-financing total, including: USD172,860, including:
Government USD25,000, In kind contribution
NGOs: USD147,860 (Total for TNC and WWF
Mongolia’s in kind and in cash contributions)
In-kind and cash related to biodiversity gap
analysis for 2 grassland ecoregions in eastern
Mongolia starting in March 2007 and staff in-
kind for funding gap analysis
WWF Mongolia USD44,500
Related projects activities in western
International multilateral -
Private Sector -
TOTAL FOR PROJECT BUDGET USD322,860 * Details to be provided in the Financing Section of the proposal document below
SECTION I.1 SUMMARY
I.1.A Rationale and objective of the country project
The Government of Mongolia (GoM) has made the legislative commitment to set aside 30%
of its territory (46.9 million ha) as Protected Areas (PA) by 2030. The Biodiversity Action
Plan (1996) and National Programme on PAs (1998) provide the legal basis for those
extensions of Mongolia’s Protected Area network. Currently, 13.79% of the territory is
designated in 60 protected areas, totalling 21.58 million ha. Threats to Mongolia’s unique
ecosystems include increased pressure from mining (licenses for exploration and exploitation
for around 44% of the country’s territory have been issued) and climate change impacts on
Mongolia’s biodiversity as just two of the primary issues that require urgent action. WWF
Mongolia Programme Office (WWF MPO) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) recognize
the urgent need for responses and in 2006 began an ecological and representative gap analysis
for the Protected Areas network in Mongolia. The PA gap analysis includes the Daurian
Forest Steppe/Mongol-Manchurian Grassland Ecoregions in the East, and the Altai-Sayan
Ecoregion in the West of the country (see attached the map on WWF Mongolia’s Ecoregions).
The work will be completed by June 2008. The Mongolia project to advance the PoWPA will
provide the Ministry of Nature and Environment of Mongolia with a timely opportunity to
conduct a PA gap analysis for the rest of country.
In 2003 the Ministry for Nature and Environment completed an ―Assessment of Capacity Building Needs and Country Specific Priorities in Biological Diversity of Mongolia‖ with the
financial support of the GEF/World Bank. Thereby, attention was given to human and
technical resources with special regard to the PA’s of Mongolia. Recommendations from this
work with highest priority were: (1) a need for training programmes for PA staff (2) further
identification of mechanisms for the sustainable financial management of PA’s. These
recommendations need to be implemented, and this is very much in line with the PoWPA
Goals 3.2 Capacity building and 3.4 Financial Sustainability. Using the opportunity of this
programme, we will elaborate training programmes and explore sustainable financing
mechanism, and start actual implementation of these programmes. The WWF Mongolia
Programme Office will be a partner to this programme, and it provides co-financing for these
activities in their priority ecoregions of the Altai-Sayan and the Daurian Forest Steppes
(which in turn are part of the Amur/Heilong River Basin ecoregion).
Also, the Government of Mongolia has made an important legislative commitment to the
CBD and is obliged to deliver time-bound and measurable national level PA targets and
indicators. Back in 1998 the parliament of Mongolia approved ―The National Programme on
Protected Areas‖ – with the ambitious goal to designate 30% of Mongolia’s territory under
PA status. One year later, this programme was adopted by the Government of Mongolia with
the ―The Action Plan for the Implementation of the National Programme‖.
Given the time elapsed since this declaration, it is time that the above described documents
are further aligned with the CBD’s PoWPA, and especially Goal 1.1 Strengthening PA
systems. Fortunately, we will be able to use the results of the PA biodiversity gap analysis
(initiated by the partnership between TNC and WWF, see above), which was designed and
initiated with private funds.
Thus, it is the objective of the GEF Early Action Grant (EAG) to intensify the implementation
of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) in Mongolia, through
achieving the following outcomes:
1) A countrywide Protected Area representative and ecological gap analysis completed
(Contributes to PoWPA Activity 1.1.5).
2) National PA capacity building programme is developed. (Contributes to PoWPA
3) Sustainable financing mechanisms for PA’s is developed and tested for viability.
(Contributes to PoWPA Activity 3.4.1).
4) The implementation status of the National Programme on PA is evaluated and aligned
with PoWPA. (Contributes to PoWPA Activity 1.1.1).
TNC and WWF funded ecological gap analysis in eastern (Daurian Steppe Ecoregion) and
western (Altai-Sayan Ecoregion) Mongolia will be ended by June 2008. These gap analyses
were region-specific and no national gap analysis has been available since 1996.
A first initial gap analysis was conducted in 1996, where priority actions for PA’s were
determined and summarized in the National Biodiversity Action Plan for Mongolia (BAP, 1996). This Action Plan was approved by the Government of Mongolia in 1996. (see page 13).
By now this is outdated, so the idea is to update it, first by brining the data from the WWF
and TNC analyses in the loop, and second – by doing additional gap analysis studies for
regions that have not been covered by TNC and WWF.
I.1.B Expected outcomes, indicators, risks and mitigation measures
Expected outcomes Indicators Risk associated with Risk mitigation
attaining the indicator measures
(high, medium, or
low) 1. A countrywide After 18 months, a Spatial Quality and availability Secure active Protected Area Gap Analysis and gap tables of information is poor. participation of representative and of Protected Areas for the (medium risk) different ecological gap analysis entire country compiled and institutions in the completed (PoWPA narrative report is written. process through Activity 1.1.5,) Evidence (protocols, establishing
minutes) of participatory working groups,
process (discussions, consist from
contributions) behind the leading experts.
2. National PA capacity Documentation (TOR, Time-table to implement Select best building programme is short-list) confining the activity needs to be international and developed (Contributes to selection of an appropriate adjusted (maybe lagging national PoWPA Activity 3.2.1) national institution as a PA behind schedule). consultants and
Expected outcomes Indicators Risk associated with Risk mitigation
attaining the indicator measures
(high, medium, or
training center. Draft PA (Low risk) set up clear time
training curriculum line for every
available after 12 months, activities.
with sign of approval by
Ministry of Education,
Culture and Science, and
Ministry of Nature &
By end of full 24 months, Co-financing and post-The project will
trainers trained project financing for strive to achieve
(questionnaires confirming conducting trainings. allocation of
their skills and (low risk) necessary
qualification), and all PA resources in state
central government staff budget and
participates at least in one coordinate with
training course, issued other donor
certificate being indicators activities
of successful course
3. Sustainable financing A report containing a menu Some legislative barriers, Ensure close mechanisms for PA’s is of PA financing options especially state budgetary cooperation with stdeveloped and tested for developed by end of 1 legislation (medium risk). Finance Ministry viability. (PoWPA year. A partnership formed and advocacy Activity 3.4.1) (a MoU signed between work among
partners, as indicator) to test member of
viability of the most parliament.
promising financing option
starting from month 20 of
Financial PA scorecard is
integrated as an instrument
to track the financial
sustainability of the PA 1system.
4. The implementation By end of the project, the Lack of clear Awareness status of the National new amended version of the understanding of the activities on Programme on PA is National Programme on PAs PoWPA and consensus PoWPA among evaluated and aligned contains explicit linkages to building on targets and relevant with PoWPA. Goals and Activities of the indicators among stakeholders and
PoWPA, with time-tables stakeholders. wide range
and measurable targets for (Low risk) stakeholder
the national PA system. consultation
important stages. SECTION I.2 LINK TO INITIAL POWPA ANALYSIS AND PRIORITY
The following analytical activities have been completed to date with relevance to the PoWPA:
1 The scorecard is an instrument developed by UNDP/GEF for countries to track the financial
sustainability of their PA systems. The scorecard will be made freely available to the country by the
Global Project Management Unit, and some capacity building about its use will be rendered within the
- The Ministry of Nature and Environment is aware about the CBD’s PoWPA and has
held several meetings with key environmental NGOs, like WWF and TNC
encouraging support to implement Government commitments to the CBD PoWPA.
- A detailed workplan for the biodiversity gap analysis (both terrestrial and freshwater)
is in place. Spatial information, including ecosystems and species information, for the
whole country has been gathered by TNC and WWF. Sub-regions, which will be used
for assessing ecological representativeness, have been refined for the grassland
ecoregions. A multi-organization technical team is established to conduct the gap
analysis. An Advisory Committee for the Eastern grassland ecoregion gap analysis
being conducted by TNC and WWF that includes the Ministry of Nature and
Environment, Academy of Science, and NGOs is formed and has met twice. It is
anticipated that this Advisory Committee will be expanded countrywide to support
the countrywide gap analysis.
- WWF Mongolia is helping to translate the PoWPA brochure into Mongolian
language in order to widely communicate the relevant issues.
Based on the above, as well as on all relevant/complementary actions related to the PoWPA
in Mongolia up to date, the following priority issues have been identified as least covered, and
therefore requesting support from the UNDP/GEF Programme:
1) To complete Protected Area and Ecological Gap analyses in whole Mongolia
2) Develop and implement National PA Capacity Building Programme
3) Develop sustainable financing mechanisms for PA.
4) Update existing National Programme on PA (1999) in line with international
SECTION I.3 ACTION PLAN TO IMPLEMENT THE POWPA
The activities described in the previous section do relate directly to the PoWPA. However, as
such the Government of Mongolia has not elaborated any formal action plan for the
implementation of PoWPA in Mongolia, but is rather looking to reconcile its national
activities with goals and activities of the PoWPA. The Parliament of Mongolia adopted ―The
National Programme on Protected Areas‖ in 1998. The National Programme on Protected
Areas, envisioning targets for 20 years, provides 10 key elements for its implementation, such
as the establishment, legal framework, governance, human capacity, management, research,
public awareness and education, public participation, funding and infrastructure, and
international cooperation of PA’s. These elements mostly align with the goals of the CBD
Programme of Work on Protected Areas. The Government of Mongolia has elaborated and
adopted also ―The Action Plan for the Implementation of the National Programme on
Protected Areas‖ in 1999. As party to the CBD, Mongolia is committed to achieve the targets
of PoWPA by 2010. Within this request, the National Programme and its Implementation
Action Plan will be evaluated and adjusted and aligned according to the PoWPA targets. This
proposal put forward here exactly targets this outcome. It will put more attention on the
implementation of the National Programme and its Action Plan, with will be measurable and
achievable, and aligned with the PoWPA targets.
SECTION I.4 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
I.4.A. Overview of the national protected area system
There are currently 60 protected areas in Mongolia, which cover about 21.58 million ha of
territory in 19 aimags (provinces) or 13.79 % of the country’s entire territory (see details
below in the table). Of this total, mountain and desert habitat types are well represented,
however, grasslands and wetlands are under-represented. There are significant opportunities
for incorporating local protected areas into the network. There are roughly 115 areas
encompassing 5.09 million ha of land are under local protection (designated by local
The Protected Area Administration Department at the Ministry of Nature and Environment is
responsible for Protected Area issues in Mongolia. Under the direct supervision of the
department, there are 22 PA’s administration throughout the country. The current department
consists of 5 people besides the director. The Protected Areas Administrations have a
common organizational structure and consist of a director, an administration section,
specialists and rangers and a number of staff for each administration which varies depending
on the size of the territory they are responsible for. Also, the Governors of the aimag, capital
city, soum and district have to manage the administration of the Nature Reserves and Monuments according to the law. However, most cases lacking management of last two
categories (Nature Reserves and Monuments) or attached to PA administration, responsible
for first two categories (SPA and National Parks).
All, the Mongolian Law on Special PA’s (1996) , the law on Buffer zones (1998) and the
National Programme on PA’s (1998) are legal binding documents for establishing and
managing PA’s. They are not legally binding for multilateral environmental agreements.
PA category/type Quantity Surface Corresponding Management
area, IUCN category authority
Strictly Protected 12 10,494,283 Ia and Ib State Areas
National Parks 21 8,939,222 II State Nature Reserves 19 2,049,218 IV Local (with some
exceptions) Natural Monuments 8 97,645 III Local TOTAL 60 21,580,368
I.4.B Threats to the protected areas
Threat 1. Poaching
Poaching is the most significant threat in Protected Areas, affecting rare and once common
species, especially mammals,. A recent nationwide study estimates that between 1992-2004
the populations of 8 species, such as Saiga, Marmots, Red Deers, Mongolian Gazelle, Saker
Falcon, Wolves, have declined by 50-90% (Wingard J.R. and P.Zahler.2006.). Within
Protected Areas, populations of animals also appear to be in decline primarily due to
poaching due to insufficient law enforcement.
Threat 2. Overgrazing
Mostly, today’s Protected Areas overlap land that has traditionally been used by herder
families. However, in the past livestock numbers in the past and seasonal movements (moving
3-4 or even >10 times per year) offered enough fallow land for wildlife. With the exception
of Strictly Protected Areas, livestock grazing is allowed within Protected Areas. However, without management, this practice does not comply with biodiversity’s habitat requirements.
Currently, the Mongolia’s livestock population is very high – with 33 millions — which puts enormous pressures on grassland steppes within Protected Areas.
Threat 3. Mineral resource exploration and exploitation Mongolia is emerging as a major player in mining with more than 8,000 deposits of valuable
oil and minerals, particularly copper, fluorspar, gold, molybdenum, oil, and coal. Half the
economy is related to mining and this activity is predicted to double in the next decade.
Currently 45 % of the country have mining exploration leases by Mongolian, Russian,
Chinese, Canadian and South African companies. In addition to that, there are independent
illegal so-called ―ninja‖ miners, who pan for gold using dangerous and polluting extraction
methods. The Protected Area network protects lands and waters from mining; however,
mining affects water quality of rivers and lakes that are an integral part to Protected Areas and
it is slowing and/or preventing the expansion of the Protected Area system in Mongolia. Also,
there are enough examples of incursions by prospectors into the zones of official Protected
Threat 4. Infrastructure development
As Mongolia develops its mining sector and creates links to the greater world, new roads,
railroads, bridges, and pipelines are being planned and built. Poorly located roads, bridges
and railroads can lead to habitat fragmentation and degradation, thereby affecting Protected
Areas and their surrounding landscape. Development springing up along the new roadsides
may create new population centers in immediate proximity of Protected Areas , thereby
leading to secondary impacts.
Threat 5. De-gazetting
There have been efforts in 2002 as well as 2004 to degazette Protected Areas in order to open
them up to mining exploration. Fortunately, the Mongolian parliament prevented this from
happening. As the mining sector expands in Mongolia, there may be increased pressure to the
complete removal of Protected Areas.
Threat 6. Climate change
Global warming has had considerable impacts on Mongolia. The permafrost zone of Lake
Hovsgol Strictly Protected Area in the north of the country is showing signs of rapid change.
There, the annual air temperature has increased by 1.44?C since 1963. Overgrazing and
deforestation exacerbates the effects of climate change. Extended droughts that are likely to
be related to climate change have caused the drying-up of an estimated 500 rivers and lakes,
including those in Protected Areas.
Threat 7. Incompatible development for tourism Some Protected Areas, such as Lake Hovsgol, Bogd Khan Uul, and Terelj, are popular with
tourists. In recent years, a proliferation of Ger (national housing) resorts and hotels have been constructed within the Protected Areas, including even within Strictly Protected Areas. This
development is leading to the degradation of Protected Areas.
I.4.C. Barriers and limitations preventing the existing PA system from
achieving the targets of the CBD PoWPA
There is a great conflict between the conservational needs of the land and its economic value
(grazing, mining activities, and other economic development). In addition, other types of
single-use and private leases are beginning to limit Protected Area expansion (State and Local
There is insufficient management and law enforcement capacity on all levels (lack of trained
staff, transportation, communications, and field equipments).
There is no civil service law – also showing in the low salaries for park management staff.
Therefore, there is lack of accountability.
Currently, there are no priorities and strategies that focus on the limited resources that would
enable the strengthening and expansion of a PA network in the country.
Almost half of all types of Protected Areas are lacking Management Plans (Currently, 53%
have approved Management Plans). Current Law on Special Protected Areas does not include
any references to Management Plans. However, National Programme of Protected Areas
requires it. Thus, proposals to amend the law are being prepared for submission to the
Parliament. Also recently, the Ministry of Nature and Environment developed model
Management Plan (guideline) based on IUCN guidelines and distributed to all National Parks
to develop own management plans.
Current efforts to monitor biodiversity are opportunistic, and limited in spatial and temporal
scale, and primarily focused on the status of species.
I.4.D Project outcomes and activities, and PoWPA Activities related to
PoWPA activities to Project outcomes Activities per each outcome
be addressed that correspond to
Activity 1.1.5 1. A countrywide 1.1 Develop and maintain a database management
Protected Area system and collect basic data, such us types of
representative and ecosystems, hydrological, vegetation, relief, etc;
ecological gap analysis 1.2 Define and map terrestrial and freshwater
completed ecosystems to serve coarse filter targets;
1.3 Identify a set of targets for a gap analysis and
establish conservation goals for each target;
1.4 Identify and map major threats to biodiversity and
determine protection levels for gaps;
1.5 Conduct a spatial gap analysis and compile gap
1.6 Write report, conduct participatory consultations
with all relevant stakeholders.
1.7 Approve the Gap Assessment Report as an Annex
to the National Programme For Pas (links to the last
Activity 3.2.1 2. National PA capacity 2.1 Review/assess current capacity needs (human,
building programme is technical and financial) for PA system and update the
developed and assessment report that was conducted by the MNE in
implementation started 2003;
2.2 Assess current capacity of higher education
institutes and select appropriate institutions for training
courses for PA staff;
2.3 Elaborate training programmes and curricula by
selected institutionss educational staff;
2.4 Elaborate materials and conduct a series of training
to ensure that all government staff on PAs are covered;
2.5 Write final report on the need of capacity
programmes and include lessons learned from the first
implementation on activities into the report.
2.6 Ensure financial sustainability of the training center
by lobbying for government funding after the project
Activity 3.4.1 3. Sustainable financing 3.1. A comprehensive study on the current situation
mechanisms for PA’s are with PA financial sustainability in Mongolia and
developed and the key options for changing it to the better. The Study will
option is tested for presuppose application of the UNDP/GEF financial
viability scorecard. Training on the introduction and use of the
financial sustainability scorecard will be conducted.
PoWPA activities to Project outcomes Activities per each outcome
be addressed that correspond to
These will be followed by the initial filling out of the
scorecard by the government to quantify, using the
scorecard, the baseline situation with regard to the PA
financial sustainability in Mongolia. Thus the baseline
situation with financing will be clear. Next, a set of
mechanisms will be developed for different regions and
3.2 Select 1-3 suitable option on sustainable
mechanism and develop a partnership to test its
viability modeled on different ecoregions.. Activity 1.1.1 4. The implementation 4.1 Review the implementation status of the National
status of the National Programme on PAs against the targets and indicators of
Programme on PA is PoWPA;
evaluated and aligned 4.2 Develop recommendations for the further
with the CBD PoWPA. improvement of the National Programme to be aligned
with the PoWPA, including new time-bound and
measurable targets and indicators. I.4.E. Related projects and initiatives (not to be included in co-financing)
Project name Funding: source Implementing Which PoWPA activities
and amount, US$ agency(ies) are supported The National Programme Government budget Ministry for Nature and Relevant for all activities on PA and its and international Environment
Implementation Action donor contributions
The Eastern Steppe USAID – $903,216 Wildlife Conservation Activities 1.1.4 (indirectly), Living Landscape (2004 – Society 1.2.2, 2.1.2, 3.1.6 2008)
Community-based GEF- 3,070 mill. UNDP Mongolia Activities 1.2.2, and all Conservation of US$, Ministry for Nature and activities under goal 2.2 Biological Diversity in Dutch government- Environment
the Mountain Landscapes 1,540 mill. US$
of Mongolia’s Altai-
Sayan Ecoregion (2005 –
Rural development and Swedish International WWF Mongolia Activity 2.1.2 education for sustainable Development Programme Office
development (2004 – Cooperation Agency
2009) (SIDA), 6.5 mill.SEK
Saiga Conservation (2007 MAVA foundation – WWF Mongolia Activity 2.1.2 -2010) 0,6 mio. US$ Programme Office
Amur/Heilong River WWF-US and WWF-WWF Mongolia All activities under goal 1.4. Basin Programme NL – 60,000 US$ for Programme Office (site-based Protected Area development (2007 – 2007 planning and management) 2010)
WWF’s Altai-Sayan WWF-NL – 200,000 WWF Mongolia Activities 1.3.4, and 2.1.2 project (2007 -2010) Euro. Programme Office
Additional for co-
financing part for PA
gap ecological gap
Conservation and Government of GTZ Mongolia All activities under goal 1.4. in Sustainable Management Germany, GTZ – selected two sites of Natural Resource Dutch Government
Programme (2005 – 2008)
SECTION I.5 STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
Stakeholder Mechanism for involvement in the project Universities and Contract relevant scientists for consultancy services through the participation of research institutions different working groups, use research results for analyses and assessments, invite to
stakeholder workshops and meetings.
Higher environmental Elaborate on training programme and curricula jointly with higher educational education institutes institutes’ staff, conduct teachers’ trainings, and contract with institutions for
conducting trainings for PA staff.
Environmental NGOs Invite to participate in different working group activities and stakeholder
consultation meetings, and conduct certain activities on a contractual basis. Ministry for finance Invite relevant staff of the Ministry to participate in working groups to elaborate on
sustainable financing mechanisms for PAs.
Agriculture Ministry, Gather necessary information (such as information on mining, livestock, pasture and Trade and Industry management, land use planning, etc) and invite authorities of relevant Ministries to Ministry, Ministry for participate in working groups and stakeholder meetings. Urban Planning and
Relevant authorities at Gather necessary information on local PAs, biodiversity and socio-economic data, local level capacity needs, etc and invite to relevant stakeholder meetings Donor communities, Organise annual donor coordination and consultation meetings to discuss on the international project effective implementation and progress of implementation of the PoWPA in leaders actively Mongolia.
working in Mongolia
SECTION I.6 MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF EXPECTED
Overall project implementation will be managed by the Ministry of Nature and Environment
(MNE). The MNE will establish Project Implementation Unit (PIU) under supervision of the
Department of Protected Areas Administration of the MNE, but no project funds will be used
to pay salaries to the Government officials. The PIU will manage the project activities
through sub-contracting experts and also partner organizations. All expected outcomes of the
project will be monitored by the PIU and MNE. The UNDP/GEF Financial Scorecard will be
used as a monitoring instrument for the Outcome which deals with sustainable PA financing.
In the second year of the project, a 3-day mission of a peer-reviewer will be undertaken to
Mongolia, to assess project progress (conducting meetings with project partners, and possibly
having site visits to model community protected areas), and report back, on an independent
basis, to the Project Management Unit. USD 3,000 has been allocated for 3-day international
fee and travel (in lump sum) in the project budget (International Consultants, split between
the outcomes). The consultant will be selected based on UNDP/UNOPS procedures.
The following table describes specific M&E activities.
Type of M&E activity Responsible party (ies) Timeframe
1 month after the money Ministry of Nature and 1. Inception report has been deposited in the Environment (MNE) project bank account th2. Quarterly technical and MNE By the 30 of the month financial reports following the end of each
calendar quarter. The
report should contain both
a technical and financial
section. 3. One-page travel reports MNE Within 10 days of the
conclusion of a trip