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Pilot Project- RES

By Veronica Reyes,2014-04-18 08:40
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Pilot Project- RES

KAZ/02/M08/NP/71“Renewable Energy Use for Potable

    Water Supply in Remote Villages of Depressed Region

    in Kazakhstan

    PILOT PROJECT

    Tokabay Village - Aral Sea Region

    Concept Paper - Lessons Learnt and Future Replications

    Kimo Karini, International Consultant

     Kazakhstan 2004

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

Pilot Hybrid System in Tokabay Village/Aralsk Rayon/Kyzlerda Oblast

Kazakhstan

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    Executive Summary ...................................................................................... 4 1- Objective .................................................................................................... 5 2- Narrative Summary of the Pilot Project .................................................. 5 2.1 Tokabay Village Infrastructure ................................................................................. 5 2.2 The Installed Pilot Hybrid System ............................................................................ 6 2.3 Setting up a Hybrid System ..................................................................................... 6 2.4 Renewable Energy Resources Assessment ............................................................ 6 2.5 Selection of the Appropriate Autonomous System................................................... 7 2.6 Renewable Energy Data Loggers ............................................................................ 7 2.7 Redesign of the System ........................................................................................... 8 3- Operation and Maintenance ..................................................................... 8 3.1 Hybrid System ......................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Water User Association ........................................................................................... 9 4- Conclusion ...............................................................................................10 5- Future Funding Strategy ........................................................................11 5.1 Specific activities and state support required ......................................................... 11 6- Potential of Renewable Energy in Kazakhstan ....................................12 6.1 Solar and Wind Energy’s Reliability ....................................................................... 12 6.2 Energy Supply Situation in the Rural Areas ........................................................... 12 Annex (1) ......................................................................................................13 Itinerary ........................................................................................................................ 13 Annex (2) ......................................................................................................14 Implementation Team .................................................................................................. 14

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    Executive Summary

    The combination of different technologies to build and design the Hybrid system, are seen as a very positive experience which should be considered elsewhere in similar circumstances. The overall performance of this pilot project has more encouraging lessons that can be drawn from the previous 20 months. While this report does identify different learning experiences, it does not develop these into lessons of how they could be used in the future, especially, in the absence of active involvement of local village and rayon authorities in supporting the NGO’s efforts for

    operating and maintenance challenges.

    The concept paper also highlights possible opportunities for national strategic investment in remote village development with support of donor communities and that require further due diligence to determine its feasibility. It is a long road map assessment. The development of these technologies (combination of wind/solar and desalination unit) requires expertise drawn from a range of disciplines and research in fields that are still emerging for.

    Infrastructure at the pilot area, Tokabay village was up to the demands of this assignment: in the village, there is no water distribution system but a few shallow wells located around the village. Electricity distribution system in working condition and the village is supplied from the grid system on a regular basis at 10 kV being transformed to 230/400 V.

    For this pilot project, different hybrid system design methods, as well as, well developed dimensioning tools have been demonstrated successfully. Taking into consideration the social, environmental and economic advantages of hybrid systems, the sustainable operation of such systems consist the main target of their extended replicability.

    As it concerns the installation and maintenance of small-scale hybrid systems (wind/solar/ desalination units) in remote areas in Kazakhstan, a long way has to be traced before considered sustainable. While the installation of this pilot hybrid system is considered very successful, at least for the time being, the risk factor for the system are surcharged by the well-known lack of required market infrastructure in remote areas of that part of Kazakhstan (Aralsk and Kazalinisk Rayon).

    Before any extended use of these systems, consideration must be given to; (1) the replication of such small scale installations which will ensure the compatibility and the reliability of the systems, (2) the on-the-job training of local staff in the operation and maintenance of such systems,(3) development of local market of spare parts and materials, which could support the continuous operations of such systems and (4) continuous support of local and central authorities in supporting the local communities by economic incentives and technical assistance.

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    1- Objective

    The concept paper represent possible opportunities for strategic investment in Remote Village Development and will require further due diligence to determine its feasibility. The main task of the pilot

    project was to use and develop the resources of existing solar and wind under purpose of to resolve the electrical demand of remote communities and rural users in powering of their water installation equipments, as pumps and desalinating units by means of renewable energy.

    During the past few years hybrid systems have gained the attention of the engineers, designers and decision makers due to the uncontested benefits that they provide while used in "island operation" for autonomous power production. Usually, the electrification of isolated rural areas with hybrid systems stimulate favorable economic impact through the exploitation of local resources and thus reducing the import dependence, as well as favoring the local manufacturing of simple components. Additionally, the extended use of hybrid systems induces social impacts, such as the improvement of the living standards, along with environmental friendly solutions.

    In the long run, it is anticipated an active development of small industry establishment that will be developed to produce equipments for renewable energy generation: developing the new technology/new design, field testing them, setting-up small scale factory on the results of the investigation and developing natural program of “Renewable Energy” to submit to the Government and actively be involved in implementing phases.

2- Narrative Summary of the Pilot Project

2.1 Tokabay Village Infrastructure

    Tokabay village is situated in an extremely arid zone, with a low average annual precipitation of 135 mm. The village is 50 km from the town of Aralsk, which is located in the northern part Kazakhstan, 100 km from the current shore of the Aral Sea, in the semi-desert part of the Southern Kazakhstan. This region of the country is one of the most economically depressed regions in Kazakhstan. The village has nearly 1000 residents living in 140 households all of which are homogenously Kazakhs. While the village experiences extreme temperatures usually range between 31oC and -18oC, however the wind and solar potential were imminent. The village was up to demands of this assignment: There is no water distribution system but a few shallow wells located around the village. There are deep underground water deposits with limited surface exposure. Electricity distribution system in working condition and the village is supplied from the Grid system on a regular basis at 10 kV being transformed to 230/400 V. Further the village was selected for this project from a number of villages in the Aralsk region after consideration of a number of hydro-geological, climatic and environmental factors.

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    2.2 The Installed Pilot Hybrid System

    Detail description of the technical parts of the pilot hybrid system was published in a separate document “System Description and Guidelines for Hybrid Autonomous Solar-Wind Systems

    Development” put together by local project staff (Project Manager and Local Consultant in close

    cooperation with main Contractor and suppliers of different components of the installed hybrid system).

    2.3 Setting up a Hybrid System

    In theory, having no technical barriers in the way, the following factors are taken into consideration prior to set up new hybrid system:

    ? The wind and solar potential of the respective region

    ? The economic feasibility of the project (in most cases those projects are not feasible

    without a third party subsidy/ local authorities )

    ? The environmental and social impact that might be occurred

    ? The institutional barriers (including the lack of essential coherent regulations) which

    must be overcome for the sustainability of the operation

    ? The awareness of the end-users

    Numerous calculations and estimations should be carried out before setting up a hybrid system in order to secure the systems' maximum availability and security of supply.

    Critical point for the dimensioning of the system is the estimation of the demand load of the complex which will be electrified. Even as it sounds as a standard and typical procedure, most of the times the assessment of the time-based load profile could be revealed inaccurate without an assumption of possible demand increment.

    The proposed system for the pilot project went through incremental design faces as we called "building-by-building basis" load estimation. Yet, it is common that the estimated consumption will rise during the first period of operation fact that enforces an over-dimensioning of the system. In addition, auxiliary future installations such as water desalination or sewage plants should not be excluded from the estimations.

2.4 Renewable Energy Resources Assessment

    More specifically for wind/solar hybrid systems the assessment is focused on the wind and solar potential of the region. Wind Turbines (WT) present several operation difficulties in small and medium sizes (less than 50kW) related to the fluctuation of the wind velocity. Therefore, the assessment of the wind potential gives the guidelines for the proper design of the system. Due to the modularity that the Photo Voltaic arrays (PV) present, the estimation of the solar energy potential does not play critical role in dimensioning but characterizes the overall capacity of the system. The potential of the region can easily be estimated using data sensors (loggers) combined with modern data acquisition systems and software tools for data processing. These to

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    be carried out systematically in different pin pointed villages to gain the overall potentiality of the

    wind/solar characteristics of the region prior to any replication of similar hybrid systems

    2.5 Selection of the Appropriate Autonomous System

The final decision about the appropriate electricity supply system for the remote villages should

    be based upon the assessment of each option with respect to a set of decision criteria. For this

    pilot project study, the following criteria have been adopted for the evaluation of the various

    alternative options:

    ? Use of renewable energy sources; which is easily quantifiable using the percentage of load

    coverage by wind or solar energy.

    ? System simplicity and reliability; This criterion is more difficult to quantify and is related

    to a variety of factors, including previous performance of a specific technology in a related

    environment, local experience into a specific technology etc.

    ? Organisational; This criterion has to do with the overall electricity supply structure within

    the respective regions. Addresses a variety of socio-economic issues, such as which

    organizational entity undertakes overall responsibility for the system, how easy it is to

    implement a specific electrification scheme, tariff system, financing opportunities, etc.

    ? Economic cost; Namely, initial investment cost, operation and maintenance cost.

     It is worth to be mentioned that since autonomous systems comprise an already

     established alternative for isolated power production there are several developed tools for

     dimensioning these systems. Complying with this, the scope of this paper is not to provide

     guidelines for the implementation of wind/solar hybrid systems but to present the possible

     problems which can occur during the commissioning phase, the steady operation period

     and maintenance procedure.

    ? The lack of Normalization and Standardization; Regarding the small and medium scale

    This standard is related to the design, installation, operation and maintenance

    2conditions of wind turbines with a rotor area smaller than 40m but it is unknown if it is

    incorporated to any coherent national legislation.

    ? Secure and reliable; Operation and maintenance of a stand-alone system.

    2.6 Renewable Energy Data Loggers

The installation of different weather measurement stations to provide accurate measurements on

    renewable energy resources potentials in the remote villages of Aral Sea Region. This will

    accelerate in replication of similar hybrid systems for an isolated operation (autonomous

    electricity providing) in other villages to generate electricity from the wind/solar potentials that can

    also be used for other basic needs such as: lighting for householders, schools and mobile

    hospitals.

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    2.7 Redesign of the System

While the design and dimensioning of this pilot project were considered as a very successful due

    to a very solid team work of the implementation team, however a moderate and supportive

    affords must be done to secure the coming phase of operation and maintenance challenges. This

    pilot project has demonstrated a successful integration of different manufactures components in a

    functioning compound. However it’s early to conclude the optimality of the system until secure

    and reliable of a stand-alone system were proved. Different dimensioning amendment might be

    required for the system to be replicated in other places depending on nature of the load and the

    potentials of the renewable energy resources in the proposed locations.

3- Operation and Maintenance

3.1 Hybrid System

    1- Wind Turbine (WT); it is expected that the wind turbine to be stable in providing the

    required nominal capacity and power production even in low wind speeds; It is anticipated

    a minimum one year stable operational period.

    2- Photo Voltaic (PV); on the basis of the preliminary results of application of PV system it

    has been established that PV technology is the most efficient method of providing the

    basic energy needs of the poorest rural communities.

    3- The designed and installed hybrid system in the village is in optimal functioning condition

    at the present time and in a satisfactory way, while its is expected to face miner basic

    maintenance challenges that can be overcome with end user’s well prepared training

    schemes and availability of funds for spare parts.

    4- The challenge of cleaning and replacing the filters inside the desalination part of the

    hybrid system can be in the long run an obstacle for operation and maintenance. The

    funds gained from clean water trading to village householders can cover the cost of

    periodic/routine maintenance and replacement of the desalinating unit’s filters (cleaning

    and replacement).

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

    3.2 Water User Association

    Water User Association (WUA) to delivery Clean Water for Households in the Tokabay Village

A Water User Association (WUA) established by the village NGO’s for water delivery to the house

    holders in the village. This source of safe drinking water is likely to improve the lives of all the inhabitants of Tokabay. If the system does not fail, improvements in health are likely to be the most obvious benefits - and because women and children have been seen to have higher levels of anemia, kidney disease and water borne diseases. Indirect benefits to women may include the improved sense of empowerment if they are able to work together to find solutions to their social and economic development themselves, such as through activities of the WUA.

    Community water management is a complex problem with all kinds of factors interacting on many different levels: supply technology, water (resource) availability, service level, community capacity, institutional environments, rules and regulation, ability to pay etc. There are many different interpretations of community water supply management: From communities providing their labor to system construction, to full community ownership of the supply system and full responsibility for its operation and maintenance. For instance: an important part of a sustainable water supply service is the recovery of operation and maintenance costs. For that a community needs to make rules and regulations. To create and enforce such rules and regulations a committee is needed. This committee needs to represent the whole of the community and it needs to be accountable for its actions. In addition it needs to be able to enforce its decisions, which calls for a mixture of external support and internal legitimacy. Committees have to deal with many other issues: monitoring system performance, taking decisions on extension of the system, taking decisions on the level of service, deciding how to ensure poor people's access that can not pay the fee and so on. In addition committees often also have to deal with management of the water source and conflicts over the different uses of water.

    The challenges of tariffs and allocated costs for water to be purchased by the villagers have to be negotiated and supported by local village authorities so the installed system has enough funds to cover its maintenance and operation costs while the overall majority of the villagers getting the benefits of the clean drinking water from the renewable energy compound.

Kimo Karini, International Consultant

4- Conclusion

    It is found feasible to demonstrate the use of solar and wind energy in the rural area by transfer of appropriate technology from other countries. The successful transfer of technology and subsequent replication of the demonstrated application will fulfill the goal of large scale utilization of solar and wind energy in rural areas of Kazakhstan, without depending extremely on expensive infrastructure and without drawing on valuable and limited resources of foreign funds in the present economic situation of the country. Analyzing the challenges on the rural areas it leads us to:

    ? that due to the lack of infrastructure (electricity lines) and the thin and widespread

    population, renewable energy systems have extremely good conditions for improving the

    lifestyle and welfare of the remote villagers in the Aral Sea Region;

    ? that it will improve the health and welfare of the population;

    ? that the villagers can afford to the cost of such small systems that they will become

    independent of imported fuel;

    ? that Kazakhstan society possess the human resources to implement its own production

    and distribution of small scale energy systems to the rural areas.

    Taking into consideration the social, environmental and economic advantages of the installed hybrid system in the village Tokabay, the sustainable operation of such systems is the main target of their extended replicability. Hybrid systems using different design methods, as well as, well developed dimensioning tools have been demonstrated successfully in this pilot project. However, their on-site operation, in most cases, under severe conditions in a lack of infrastructure environment presents probable unsustainable operation. The components of this hybrid system seem to present a steady behavior and have already improved the overall system's flexibility and reliability.

    The local authorities and (Central Government), therefore, desires through this project to establish as a first step: a large scale demonstration of hybrid WT/PV system's to improve living standards and working condition of rural people, in order to build up necessary experiences and a technical support capabilities for large-scale rural electrification through the use of hybrid WT/PV systems.

    This decentralization of energy supply will also contribute to the growth of small and medium-size industries and businesses in rural areas, whose populations are often dependent upon

    subsistence-level income from the land. If properly managed, such small-scale production could form the basis of income for rural populations.

    As it concerns the installation and maintenance of small-scale hybrid systems (wind/solar) in isolated areas in Kazakhstan, a long way has to be traced before considered sustainable.

    Transition to an entirely renewable sustainable energy resource economy with resulting changes in lifestyles is inevitable. The transition to this wider diversity of energy sources will proceed

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