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Somali PACE Final Report 01-5 (Final 1 - European Union

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Somali PACE Final Report 01-5 (Final 1 - European Union

Project Title:

    PAN AFRICAN CONTROL OF EPIZOOTICS (PACE)

    Somali Component

Contract Nos:

    PACE/EDF/TN/001/01, PACE/EDF/TN/002/03 and PACE/EDF/TN/003/04

Report Title:

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

Project Period:

    stst1 OCTOBER 2001 31 MARCH 2005

Recipient Organization:

    TERRA NUOVA

Partners:

    UNA Consortium, VSF-SUISSE

    in collaboration with AU / IBAR / PACE CAPE UNIT

Local Counterparts:

    SOMALI LIVESTOCK PROFESSIONALS’ FORUM,

    ZONAL LIVESTOCK PROFESSIONALS’ ASSOCIATIONS

    and LOCAL ADMINISTRATIONS in SOMALILAND and PUNTLAND

    Project Details

Project Title

    Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics

    Somali Component (Somali PACE Project) Contract No(s) PACE/EDF/TN/001/01, PACE/EDF/TN/002/03 and PACE/EDF/TN/003/04

    Italian Government Contract No. PACE/IT COF/TN/001/02

    Suisse Humanitarian Aid Contract No. 7F-01353.01 Somalia

    stDate of contract start 1 October 2001

    stst Reporting period 1 October 2001 31March 2005 Total contracted amount (?) Euro 5,429,695

    EC contribution (?) PACE/EDF/TN/001/01 Euro 2,183,729

     PACE/EDF/TN/002/03 Euro 500,000

     PACE/EDF/TN/003/04 Euro 1,060,000

    Other contributions (?) PACE/IT-COF/TN/001/02 Euro 821,000 st7F-01353.01 SHA 1 Phase Euro 664,966 nd7F-01353.01 SHA 2 Phase Euro 200,000

    Recipient organization Terra Nuova Name of Contact persons Mr. Alessandro Zanotta Address P.O. Box 74916-00200, Nairobi Partner organization UNA Consortium Name of Contact persons Mr. Raffaele Del Cima Address P.O. Box 75766 00200, Nairobi Partner organization Vétérinaires Sans Frontières - Suisse Name of Contact persons Dr. Seiffuddin H. Maloo Address P.O. Box 25656-00603, Nairobi Partner organization AU/IBAR / PACE / CAPE Unit Name of Contact persons Dr. Tim Leyland Address P.O. Box 30786, Nairobi Local Counterpart Somali Livestock Professionals’ Forum (SLPF) Name of contact persons Dr Abdullatif Mohamud Abdi Address P.O. Box 74916 00200, Nairobi Local Counterpart Ministry of Livestock Somaliland (MoL) Name of contact persons Dr. Idris Ibrahim Abdi (Minister) Address Hargeysa, Somaliland Local Counterpart Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Environment (MoLAE) Name of contact persons Mr. Ibrahim Hareed Ali Da’ar (Minister) Address Garowe, Puntland Target beneficiaries Somali nomadic and agro-pastoralists, Private animal health care providers, livestock

     traders, pharmaceutical traders, public sector animal health workers, local

    administrations, SLPF, Zonal livestock Professional Associations, local authorities,

    Ministries of livestock, Finance and Planning.

    SOMALI PACE PROJECT FINAL REPORT 01/10/01 31/03/05 PAGE NO. 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................................... 3 LIST OF ANNEXES ............................................................................................................................ 4 GLOSSARY / ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................................... 5 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................. 6 1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Support to the public sector ............................................................................................................................................................ 6 1.3 Support to the private sector ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Disease surveillance ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8 1.5 Emergency preparedness ............................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.6 Networking ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.7 The Programme is effectively coordinated.................................................................................................................................... 10 1.8 Constraints .................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 2.0 PREAMBLE ................................................................................................................................ 11 3.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 11 3.1 History of the Project..................................................................................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Context ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 3.3 Problems addressed ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 3.4 Approach adopted ........................................................................................................................................................................ 12 3.5 Beneficiaries ................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 4.0 ACHIEVEMENTS TOWARDS RESULTS ................................................................................... 14 5.0 IMPACT ...................................................................................................................................... 17 6.0 PROJECT MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................ 18 6.1 Coordination / collaboration activities ........................................................................................................................................... 18 6.2 Staff Development / trainings and meetings ................................................................................................................................. 19 7.0 CONSTRAINTS AND LESSONS LEARNT ................................................................................ 19 7.1 External factors influencing project implementation ..................................................................................................................... 19 7.2 Internal issues ............................................................................................................................................................................... 19 7.3 Lessons Learnt ............................................................................................................................................................................. 20 8.0 EXIT STRATEGY ....................................................................................................................... 21 9.0 CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................................... 22 10.0 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ACTIONS .................................................................... 22

    SOMALI PACE PROJECT FINAL REPORT 01/10/01 31/03/05 PAGE NO. 3

LIST OF ANNEXES

    Annex 1: Log frames

     a) Original Log frame

     b) Revised Log frame

    Annex 2: Agreements with Local Counterparts

    Annex 3: Mid-term Review

    Annex 4: Evaluations

    Annex 5: Technical documents and studies if appropriate (See accompanying CD-ROM)

    Annex 6: Use of Staff Resources

     a) Meetings, Conferences, Workshops and Training attended

     b) Staff employed and their availability

    Annex 7: Inventory list/handing over documents

    Annex 8: Photographs (See accompanying CD-ROM)

    Annex 9: References

SOMALI PACE PROJECT FINAL REPORT 01/10/01 31/03/05 PAGE NO. 4

GLOSSARY / ABBREVIATIONS

    AHWs .............. Animal Health Workers

    AGMs .............. Annual General Meetings

    AU/IBAR .......... African Union/Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources

    BENALPA........ Benadir Livestock Professionals’ Association

    CAH ................ Community-Based Animal Health

    CAHS .............. Community-Based Animal Health Services

    CAPE .............. Community-Based Animal-Health Participatory Epidemiology

    CBAHWs ......... Community-Based Animal Health Workers

    CBPP .............. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    CCPP .............. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia

    CERELPA ....... Central Regions Livestock Professionals’ Association

    DFID ................ Department for International Development

    EC ................... European Commission

    ECHO .............. European Commission Humanitarian Organization

    EDF ................. European Development Fund

    EXCELEX........ Export Certification of Livestock for Export

    FAO ................. Food and agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    GREP .............. Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme

    ITP .................. Itinerant Training Programme for Somali Veterinary Professionals

    INGOs ............. International Non-Governmental Organisations

    KARI-NVRC .... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Veterinary Research Centre, Muguga.

    LICUS.............. Low Income Countries Under Stress

    MoL ................. Ministry of Livestock, Somaliland

    MoLAE ............ Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Environment, Puntland

    MoU ................ Memorandum of Understanding

    NGOs .............. Non-Governmental Organizations

    NPA ................. Norwegian People’s Aid OIE .................. Office International des Epizooties (World Organization of Animal Health)

    PACE .............. Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics

    PARC .............. Pan African Rinderpest Campaign

    PDS ................. Participatory disease searches

    PULPA ............ Puntland Livestock Professionals’ Association

    RP ................... Rinderpest

    RVF ................. Rift Valley Fever

    SACB-LWG ..... Somalia Aid Coordination Body Livestock Working Group

    SCIU ............... Somalia Co-ordination & Implementation Unit

    SERECU ......... Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Co-ordination Unit

    SLPF ............... Somali Livestock Professionals’ Forum

    SOWELPA ...... Southwest Livestock Professionals’ Association

    SVP ................. Somali Veterinary Professional

    SVPA .............. Sool Veterinary Pastoralists’ Association

    TFG ................. Transitional Federal Government of Somalia

    UK ................... United Kingdom

    USA ................. United States of America

    ULPA ............... United Livestock Professionals’ Association

    UNDP .............. United National Development Programme

    VSF-CH ........... Vétérinaries Sans Frontières - Suisse

    WTO ................ World Trade Organisation

SOMALI PACE PROJECT FINAL REPORT 01/10/01 31/03/05 PAGE NO. 5

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    1.1 Introduction

    The operations of the Somali PACE Project were governed by the overall objective of the Global AU/IBAR PACE programme aimed at relieving the poverty of those involved in the livestock-farming sector (producers, service providers 1and consumers) in Africa by improving animal productivity, trade and food security. In Somalia, this entailed strengthening

    of the capacities of livestock owners, traders, public institutions and private sector animal health workers (AHWs) to cooperate for effective delivery of services to improve animal health in order to enhance trade in livestock and livestock 2products.

    stThe Somali PACE Project commenced on 1 October 2001. However, due to potential for greater insecurity in Somalia thfollowing the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, USA, the EC Somalia Unit permitted the

    Implementing Partners to initiate the Project with activities that were exclusively outside Somalia. At inception, formal linkages with the AU/IBAR/PACE were established to facilitate collaboration on technical aspects of the Project. The Somali Coordination and Implementation Unit (SCIU) was established in Nairobi to oversee implementation of activities by four Zonal offices. A national coordination committee comprising the National PACE Coordinator and technical members of the SCIU and members of the Somali Livestock Professionals’ Forum (SLPF) was also established. The SLPF, the Ministry of Livestock (MoL) in Somaliland and the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Environment (MoLAE) in Puntland were recognized as key local partner for implementation of the Project in Somalia. The Project Steering Committee was established in May 2004 and convened only two meetings before the end of the Project.

    Field-based activities were implemented from January 2002 and three Zonal bases established in Hargeysa (Somaliland),

    stBosasso (Puntland) and Beled-Weyne (Central Somalia) were fully operational by 31 March 2002. The Southern Somalia

    Zonal Office in Baidoa became fully operational in April 2002. An Expatriate Veterinary Advisor, a Somali counterpart Zonal Coordinator, a Zonal Administrator, and a Zonal Secretary were posted in each zone. Other Zonal Office support staff were recruited as necessary for the conditions prevailing in each zone. In all the Zones, Somali national staff held stakeholder sensitisation meetings with local authorities and veterinary professionals to explain the concept of PACE and launch the Somali PACE Project. Personnel from SCIU, the EC Somalia Unit and AU/IBAR/PACE also attended these meetings. 1.2 Support to the public sector

    A major achievement of the Somali PACE Project was the development of the veterinary law code and the veterinary sector Master Plan in Puntland through bottom-up participatory and consultative processes involving all categories of livestock sector stakeholders. Between 2002 and 2005, the Somali PACE Project facilitated the involvement of public servants from MoLAE, the Ministries of Internal Security, Justice, Planning and Finance in dialogue and consensus-building with other stakeholders (livestock producers, livestock traders, private AHWs, Cabinet ministers and members of Parliament) for the formulation of the Puntland Veterinary Code and Master Plan. In Somaliland, the project supported the engagement of a task force appointed by the Minister of Livestock in consultations with cabinet ministers, members of parliament and other stakeholders aimed at securing their support for endorsement and enactment of the draft Veterinary Law Code developed

    3in 2001 through the Terra Nuova ITP II Project.

    By the end of the Somali PACE Project, the Draft Veterinary Law Code for Somaliland was yet to be approved by the Council of Ministers for presentation to Parliament due to the lack of political commitment to secure enactment of the code. In Puntland, the Code was approved by the Council of Ministers in March 2005 and placed on the parliamentary order of business for later debate and enactment. In Puntland, the MoLAE Minister supported livestock sector reforms to enhance the performance of tasks and initiated implementation of the Master plan with the identification of 12 SVPs for appointment as Regional and District Veterinary Coordinators. However, there was no budgetary allocation by the Puntland Ministry of Finance to support the appointments. This highlighted the gap that needs to be filled to ensure that personnel from the Ministries of Finance and Planning take into account the needs of MoLAE in future development projections. In Somaliland, a review of the status of implementation of the MoL Master plan by a ministerial Task Force comprising of public and private sector AHWs showed that MoL had adopted most of the staff positions recommended in the Institutional Procedures and regulations. Gaps identified by the Task Force, were not addressed due to lack of financial support for them. It was envisaged that by September 2003, the Somali PACE Project would support the establishment of veterinary boards including key stakeholders from the public animal health services, private AHWs, livestock traders and livestock owners. The delayed enactment of the Veterinary Law Codes denied Somaliland and Puntland the legal framework that would have facilitated establishment of the veterinary boards and the implementation of activities related to the registration of private pharmacists, pharmaceutical traders, traded pharmaceutical products and public and private veterinary personnel.

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    In Central Somalia, the Middle Shabelle Local authorities although not directly contacted by the Somali PACE Project, engaged the Zonal Livestock Professionals’ Association (CERELPA) and livestock keepers in dialogue on the delivery of animal health interventions to prevent the spread of confirmed outbreaks of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The Middle Shabelle authorities also procured 2000 doses of CCPP vaccine and provided vehicles and fuel to enable teams of professionals provided by CERELPA to carry out vaccinations. Some livestock owners paid for vaccination of their goats.

    1.3 Support to the private sector

    The Project supported the development of five Zonal Somali Livestock Professional Associations. All the Associations convened regular meetings for the executive committee members and the ordinary members in accordance with their respective constitutions. A total of 236 SVPs attended the annual general meetings (AGMs) during which the constitutions were reviewed and endorsed by the majority of the grassroots members. The Associations also prepared strategy papers with Vision and Mission statements to guide their long-term development. The United Livestock Professionals’ Association

    (ULPA) in Somaliland and the Puntland Livestock Professionals’ Association (PULPA) participated in regular consultations with public sector personnel and collaborated with them in the joint delivery of various animal health interventions. In Central and Southern Somalia, the Central Regions Livestock Professionals’ Association (CERELPA) and the South Western Livestock Professionals’ Association (SOWELPA) consulted both regional and local authorities in the delivery of

    animal health services. The collaboration between CERELPA, the Middle Shabelle authorities and livestock owners in the investigation, confirmation and response by vaccination following an outbreak of CCPP was an outstanding example of local initiatives to meet the needs of Somali nomadic and agro-pastoralists.

    The Project supported training for 68 Executive Committee members of the Zonal Associations (BENALPA, CERELPA, PULPA, SOWELPA and ULPA) in business and managerial skills, project proposal writing and the preparation of strategy papers and profiles for the Associations. At the end of the Project, the Associations continued to function, convening meetings and pursuing common objectives. The majority of male and female members paid their membership subscriptions. During the AGMs, elections for the Executive Committees were conducted in accordance with the constitution of each Association and the re-election of the majority of Committee members demonstrated the satisfaction of the members with the performance of the officials. A female member was re-elected as chairperson for the Mogadishu-based Benadir Livestock Professionals’ Association (BENALPA). The statements of accounts although non-audited were presented at the

    AGMs and accepted by members following debate in all the five Zonal Associations. The Associations served as focal points for mobilization of personnel for agencies and projects in emergency interventions and development activities relating to animal health services delivery. The membership of ULPA in Somaliland was restricted to private AHWs. Public SVPs were excluded following a previous ministerial decree prohibiting them from joining ULPA. Efforts by the incumbent Minister of Livestock to reverse the situation were resisted by the ULPA Executive Committee resulting in tension between the Ministry and ULPA. This had not been resolved before the end of the Project.

    The CAPE component supported the establishment of community-based delivery of animal health services through training and provision of start-up kits for 53 community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) in Northern Somalia. The Sool Veterinary Pastoralists Association (SVPA) implemented the activities in northern Somalia with funding provided by the CAPE component through the Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA). In Southern Somalia, a total of 100 CBAHWs were trained and equipped in the Bay, Bakool, Middle Juba and Lower Juba Regions while 77 benefited from refresher courses. All the trainings were preceded by community dialogue sessions during which the community needs and priorities in the provision of animal health care were identified and their commitment in supporting the delivery of services by CBAHWs was secured. All the communities involved contributed a proportion (20-25%) of the costs for the drug kits for selected CBAHWs. From the numbers of CBAHWs trained, it was expected that the ratio of head of livestock per paravet was reduced. However, an evaluation of the continued involvement of trained CBAHWs in animal health services delivery will need to be carried out to determine how significant this reduction was. In addition, it will be necessary to determine if the present distribution of active

    CBAHWs will adequately support the delivery of animal health services to remote pastoralist communities. To facilitate the development of a strategy for the establishment of community animal health services (CAHS) countrywide, the Project carried out surveys in 33 communities in all four regions of Central Somalia and 14 communities in the Bari, Nugaal and Mudug Regions of Puntland. The results showed that 60% of the pastoralists lacked access to reliable animal health services. This reflected a failure of private AHWs contacted by the project to extend the outreach of their services to remote pastoral communities. This suggested that the contact with SVPs did not alter their preferences to operate in urban areas. There was clearly a need for a structured intervention to improve access by the communities to AHWs. The CAPE component promoted linkages between professional and para-professional AHWs. The Somali PACE Project facilitated a workshop to discuss the curriculum and training of CBAHWs in Galkaiyo in September 2002. The CAPE component spearheaded the development and standardization of a curriculum for training of CBAHWs and SVPs as trainers for CBAHWs in Southern Somalia. A code of conduct for agencies involved in the establishment of CAHS was developed and endorsed by the Somali Aid Coordination Body Livestock working group (SACB-LWG) in April 2004. It is

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    expected that all agencies engaging in the establishment of CAHS and the training of CBAHWs in Somalia will adhere to this code.

    1.4 Disease surveillance

    For the development of a livestock disease surveillance system, the project focused mainly on Rinderpest (RP) in Central and Southern Somalia and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Somaliland and Puntland. All the field survey activities were conducted by teams of contracted SVPs who were specifically trained by Somali PACE staff to equip them with the relevant skills and knowledge to successfully implement the surveys. Training was provided for a total of 266 SVPs in different aspects of operating a livestock disease surveillance system. A conventional surveillance system managed through public sector institutions could not be established during this project due to lack of appropriate local institutional structures and budgetary allocations to support and sustain such a system. Between March 2002 and March 2005, comprehensive serological surveys were carried out for RP in the cattle rearing areas of Somaliland, Puntland, Central and Southern Somalia during which a total of 15,949 cattle sera were collected from randomly distributed sites. Following laboratory testing, analysis and mapping of the results, the distribution of potential foci of endemic mild RP was determined. The results showed an absence of RP virus circulation in Somaliland and Puntland. Possible foci of endemic mild RP were detected in the Gedo, Middle Juba and Lower Juba Regions of Southern Somalia with extensions mainly along major cattle trade routes to the Lower Shabelle Region in Southern Somalia and the Middle Shabelle and Hiraan Regions of Central Somalia. All the laboratory tests for RP were carried out at the KARI-NVRC Muguga using standard protocols and tests recommended by the OIE and AU/IBAR/PACE.

    The RP surveillance methodologies employed by the Project were regularly reviewed and discussed with the AU/IBAR/PACE Epidemiology Unit staff. Between January and March 2005, the project implemented a random sero-survey in Southern Somalia following agreement with AU/IBAR/PACE, PACE Kenya and PACE Ethiopia to update the sero-survey data from Somalia. During the last six months of implementation, Project staff played a key role in the design of a coordinated random RP serological survey that would cover the entire Somali ecosystem using a harmonised approach to sampling in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. The survey was scheduled for implementation in January 2006 to take advantage of the dry season in the Somali ecosystem.

    During the surveys for RVF, a total of 4,854 sera were collected from sheep and goats in Somaliland (797 sera) and Puntland (4,057 sera). Only a few sera were collected in Somaliland, as this was a follow-up to an earlier survey carried out 3. The results of laboratory tests by the Terra Nuova ITP II project during which 4,570 sheep and goat sera were tested

    showed high prevalences of RVF antibodies in the Nugaal Valley extending across areas of Somaliland and Puntland. This indicated that the area is endemically infected with RVF virus and could be a high-risk area for outbreaks of the disease in future as it has a large number of seasonal rivers draining into it thus predisposing it to flooding in heavy rains. Fortunately,

    no overt outbreaks of the disease were recorded throughout the implementation of the project but there is need for intensified surveillance and risk analysis studies to enable the implementation of appropriate strategic control measures. Additional epidemiological information was collected through the use of questionnaire surveys and participatory disease search (PDS) techniques. A total of 2,558 questionnaire interviews were conducted in 1539 locations at which samples for RP and RVF Fever testing were collected in all the four Zones. A total of 910 samples collected from suspected clinical cases of mild RP tested negative for the presence of active RP virus and the virus continued to elude detection. The Somali PACE activities were expected to have an impact on the incidence of major diseases in Somalia. Although no disease incidence data were collected, there was a demonstrable reduction in the serological prevalence of rinderpest in the Middle Juba, Lower Juba and Gedo Regions from an average prevalence of 17% in 2002 to an average of 3.5% in 2005. The testing of samples was still underway by the end of the Project but it was expected that this trend would be replicated in the other regions of Central and Southern Somalia. It was initially planned that disease surveillance activities conducted by the Project would provide results to enable declarations of provisional freedom from disease on a zonal basis in Somaliland and Puntland. Later, it became apparent that it would be difficult to make these declarations as both Zones were not officially recognised by the OIE and there was no recognised and widely acceptable veterinary authority to make the declarations on behalf of all the Somali Zones. Although the TFG established a Ministry of Livestock, a chief Veterinary Officer who could report to the OIE on behalf of Somalia had not been appointed by the end of the Project. Repeat surveys were planned to clarify the RP status in the entire Somali ecosystem under the coordination of the AU/IBAR/PACE Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Coordination Unit (SERECU). SERECU was also mandated to approach the OIE with proposals for Zonation of RP on a Regional rather than a country basis. This would resolve the prevailing gap faced by Somalia in reporting to the OIE with respect to declarations for RP zonation.

    Tests for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) on 3,067 stored serum samples showed an overall sero-prevalence of 1.2 % in Central and Southern Somalia. The highest prevalences were recorded in Bay (6.3%), Bakool (4.6%), Galgadud (2.2%) and Lower Shabelle (1.1%) Regions. These baseline results require further follow-up to determine the disease status in the affected regions in order to provide the basis for future control strategies. In Central Somalia, Project staff in

    collaboration with CERELPA personnel and the local authorities investigated an outbreak of contagious caprine

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    pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in the Middle Shabelle Region in July 2004. The Project facilitated the laboratory testing of the samples at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Veterinary Research Centre in Muguga (KARI-NVRC). Following confirmation of the outbreak, the Project assisted the Middle Shabelle authorities to purchase and transport 2000 doses of CCPP vaccine from the Kenya Veterinary Vaccines Production Institute to Jowhar.

    The establishment of Epidemiology and data management units in all four zones was not achieved as planned due to the slow implementation of the recommendations of the Master plans in Somaliland and Puntland and the total absence of public sector animal health institutions in Central and Southern Somalia. Livestock disease surveillance is a public good activity that requires the existence of appropriately structured public sector institutions. In Central and Southern Somalia, it

    proved difficult to provide incentives to encourage the private Livestock Professionals’ Associations to assume this public sector role. A system of disease reporting has not yet been established to ensure that disease reports and feedback between animal health workers, livestock owners and traders are recorded. However, in November 2004, training was provided for technical Somali counterpart staff from Central and Southern Somalia on the identification and use of performance indicators for the assessment and evaluation of national epidemio-surveillance systems. This followed the recommendations of the AU/IBAR/PACE workshop on “Optimisation of Epidemio-Surveillance Systems in PACE member

    countries” held in Dakar, Senegal in August 2004. During the training, discussions were held on the most suitable performance indicators for Somalia.

    1.5 Emergency preparedness

    No field activities on emergency preparedness were carried out in Somalia mainly due to the absence of structured public sector veterinary services to provide infrastructural and financial support for emergency preparedness. The establishment of the Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Coordination Unit (SERECU) within the AU/IBAR/PACE Programme to oversee the development of a coordinated and harmonised strategy for the eradication of RP was agreed by AU/IBAR, the Somali PACE Project, PACE Kenya and PACE Ethiopia. By the end of the Somali PACE Project, the SERECU document and first year work programme still awaited final approval by the EC.

    In November 2003, the Project planned and implemented an emergency vaccination campaign in the Afmadow district of Southern Somalia following the confirmation of RP in cattle at Ruga in Garissa District of Kenya. Teams of contracted SVPs vaccinated a total of 50,318 cattle over a period of 20 days. The vaccinations were carried out in order to harmonize responses with Kenya and to assure the Somali stockowners and traders that the Somali PACE Project was committed to safeguarding their livestock in the face of a disease threat. The Project also carried out field investigations in Puntland in November 2004 and in Southern Somalia in March 2005 following reports of high mortalities of livestock shortly after the onset of heavy rains. In Puntland, the investigations ruled out any outbreak of an epizootic disease with zoonotic potential and the deaths were attributed to hypothermia that resulted from drastic changes in ambient temperatures following rains with hailstones. In Southern Somalia, no definitive laboratory confirmation was obtained from 204 samples tested but field observations indicated an outbreak of anthrax. These livestock mortality events highlighted the need for the establishment of functional emergency preparedness and response systems in different Zones of Somalia. Clear mechanisms for disease reporting and follow up investigations coupled with modalities for coordination between different local and international stakeholder groups should be well defined in emergency response strategies. This will assure Somali stakeholders that major livestock intervention projects are responsive to their needs particularly in times of major disasters. Establishment of emergency response systems should be a priority focus for future animal health interventions in Somalia. 1.6 Networking

    The promotion of animal health networks involving a wide range of livestock sector stakeholders proved to be a complex issue Somalis operate different informal networks guided by business, clanic relationships and other interests. It was thus difficult to establish common networks for animal health among different interest groups. The Somali PACE Project convened a series of stakeholders’ workshops in three zones for 30-70 stakeholders’ including representatives of Public

    animal health authorities, Local Administrations, Zonal Livestock Professionals’ Associations, Livestock traders and Livestock owners. The workshops provided a forum for the exchange experiences among different stakeholders within the Zones. They also provided an opportunity for different local authorities to meet and discuss issues of common interest for the creation of peaceful environments to facilitate development interventions in the Central and Southern Somalia Regions. The unified ecosystem-based approach to RP eradication was discussed and endorsed by the stakeholders. The workshops also provided a forum to address the concerns of the stakeholders over the apparent lack of intervention by the Project despite the identified threat of mild RP and repeated requests for vaccination from several affected communities in Southern Somalia. This perception threatened to disrupt planned RP surveillance activities, as some pastoralists were unwilling to collaborate in disease sample collection without control interventions.

    Three issues of the Somali PACE Bulletin were printed and widely distributed to update stakeholders within and outside Somalia on the activities and progress of the Project. Feedback from several readers indicated that the bulletins were a good source of information on the activities of the Project but a Somali version would have been better received in Somalia.

SOMALI PACE PROJECT FINAL REPORT 01/10/01 31/03/05 PAGE NO. 9

    thth to 28 March 2005 for five selected The CAPE Unit organized a visit to Mandera and Wajir Districts in Kenya from 18private SVPs and para-professionals and five members of Parliament from the TFG. The visit enabled them to share experiences on community-based animal health (CAH) delivery systems. The team observed different models and approaches of CAH delivery systems and held discussions with community leaders, pastoral drug user Associations, private AHWs and CBAHWs. The involvement of Somali legislators in these visits should enable them to assist the TFG to formulate appropriate policies and institutional frameworks that will provide an enabling environment for private animal health services delivery in Somalia.

    1.7 The Programme is effectively coordinated

    The Somali Component Implementation Unit (SCIU) office in Nairobi and four Zonal PACE offices were fully established within the first six months of implementation. Linkages were established with the AU/IBAR/PACE Programme and the CAPE Unit of PACE was incorporated into the Somali PACE Project as an implementing partner. The implementing partners and SCIU held regular operational meetings to monitor progress in implementation of activities. Annual work plans and cost estimates were prepared and submitted to AU/IBAR. The SCIU office played a crucial role in facilitating project activities through coordination of training programmes, preparation of Somali PACE sectoral strategies, set up of an accounting and financial reporting system, and logistical, administrative and technical support to Zonal offices in implementation of field activities. SCIU also facilitated arrangements for PACE Zonal staff and SLPF personnel to attend regional and international meetings related to PACE activities.

    thThe EC commissioned a mid-term review of the PACE Somalia Component by Agrisystems Limited (UK) from 14 January rdto 3 February 2004. Key recommendations for the future of the Somali PACE project included strengthening of the support

    to the public sector institutions in Somaliland and Puntland, consolidation of support to private SVPs to enhance capacity for surveillance for Rinderpest and delivery of animal health services in Central and Southern Somalia. Specific support to strengthen the role of SLPF as a key player in policy and strategy reforms to enhance service delivery by the Zonal Professional Associations was also recommended. During the course of implementation of the PACE programme, the 4World Bank/UNDP/FAO developed new initiatives for support to the livestock sector in Somalia. The objectives of the

    LICUS and EXCELEX projects complemented those of the PACE Programme and efforts were made to establish close linkages and collaboration with these initiatives to enhance synergy. The Somali livestock sector strategy developed by 5FAO/World Bank/EC identified animal health and disease control as well as human resources capacity building and

    institutional strengthening as key pillars of the strategy and thus highlighted the continued relevance of the objective and results of the Somali PACE Project to the needs of the Somali Livestock sector.

    1.8 Constraints

    Periodic deterioration in the security situation in different zones resulted in frequent disruptions in the implementation of field activities. At the start of the project, concerns over potential security threats delayed the initiation of field activities up to

    January 2002. Between April and June 2002, activities in Somaliland and Puntland were interrupted for up to two months due to political and security concerns. In June 2002, the persistence of civil conflict in Baidoa, started in June 2002, led to

    the relocation of the Zonal office to Dinsoor in mid 2003. In March 2003, project activities in all Zones were interrupted following the outbreak of war in Iraq and the subsequent security implications for expatriate staff in Somalia. In January 2003, the Zonal office in Puntland was relocated from Bosasso to Garowe when the Puntland Government headquarters was moved to Garowe. In December 2003, the Zonal base in central Somalia was temporarily relocated from Beled Weyne to Jowhar following a shooting incident against the expatriate Zonal Veterinary Advisor in Beled-Weyne. In Somaliland, the implementation of Project field activities was temporarily suspended from March 2003 due to reluctance of the Somaliland authorities to disclose the results of Rift valley fever surveys conducted by an EC funded Project.

    The disruption of ECHO flights between February and June 2004 made it logistically difficult to deploy staff for field survey activities in Central and Southern Somalia. The financial allocations to the livestock sector by existing local administrations

    were insufficient to support public sector reforms agreed with stakeholders to improve animal health services delivery. This led to the lack of formal employment opportunities for SVPs within Somalia and created expectations of employment by the project on completion of specific training courses provided through the Project. The lack of regular incomes and high public transport costs hindered mobility of SVPs to attend meetings of Zonal Associations without support from the Project. During the last quarter of the Project’s implementation, the SLPF became dormant following the absorption of its leaders into various positions in the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia.

    Despite these constraints, the Project made good progress towards attaining its results and purpose. Project activities were implemented to varying degrees of completion in all the four Zones. The Zonal approach to implementation provided flexibility in field operations that ensured continuity of project activities when access to some Zones was restricted due to security considerations. There is need to consolidate the achievements of the Project to ensure the establishment of functional and regulated livestock disease surveillance and reporting systems as a basis for the control and eradication of major epizootic diseases impacting negatively on Somali livestock production and the export trade in livestock.

SOMALI PACE PROJECT FINAL REPORT 01/10/01 31/03/05 PAGE NO. 10

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