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Theodore-Dreisers-Sister-Carrie-reflects-the-profound-

    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文

    美国作家西奥多德莱塞被认为美国自然主义的杰出代表,本文以其第一

    部小说《嘉莉妹妹》为例分析德莱塞自然主义的一些特征。论文从德莱塞创作《嘉

    莉妹妹》的历史文化背景出发,研究德莱塞在《嘉莉妹妹》中表现出来的自然主

    义思想。论文涉及该小说的主要三大背景:一是达尔文主义和宿命论;二是美国

    然主义;三是19世纪末在美国兴起的消费主义。同时分析自然主义的三大特点:

    欲望,本能和环境,最后得出结论:《嘉莉妹妹》一文中主人公嘉莉妹妹的最终命

    运与德莱塞本人的命运息息相关,赫思渥德的最终堕落也是德莱塞惧怕失败的结

    果。而德莱塞却把嘉莉妹妹和赫思特渥德最终得不到幸福归因于“人心盲目的追

    求,命中注定本该如此„.

    自然主义 达尔文主义 消费主义 欲望 环境

    Dreisers Naturalism in Sister Carrie

    Zhang Yu

AbstractTheodore Dreiser is regarded as an outstanding representative of American

    naturalism. In this thesis, Dreiser’s first novel Sister Carrie is taken as an example to analyze the features of Dreiser’s naturalism. The thesis referred to three great

    historical and cultural background of the novel which are DarwinismDeterminism.

    American Naturalism and Consumerism. Meanwhile the thesis analyzes three features

    of naturalism. At last, we can draw the conclusion that the leading character of the

    novel-Carrie’s destiny has a great connection with Dreiser himself and the decline of

    Hurstwood is a result of Dreiser’s fear of failure, but Dreiser attributes Carrie and

    Hurstwood’s unhappiness to their insatiable desire for life or they are doomed to be

    unhappy etc, and from which we can see Dreiser’s naturalism easily.

    Key WordsNaturalism Darwinism Consumerism desire environment

    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文

    Contents

Introduction ................................................................................................. 1

    1. The historical and cultural background for Sister Carrie ....................... 2

    1.1 Darwinism and Determinism ............................................................. 2

    1.2 American naturalism .......................................................................... 2

    2. The typical characteristics of naturalism in Sister Carrie ...................... 2

    2.1 The relationship among reason, free will and instinct ....................... 2

    2.2 The influence of the environment ...................................................... 3

    3. Dreiser’s naturalistic attitude of truthful reflection of life ..................... 3

    3.1 Dreiser's “Sister”Carrie ................................................................. 3 3.2 Hurstwood's declineDreiser's fear of failure................................ 3 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 3

    Notes ........................................................................................................... 4

    Bibliography ............................................................................................... 5

    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文

    Dreisers Naturalism in Sister Carrie

    Zhang Yu

Introduction

     Theodore Dreiser is one of the most influential American writers of critical

    realism, but many of his works referred to the description of naturalism and weakened

    his critical spirit. His first novel Sister Carrie published in 1990 revealed the financial disparity and the moral decline of American society and thus regarded as forbidden

    book. But now the book becomes one of the best-sellers of American literature

    because of the naturalistic features in it. Then Dreiser is regarded as a pioneer of

    American naturalism and as a naturalist Dreiser expresses the characteristics of

    naturalism in most of his works. The themes of Darwinism and Determinism are the

    common features of Dreisers story which also characterize Sister Carrie.

    When most novels deal only with the smiling and beautiful aspects of life,

    Dreiser advocates truthful reflection of life in his fiction. It is not an exaggeration to

    say that Dreiser's Sister Carrie clears the way for the development of American

    fiction.

    Since 1900, American critics have never ceased their study on Dreiser. The early

    research was mainly based on the writer's life experience. It provided us with lots of

    useful information about the writer. The study witnessed a transition from the author

    himself to the text in 1960s. From 1980s, scholars employed new devices of

    Freudianism, Feminism and Post-Structuralism in their studies. These new methods

    help us know Dreiser and his works from different angles. However, one thing they

    share in common is that they lack macroscopic analysis.

     In china , some Chinese critics have also shown great interest in Sister Carrie.

    Two domestic literary magazines, Foreign Literature Study and Foreign Literature

    Review, have been the major publishing fields for these critics

    In order to find out Dreiser's naturalism, the method of text analysis is

     1

    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文

    employed in this thesis. The author of this thesis reads the novel intensively so that

    evidences can be dug out to demonstrate Dreiser's naturalism. Another method,

    cultural criticism, is employed to research the complicated relation between Dreiser

    and the society he lived in. Dreiser is investigated in his historical and cultural

    background. The conclusion shows that Dreiser is not only a criticizer of capitalism,

    but also a builder of American cultural system.

    1. The historical and cultural background for Sister Carrie

    Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie reflects the profound transformations in

    American life in the late nineteenth century. Among the most sweeping changes

    registered in the novel are the economy's shifting from an agricultural base to an

1.1 Darwinism and Determinism

    Sister Carrie was written at the time when Darwinism was prevalent. Many of

    Sister Carrie’s themes-struggle, survival and desire-derive directly from the

    thevolutionary views. The concept of evolution was put forward in the mid-19 century

    by Charles Darwin

1.2 American naturalism

    Sister Carrie was written and published also at the rise of American naturalism,

    thwhich means a particular genre of fiction that developed in the late 19 century

    America, and associated principally with writers such as Jack London Stephen

    Crane, Frank Norris and Theodore Dreiser

    2. The typical characteristics of naturalism in Sister Carrie

     In Sister Carrie I find out that some of its themes differ from those of other

    naturalistic works

2.1 The relationship among reason, free will and instinct

    In Sister Carrie Dreiser details the relationship among reason, free will and

     2

    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文 instinct: When humans' instinct and reason are at war, the former prevails over the

    latter in most instances; humans' free will is mostly an illusion and submits to humans'

    instinct

2.2 The influence of the environment

    Environment is a tremendous thing and often leads human to a wrong direction.

    We know that Drouet tells Carrie that Chicago is a wonder, and that she will find lots

     [1]to see there. Even her meager sister Minnie tells her, You'll want to see the city.

3. Dreisers naturalistic attitude of truthful reflection of life

    A phrase often applied to Dreiser by others is standing alone or marching alone.

    In his Nobel Prize address, Sinclair Lewis tells the Swedish Academy that Dreiser

    more than any other man, marching alone, usually unappreciated, often hated, has

    cleared the trail from Victorian and Howell Sian timidity and gentility in American

    [2]fiction to honesty and boldness and passion of life.

3.1 Dreiser's SisterCarrie

    Emma Dreiser, the prettiest of the five Dreiser sisters, was eight years older than

    Theodore Dreiser. As a young girl in the small town of Sullivan, Indiana, she and her

    other sisters were deeply interested in boys ...

3.2 Hurstwood's declineDreiser's fear of failure

     For Hopkins Dreiser substitutes the prosperous and respected upper-middle-class

    manager who keeps a well-appointed house on the North Side, the best section of

    Chicago

Conclusion

    This short thesis can not cover Dreiser's meaningful naturalism. His greatness is

    in his insight, his sympathy, and his tragic view of life

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    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文

Notes

    [1]Bantam. Sister Carrie [M]. New York: Bantam Classics , 1992. p.61. [2] Ibid., p.51.

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    内蒙古民族大学毕业论文

Bibliography

[1] Bartlett, L. Teacher Development Through Reflective Teaching [A]. in Richards

    & Nunan (eds.). Second Language Teacher Education [C]. Beijing: Foreign

    Language Teaching and Research Press/Cambridge University Press,

    2000.26-29.

    [2] He Gang. The Brief Analysis of Jane Eyre. http://www.pragmatics China.

    Com/grammaticalization.htm, 2003-05-12.

    [3] Williams, M & L. B. Burden. Psychology for Language Teachers [M]. Beijing:

    Foreign language Teaching and Research Press/Cambridge University Press,

    2000.

    [4] 肖晨.英语语言、文学工具书及其使用[M].北京:学苑出版社,1990.34-42. [5] „„

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