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Round 11 House 2 Fin - Quiz Bowl Club, Stanford University

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Round 11 House 2 Fin - Quiz Bowl Club, Stanford University

    Zot Bowl I/Truman State Novice/VCU Novice 2008

Round 11

    Packet by House 2 (Ray Anderson, Ray Luo, Brendan Shapiro, Jon Wong, Dwight Wynne)

TOSSUPS

1. One of this president’s Supreme Court appointees wrote a majority opinion striking down a Georgia city’s

    ordinance requiring groups to apply for a permit to solicit members in Staub v. City of Baxley. Another of his appointees was the grandson and namesake of the “Great Dissenter”, while a third claimed to know obscenity when he saw it. He claimed the appointment of the majority opinion writer in N.Y. Times v. Sullivan was a mistake, but his choice of Chief Justice was the “biggest damn-fool mistake” he ever made. For 10 points, name this president whose Supreme Court appointees included Charles Whittaker, Potter Stewart, William J. Brennan and Earl Warren.

    Answer: Dwight David (or David Dwight) Eisenhower

2. This man’s wooden crucifix depicted “the body of a peasant, not the body of Jesus Christ” according to one

    contemporary, and this man agreed after witnessing the perfection of that contemporary’s crucifix for Santa Maria

    Novella. His technique of schiacciato can be seen in such works as The Ascension, with Christ Giving the Keys to Peter and The Feast of Herod, while he may be better known for a bronze sculpture of a contrapposto figure holding

    a sword as well as a sculpture of Eramso da Narmi astride a horse. For 10 points, identify this Florentine sculptor of

    a bronze David as well as Gattamelata.

    Answer: Donatello

3. Frank Ramsey outlined his “subjective” theory of probability in response to this man’s “logical-relationist”

    theory of probability introduced in A Treatise on Probability. This onetime director of the British Eugenics Society introduced the “normal backwardation” theory of speculation. He debated with Ohlin and Rueff over the German reparations problem, a problem he had earlier identified in On the Economic Consequences of the Peace. His last

    major work argued that full employment and economic recovery can be induced by government public

    spending. For 10 points, name this British economist who wrote The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.

    Answer: John Maynard Keynes

4. Ilkovic solved a partial differential equation involving derivatives of this quantity for a semi-infinite

    space. Another PDE involving this quantity was transposed to Lagrangian coordinates by Taylor and Aris and says

    that the time derivative of this quantity is proportional to its second spatial derivative. The molar flux is equal in

    magnitude to the molecular diffusivity times the gradient of this according to Fick’s Law, and it can be measured in normality, molality, or percent by volume or weight. For 10 points, name this measure of how much of a given

    substance exists within a given volume, most often measured in molarity, or moles per liter.

    Answer: concentration

5. One character in this novel claims that marriage is like dancing: "men have the advantage of choice, women only

    the power of refusal." Another character has been seeing a poor soldier named Thomas, contrary to the general's

    wishes, even though her father is burdened by gambling debts. Mrs. Allen constantly talks about how she can afford

    nice gowns during an invitation of the protagonist to Bath. Isabella is abandoned by Captain Frederick after

    breaking off an engagement to James, while James's sister loses sleep upon reading Ann Radcliffe's Mysteries of

    Udolpho. FTP name this novel about the reconciliation of Henry Tilney to Catherine Morland, a spoof of the Gothic

    novel by Jane Austen.

    Answer: Northanger Abbey

6. He notes that “God does not give heed to the ambitiousness of our prayers” in a commentary on the Sermon on

    the Mount. In his most famous theological work, he attempts to adapt the methods of Ciceronian rhetoric to the

    purposes of defenders of the church. That work, De Doctrina Christiana, also introduces a discourse on the nature of interpretation. His focus on hermeneutics laid the foundation for a re-examination of the fall of the Roman Empire in

    terms of a long-standing conflict between the titular entity and the city of man. For 10 points, name this Bishop of

Hippo, author of City of God and the Confessions.

    Answer: Saint Augustine (of Hippo)

7. He cuts back and forth between the husband and the assailants more and more quickly as a rescue takes place in

    his early work The Lonely Villa. A fake pistol is revealed to be a wrench held by the titular character in his The

    Lonedale Operator. Before his adaptation of Tosca was rejected, he was a hop picker who sold books in Kentucky,

    and wrote the play The Fool and the Girl. Contrasting between the rich and the poor in A Corner in Wheat, his

    Pippa Passes was the first film to be reviewed by the New York Times, and he also filmed an icy rescue in Way

    Down East, starring Lillian Gish. For 10 points, name this director of Intolerance who chronicled the rise of the KKK in The Birth of A Nation.

    Answer: D(avid) W(ark) Griffith

8. 21st century acquisitions by it include SGV Bancorp, Financial Freedom, New York Mortgage Company and

    Barrington Capital. Founded as a division of Countrywide in 1985, it originally focused on Jumbo loans that were

    unsalable to GSEs. In 1997, it was spun off into its own company that would eventually become a specialist in the

    Alt-A market. Resulting large losses in 2007 and 2008 drove its stock price from $50 to less than $1. For 10 points,

    a June 2008 letter written by Charles Schumer initiated a final bank run that would result in the July 2008 failure of

    what Pasadena, California, based bank, one of the largest bank failures in U.S. history?

    Answer: IndyMac Federal Bank (accept IndyMac Bank, FSB)

9. One of the props in this play is a gun that shoots a parasol, though only the man pulling the trigger knows this and

    everyone else on stage thinks the gun is real. During a scuffle another character shouts “Violence! Violence!”; that

    character is later found to have been tearing the label off a bottle of alcohol while in the bathroom. Among the

    drunken revelations in this play is that one if not both of the New Carthage professors present at the party are

    impotent. For 10 points, name this play in which Nick and Honey are witness to the dysfunctional couple George

    and Martha, written by Edward Albee.

    Answer: Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

10. Its quality is measured in MOS [“moss’]. One device that creates it is called GLOVE and uses thirty-seven

    control parameters; another device to create it is named after Klatt and uses only nineteen. One algorithm for

    producing it is known by the acronym PSOLA in which the OLA stands for “overlap and add”. Delta modulation, a

    variant on differential PCM, can be used to digitally code it, but more prevalent is the use of a codebook in CELP

    [“selp”], which is the primary strategy used in cellular phone processors. For 10 points, all of these strategies deal with the synthesis or analysis of what human capability produce meaningful vocal utterances?

    Answer: speech

11. One of its sections describes the novel as a perversion of sensibility, and begins with a discussion of Rameau's

    Nephew in contrast to Descartes' method of doubt. Another section sees unemployment as a sin, and morality as a

    treatment imposed by the economy of 18th century Europe. Before "The Great Fear" and "The Great Confinement,"

    this work discusses the use of the ship of fools in dealing with leprosy in the section "Stultifera Navis." Also

    including chapters on "The New Division" and "Passion and Delirium," FTP name this work subtitled "a history of

    insanity in the age of reason," the most famous early work by Michel Foucault.

    Answer: Folie et deraison; or Madness and Civilization

    12. One ruler of this name lost the Appenzell War to a Swiss canton and was known as the “Empty Pockets”. Another ruler of this name lost the battle of Gammelsdorf to Louis the Bavarian, and a third signed the

    Treaty of San Germano to reconcile himself with a pope who had been unimpressed with a treaty he signed at

    Jaffa. One known as “the Wise” harbored Martin Luther in Warburg Castle after Luther’s shenanigans at the Diet of

    Worms. The “Great” one acquired East Friesland during a war with Austria that also saw two separate treaties

    guaranteeing him Silesia. For 10 points, give the common name of these rulers, the "Great" one of which ruled

    Prussia in the 1700s.

    Answer: Frederick (I guess you can accept “Friedrich” before the end of the first sentence)

13. The first Dutch person to hold this position was a 34-year-old housewife who was scared of cockroaches, while

    the first Italian one was a television host named Marco Predolin. The first one ever was the Belgian Magda

    Ral. The first American one was stymied by two men gossiping on the phone instead of trying to find Anderson

    Cooper in the Three Rooms Challenge; that was lawyer Kathryn Price. The most recent American one suffered

    from altitude sickness after completing the Midas Rush mission; $420,000 was awarded for correctly identifying

    San Diego native Craig Slike. For 10 points, name this titular saboteur of an internationally-licensed reality TV

    show.

    Answer: The Mole

14. One of his characters leaves her husband Andre Chazal to win support for her cause, though this life of Flora

    Tristan is parallel to that of her grandson Paul Gauguin. Another of his characters, Don Anselmo, builds a brothel

    that houses the young Bonificia. In addition to the aforementioned The Way to Paradise and The Green House, he

    chronicled a conflict between the Brazilian Army and a group of militant settlers in The War at the End of the World

    and intimated on his military training in The Time of the Hero. FTP name this Chilean novelist who described a friendship with radio producer Pedro Camancho and a relationship with Uncle Urquidi's wife in Aunt Julia and the

    Scriptwriter.

    Answer: Mario Vargas Llosa

15. One of this composer’s title characters sings the aria “Quand le destin au milieu” to convince the Countess of

    Berkenfield not to force her to marry the Duke of Crackenthorp. In another of his operas, Dr. Malatesta sings “Bella siccome un angelo” when describing a fictional sister to the title bachelor, while the self-proclaimed genius Dr.

    Dulcamara sells the title object of another opera to Nemorino to allow him to woo Adina. Another of his operas

    contains the sextet “Chi mi frena?”, after which Edgardo curses the entire Lammermoor family. For 10 points, name

    this Italian composer of Daughter of the Regiment, Don Pasquale, L’Elisir d’Amore, and Lucia di Lammermoor.

    Answer: Gaetano Donizetti

16. This seat of Douglas County was founded at the site of the Lone Tree Ferry. Ranked by Kiplinger's as one of the

    10 best U.S. cities, Offut Air Force Base is located 20 miles south of its center. Attractions in this city, served by

    Eppley Airfield, include a namesake Community Playhouse and the Henry Doorly Zoo. The Qwest Center here

    hosts the annual meeting of Berkshire Hathaway, and is home to Creighton's men's basketball team. Baseball fans

    know this city because it hosts the Collegiate World Series. Located near the junction of the Platte and Missouri

    Rivers, this is, for 10 points, what largest city in Nebraska?

    Answer: Omaha

17. Labuda et al. attributed the prevalence of rickets among Quebecois to this effect. Wallace et al. found that it

    could be found among Amerindian populations by examining the mitochondrial DNA. Prevalence of fumarase

    deficiency in Fundamentalist Latter-Day Saint populations is one clear modern example of it among human

    populations as are numerous examples among various Pacific islands. First described by Ernst Mayr in 1952, it can

    result in increased genetic drift. For 10 points, name this effect that can follow a bottleneck event, in which a

    population arises from a limited number of original members.

    Answer: founder effect

18. Were he a girl, this character would have been named Betsy. At one point in the novel in which he appears, Dr.

    Strong asks him to help compile a classical dictionary, and at seventeen he falls in love with Miss Larkins, who

    chooses Mr. Chestle over him. His classmates at Salem House include George Demple, Thomas Traddles, and

    James Steerforth, the latter of whom seduces Little Em’ly. Among the villains he encounters are his stepfather, Edward Murdstone, and a man who constantly boasts of his humility, Uriah Heep. For 10 points, name this narrator

    and title character of a Charles Dickens novel.

    Answer: David Copperfield (presumably accept either)

19. This man lived in exile in New Orleans for a year and a half before returning as minister of justice and public

    instruction under Juan Alvarez. He barely survived a coup by Felix Zuloaga after Guillermo Prieto convinced the

    firing squad not to assassinate him. He threw John Pickett in jail after Pickett attempted to create a Confederate

alliance with this man’s country, though he may be best known for leading the guerrilla resistance to Emperor

    Maximilian. For 10 points identify this great Mexican reformer and its first president of indigenous descent.

    Answer: Benito Juarez

    20. At the instigation of Jeh, the “accursed whore”, he poisoned Gayomart. His reign is not forever but nine thousand years, a punishment handed down by his father after he ripped open his womb to emerge before his twin

    brother. Among his creations are Mitokht, Akoman, the Pairika Knathati, and 99,999 diseases. He was once

    defeated by the recitation of the Ahunwar, and he will be finally defeated by a Saoshyant, a savior of virgin birth of

    the lineage of Zarathustra. For 10 points, name this god of evil in dualistic Zoroastrian tradition, who is always at

    odds with Ahura Mazda.

    Answer: Ahriman or Angra Mainyu

    TB. This man wrote over 150 compositions featuring the baryton, and his Mourning Symphony in E minor was played at his funeral. He transposed his Piano Trio in F sharp minor for the theme to the second movement of his Symphony No. 102 in B flat major, a performance of which gave the nickname to Symphony No. 96, his “Miracle” Symphony. The 2/4 andante second movement of another symphony begins with a tranquil melody in C major, but

    on beat 2 of measure 16 the phrase ends with a loud G major chord, and the final movement of another sees the

    musicians leave one by one. For 10 points, name this Austrian composer of the Surprise Symphony and Farewell Symphony.

    Answer: Franz Joseph Haydn

BONUSES

1. He cries, “hang them – hang them all” before beginning a trial, and denies every single one of Daniel Webster’s

    objections while sustaining all those of Scratch. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this judge in “The Devil and Daniel Webster”, whose real-life counterpart of the same name presided

    over the Salem Witch trials and caused another author to add a “w” to his last name.

    Answer: Judge Hathorne [10] Daniel Webster argues, and ultimately wins the case, for this hard-luck New Hampshire farmer whose luck

    suddenly changes when he sells his soul for two cents.

    Answer: Jabez Stone (accept either) [10] “The Devil and Daniel Webster” was written by this author also known for the poem “John Brown’s Body”.

    Answer: Stephen Vincent Benet

2. Answer the following about classification of elements and their isotopes for 10 points each.

    [10] Obviously the rows of the periodic table are called periods; this is the name given to the columns of the periodic

    table.

    Answer: groups (I think I've heard them called "families" before, too, so I guess you can go ahead and accept that) [10] Usually getting its own row on the periodic table, this group with partially filled 4f subshells is notable for its

    namesake contraction, in which the atomic radius of each +3 ion decreases as atomic number increases.

    Answer: lanthanides

    [10] This term describes isotopes, like helium-4 and nickel-48, which have both protons and neutrons arranged in

    complete shells within the nucleus.

    Answer: doubly magic

3. For 10 points each, answer the following about determining whether line A or line B is longer.

    [10] This conformity experiment asked subjects to match one of three lines to a reference line, while variants of it

    may ask instead whether line A or line B is longer. The important part is what subjects say when everyone else is

    wrong.

    Answer: Asch experiment

    [10] In this eponymous illusion, lines A and B are the same length, but the line bounded by two inward-pointing

    arrows looks longer than the line bounded by two outward-pointing arrows.

    Answer: Müller-Lyer illusion [10] Determining whether line A or line B is longer was the tenth of thirty tasks used to measure intelligence in

    children in this French psychologist’s paper “New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals”.

    Answer: Alfred Binet

4. While escaping with Jason, she killed and dismembered her brother Apsyrtus, who had been send by her father

    Aeetes to bring her back. Then the murders just started adding up. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this sorceress, originally from Colchis, who helped Jason in his quest for the Golden Fleece.

    Answer: Medea

    [10] Medea later masterminded the kill of this treacherous uncle of Jason, whose own daughters cut him up and

    boiled him in a pot, believing it would restore his youth.

    Answer: Pelias

    [10] When Jason decided he had had enough of her and wanted to marry this daughter of Creon, Medea went

    ballistic, killing her with a poisoned dress before committing infanticide and hightailing it for Persia.

    Answer: Glauce

5. Answer the following about an important 1565 clash at Fort St. Elmo for 10 points each:

    [10] The battle at Fort St. Elmo was the first in a nearly four-month siege of this island country. Its capital, named

    after Grandmaster John Parisot De La Vallette of the Knights of St. John, was built near the site of Fort St. Elmo.

    Answer: Malta

    [10] This successor of Selim the Grim as Ottoman Sultan saw Malta as the key to invading the “soft underbelly” of Europe and attempted two unsuccessful invasions of Malta, one in 1551 followed by the “Great Siege” of 1565.

    Answer: Suleiman I or Suleiman the Magnificent or Suleiman the Lawgiver or Suleiman Kanuni

    [10] This Turkish general was in charge of both unsuccessful invasions. He was killed at the battle of Fort St.

    Elmo.

    Answer: Dragut Reis

6. One poem in this collection asks the title character repeatedly to “take pity on my long misery”, while another

    notes that ennui “dreams of scaffolds as he smokes his hookah pipe”. For 10 points each: [10] Identify this collection of poems, originally published in 1857, which is divided into sections like “Wine”,

    “Death”, and “Spleen and Ideal”.

    Answer: Les Fleurs du Mal or The Flowers of Evil

    [10] This French poet wrote Les Fleurs du Mal.

    Answer: Charles Baudelaire

    [10] This 1866 collection contains “Epigraphs” about a portrait of Honore Daumier, a portrait of Lola of Valencia,

    and Delacroix’s Tasso in Prison, as well as the six poems originally censored from Fleurs du Mal.

    Answer: Les Epaves or Scraps

7. Okay, I lied earlier when I said that the Harry Potter bonus was the tournament’s 0/1 LGBT distribution. For 10

    points each, name these things associated with California’s In Re Marriage cases, which found that limiting marriages only to heterosexual couples was discriminatory and unconstitutional.

    [10] Upon the ruling, this current California governor stated that he supported the ruling and will help fight an

    upcoming initiative to place a ban on same-sex marriage into the state constitution.

    Answer: Arnold Schwarzenegger

    [10] This current Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court heavily cited the court's 1948 decision legalizing

    inter-racial marriage in his majority opinion in the In Re Marriage cases. Answer: Ronald Marc George

    [10] This former governor and current attorney general of California was charged with the task of defending

    California’s previous marriage laws during the hearings of the case.

    Answer: Edmund Gerald “Jerry” Brown (G Brown also acceptable, prompt on “Brown”)

8. It states that the line integral of the magnetic field around a closed loop is proportional to the current running

    through that loop, or that the curl of the magnetic field is proportional to current density. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this one of Maxwell’s equations.

    Answer: Ampere’s Law

    [10] Ampere’s Law is a special case of this double-eponymous law relating magnetic fields and currents that

    generate them. It involves the cross product of an infinitesimal length unit and a unit vector in the direction of

    distance.

    Answer: Biot-Savart Law

    [10] Maxwell added a correcting term to Ampere’s Law to account for this current generated by a changing electric

    field.

    Answer: displacement current

    9. William Congreve wrote the libretto to this man’s Semele. For 10 points each: [10] Name this composer of Zadok the Priest and three other Coronation Anthems for George II, whose best known

    oratorio is undoubtedly the Messiah.

    Answer: George Frederick Handel (or Haendel)

    [10] It was originally scored for 24 oboes, 12 bassoons, 9 horns, 9 trumpets, 3 kettledrums, and 101 cannons, but a

    month after its premiere Handel added string parts to this composition celebrating the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

    Answer: Music for the Royal Fireworks (or Royal Fireworks Music) [10] This “Air with Variations”, Handel’s Suite No. 5 in E Major for harpsichord, ends with a ridiculous run of thirty-second notes. Controversy still exists over whether the theme was borrowed from a metalworker.

    Answer: “The Harmonious Blacksmith” (prompt on "Air with Variations in E Major")

10. Indira Gandhi's multiple prime ministerships included some turbulent periods. For 10 points each:

     [10] In 1971, India went to war with this country after Gandhi sought support for the Bangladesh Independence

    Movement.

    Answer: Pakistan

     [10] In 1975, Gandhi invoked this under Section 352 of the Constitution, effectively suspending democracy and

    arresting many of her political opponents.

    Answer: Emergency (accept State of Emergency) [10] In 1984, Gandhi ordered this military operation, which stormed the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The result

    enraged the Sikh community and resulted in Gandhi's assassination.

    Answer: Operation Bluestar

11. This king of Shinar built the first cities after the Great Flood, including Ninevah. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this “mighty hunter before the Lord”.

    Answer: Nimrod

    [10] This other city built and ruled by Nimrod may be best remembered for its inhabitants’ ill-fated attempts to built

    a gigantic tower, which were thwarted when none of them could understand each other.

    Answer: Babel (accept “Tower of Babel”)

    [10] Ninevah and Babel are interesting places to find Nimrod, considering he was the grandson of this dude who

    supposedly fathered the peoples of Africa, not the Middle East.

    Answer: Ham

12. Identify the following important in making proteins from DNA for 10 points each:

    [10] This sequence positions RNA Polymerase II approximately 30 base pairs “upstream” from the site of

    transcription initiation. It is named for the first four nucleotides in its consensus sequence.

    Answer: TATA box (or Goldberg-Hogness box, if Wikipedia is to be believed)

    [10] This single-stranded form of RNA which is not ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA is the final result of

    transcription and is modified by adding a five prime cap and poly A tail.

    Answer: messenger RNA

    [10] This eukaryotic equivalent to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence has consensus sequence ACCAUGG, where AUG

    is the start codon.

    Answer: Kozak sequence

13. His late plays include Too True to Be Good, On the Rocks, The Simpleton and the Unexpected Isles, and Why

    She Would Not. FTPE:

    [10] Name this playwright who refused the 1925 Nobel prize for his Saint Joan, and also created works like The

    Doctor's Dilemma, Heartbreak House, and Major Barbara. Answer: George Bernard Shaw

    [10] This Christian tailor dances with the ferocious beast he has tamed when he is fed to it in the arena after Caesar

    orders his guards to become Christians because Ferrovius so valiantly killed 6 gladiators in a Shaw play about this

    character "and the lion."

    Answer: Androcles and the Lion

    [10] The skeptic in the play, this woman loved by the Captain is determined to die for nonsense. She shares her

    name with the mother of the Mannon family in Mourning Becomes Electra and the daughter of Titus Andronicus.

    Answer: Lavinia

14. For 10 points each, answer the following about bizarre moments in Mets history.

    [10] Following a loss to the Angels, the Mets sacked this manager who led the memorable 2007 collapse, then

    notified the press by e-mail. Jerry Manuel seems to be doing a capable job as his replacement.

    Answer: Willie Randolph

    [10] In the 15th inning of the 1999 NLCS, this third baseman hit a walk-off grand slam, except catcher Todd Pratt

    tackled him between first and second base, so the official scorer credited him with only a “Grand Slam single”.

    Answer: Robin Ventura

    [10] On April 25, 1962, the Mets obtained this Cleveland catcher in exchange for a player to be named later. Little

    did he know that on June 15, 1962, he himself would be that player to be named later he was traded for himself! Answer: Harry Chiti

15. The earliest master of this genre is generally considered to be Hishikawa Moronobu, while Kitagawa Utamaro’s

    idealized depictions of women also made him a master of this genre. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this style of Japanese art, comprising mostly screen paintings and wood block prints, which translates as

    “pictures of the floating world”.

    Answer: ukiyo-e

    [10] Probably the best known ukiyo-e master is this man, who depicted the Dream of the Fisherman’s Wife but may

    be better known for a series of landscape woodblock prints that includes the Great Wave off Kanagawa. Answer: Katsushika Hokusai (or Shurno, or Sori, or Kako, or Taito, or Gakyojin, or Iitsu, or Manji, this guy had so many pseudonyms that I’m pretty sure that there’s more I haven’t found) [10] The Great Wave off Kanagawa is one of Hokusai’s Thirty-Six Views of this notable Japanese mountain.

    Answer: Mount Fuji or Fujiyama

16. It requires the president to withdraw troops sixty days after issuing a report to Congress demonstrating the need

    to deploy those troops, unless Congress declares war, grants a thirty-day extension, or cannot meet. For 10 points

    each:

    [10] Name this act passed in 1973 over President Nixon’s veto.

    Answer: War Powers Act or War Powers Resolution

    [10] This 1982 amendment to the War Powers Resolution prohibited U.S. Intelligence Agencies from providing

    military equipment, support, or training for the “purpose of overthrowing the government of Nicaragua.” Answer: Boland Amendment

    [10] This Milwaukee representative sponsored the War Powers Act along with fourteen cosponsors. He later headed

    the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 1977 until his death in 1983.

    Answer: Clement J(ohn) Zablocki

17. This work includes an alphabetized list of martyrs along with the ways they died, and in one episode the main

    character bizarrely curses a fig tree for failing to bear fruit out of season. For 10 points each:

    [10] Identify this revisionist history of some events occurring during the first century A.D.

    Answer: The Gospel According to Jesus Christ (or O Evangelho Segundo Jesus Cristo) [10] This author of such works as The Cave and Blindness wrote The Gospel According to Jesus Christ. Answer: Jose de Sousa Saramago

    [10] Saramago is a Nobel Prize-winning writer from this country whose national epic is The Lusiads. Answer: Portugal

18. For 10 points each, answer the following about a major science experiment that is ongoing in the Antarctic

    interior.

    [10] Currently half-finished, this successor to AMANDA consists of hundreds of photo-multiplier detectors buried

    deep in the ice cap near the South Pole.

    Answer: IceCube

    [10] IceCube seeks to detect the high-energy variant of this sub-atomic particle that can also be detected using the

    Super Kamiokande and Sudbury detectors.

    Answer: neutrino

    [10] The detectors work because this type of radiation is produced when a neutrino interacts with an atom. It is also

    produced whenever a charged particle passes through a medium at a speed greater than light.

    Answer: Cerenkov radiation

19. Several nations produce a major fraction of their oil from offshore production. For 10 points each:

    [10] Whether or not to seek multinational corporate help with deepwater exploration has become a major issue for

    this Latin American nation, whose main Cantarell Field is in steep decline.

    Answer: Mexico [10] This other Latin American nation has seen its proven reserves increase dramatically in 2007 and 2008 with the

    discovery of the Tupi and Jupiter fields. Unlike Mexico, its most prominent petroleum company is partially

    privatized.

    Answer: Brazil [10] Until a 2008 attack, offshore production in this West African nation had gained increasing prominence due to

    perceived protection from attacks by MEND.

    Answer: Nigeria

20. After receiving permission to write one final letter, he committed suicide by sucking poison out of his quill

    pen. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this orator, who argued with Aristophon the Azenian and Cephisodotus over the Law of Leptines.

    Answer: Demosthenes

    [10] Demosthenes is best known for this series of speeches denouncing a certain Macedonian emperor.

    Answer: Philippics [10] In the speech On the Chersonesus, Demosthenes argued in favor of this Athenian general, who was fighting

    against Philip in Thrace, and claimed that instead of chastising him, they needed to supply him with reinforcements.

    Answer: Diopithes

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