Republic of the Philippines
OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION
CHED MEMORANDUM ORDER (CMO)
Series of 1998
SUBJECT: UPDATED POLICIES AND STANDARDS FOR PHYSICAL THERAPY
AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY EDUCATION
In accordance with pertinent provisions of Republic Act (RA) No. 7722, otherwise known
as the “Higher Education Act of 1994,” and for the purpose of rationalizing Physical Therapy and
Occupational Therapy Education in the country with the end in view of keeping apace with the
demands of global competitiveness, the following policies and standards for Physical Therapy
and Occupational Therapy Education are hereby adopted and promulgated by the Commission,
SECTION 1. Only Higher Education Institutions that own a base hospital with
Rehabilitation Center with physical therapy/occupational therapy facilities which will comply with
the policies and standards, managed by a physical therapist working with a physiatrist or Higher
Education Institution’s with notarized contract with an accredited rehabilitation center duly
authorized by the Commission on Higher Education upon the recommendation of the Regulatory
Board of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy of the professional Regulation Commission
shall offer Physical Therapy and occupational Therapy courses.
SECTION 2. Representatives from the Commission on Higher Education and the Board of
Examiners for Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy shall make an ocular inspection of all
facilities of the institution to assure that they conform with the required policies and standards as
specified therein. The concerned professional associations may be consulted from time to time
and may be invited to join the inspection team.
SECTION 1. The main objective of the Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy Education
is to provide the country with Physical Therapists/ Occupational Therapists who are humane and
scientifically competent to deliver the full spectrum of Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy
services needed in modern health care.
SECTION 2. To meet this objective, integrated and sequential courses of study shall be
planned, utilizing didactic instructions, laboratory practice and clinical education with the goals of:
2.1 Providing opportunity, instruction and guided experience by which the students learn
the basic knowledge and acquire the skills essential to the practice of Physical
SECTION 1. The general qualifications of the Dean/Director of the Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy school are:
1.1 Must be a Filipino citizen.
1.2 A Physical Therapist/Occupational Therapist with the following qualifications:
1.2.1 Must be a holder of a Master’s degree in Health Science, MA Educational
Administration or appropriate master’s degree in a related discipline.
1.2.2 Must have a minimum of five (5) years of clinical and/or teaching experience.
1.2.3 Must be of good standing, a member of the PRO accredited professional
1.3 Must be a licensed Physician and Board Certified Physiatrist.
1.4 Must of good moral character.
1.5 Must be the head of only one institution at a time.
1.6 Preferably be active members of accredited scientific and professional organizations
as indicated in their personal files.
SECTION 1. Each faculty member must possess the academic preparation appropriate to
his teaching assignments:
1.1 To teach the liberal arts subjects, he must:
1.1.1 fulfill the policies and standards for Arts and Sciences Education stipulation on
Faculty (Art. V) promulgated by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).
1.1.2 show competence in the field of specialization he is teaching.
1.1.3 have at least one (1) year of teaching experience.
1.2 To teach Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy professional subjects, he/she must:
1.2.1 have a B.S. degree in Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy.
1.2.2 be licensed Physical Therapist/Occupational Therapist in the Philippines. If
licensed abroad, such license should be accredited by the PRO Board of
Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy. Those licensed abroad will be dealt
with on a case to case basis.
1.2.3 have completed at least a seminar in teaching methods and strategies (in
curriculum development teaching and evaluation techniques, etc.)
1.2.4 preferably at least one (1) year teaching experience for didactic lecturers or a
one (1) year clinical experience for laboratory supervisors.
I .2.5 show competence in the subject/s he/she is teaching.
1.3 To teach Medical subjects, he/she must:
1.3.1 be a licensed Physician, as a registered Physical Therapist/Occupational
Therapist with a special training in the area/subject he/she is teaching or a
masters degree in the subject.
1.3.2 have at least one (1) year experience in teaching the subject/s.
1.3.3 show competence in the subject/s he/she is teaching.
SECTION 2. When a vacancy occurs in the teaching force of the school during the year, a
substitute with similar or higher credentials may be employed.
SECTION 3. Faculty Development Program. For an effective operation of the school,
institute, college or university offering Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy, there should be a
faculty development program to improve the profession. This program may be carried out
3.1 Scholarship grants to full time faculty members.
3.2 Educational loans or tuition fee discounts to faculty members enrolled in the graduate
3.3 Subsidized attendance in Continuing Education programs, conferences, professional
and scientific meetings, etc.
3.4 The institution should encourage research among its faculty members for the
improvement of the Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy profession.
SECTION 4. Each college/university should have a faculty manual containing
information and policies of all matters pertaining to the faculty.
SECTION 5. Clerical help should be provided to handle correspondence records and
other secretarial functions.
(see attached prototype curriculum)
SECTION 1. The minimum requirements for the Bachelor of Science in Physical
Therapy and Occupational Therapy curriculum are flexible depending on the needs of the
profession and in accordance with the policies and standards of
SECTION 2. The effectivity and implementation of the curriculum under these Policies and
Standards shall be on the following schedules:
2.1 First Year - SchooI Year l998-1999
2.2 Second Year - School Year 1999-2000
2.3 Third Year - School Year 2000-2001
2.4 Fourth Year - School Year 2001-2002
2.5 Fifth Year - School Year 2002-2003
SECTION 1. The institution must maintain a high quality of education, utilizing appropriate updated syllabi and instructional procedures which contribute to a sound Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy education. A system of supervision should be instituted and
implemented for the purpose of evaluating teaching competence.
SECTION 2. The institution should provide for a systematic and continuing plan of evaluation of the students’ progress through a grading system not norm based but should be
criterion referenced that is consistent with the standards set by the institution.
SECTION 3. No student shall be given credit for a course unless he/she has fulfilled the requirements for entrance thereto, has attended classes regularly and has reasonable minimum
competence in each subject. The promotional record should be kept in the school within the
following semester for examination in case of any grievance or complaint.
SECTION 4. The institution must prescribe the basic and standard textbooks to be use which are of recent edition and which reflect the current trends in the Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy profession. The Institution may change textbooks only once in
five (5) years.
SECTION 5. The institution must provide the necessary instructional materials like anatomy models, teaching slides, charts, etc. including audiovisual equipment for the use of the
students for a more effective teaching-learning process.
SECTION 6. The number of sections in every year of the Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy course should be in proportion to the size of the faculty, classrooms, laboratory and
clinical facilities with a faculty-student ratio as specified in Sections 7 and 8 (8.4.3) of this Article.
SECTION 7. The ratio of faculty to student in practicum or laboratory classes in the sciences and Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy subjects must not exceed 1:20 while the
ratio in lecture classes must not exceed 1:50.
SECTION 8. In the internship training program where the students develop professional skills by a systematic application of scientific knowledge to actual clinical situations in the hospital
and in the community, the following conditions should be observed:
8.1 There must be a close correlation between the theoretical knowledge and clinical
8.2 There must be a well planned and organize program of field experience in Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy techniques and management as a scientific tool in
8.3 The institution must provide the students and affiliation centers with Manual on Clinical
Training including minimum training requirements and evaluation procedures for the
students’ performance and the center’s evaluation as well.
8.4 To assure the efficacy of the clinical training program, the following standards must be
8.4.1 Hospitals and rehabilitation centers chosen for affiliation must be accredited by
the Philippine Hospital Association, the Association of Philippine Physical
Therapy and Occupational Therapy Schools and the Ministry of Health except
Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy facilities utilized for rural and
community services and Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy facilities in
8.4.2 The minimum ratio of intern to patients treated in the facility must be 1:4.
8.4.3 The maximum ratio of clinical instructor of the affiliation center to interns must be
1:10 for Physical Therapy and 1:8 for Occupational Therapy.
8.4.4 The interns during the course of their training must have exposure to a variety of
clinical experiences which should include patients with the following disorders:
e. psychosocial dysfunctions
8.4.5 Clinical experiences should include the treatment of a wide variety of patients of
various age groups and of both sexes.
8.4.6 Clinical Instructors sent by the institution to the affiliation centers must
periodically monitor the interns’ performances.
1. Students must always be supervised by an OTRP.
2. Ultimate responsibility lies on OTRP supervisor, not the student.
SECTION 1. Every school, institution college or university offering a Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy course should have adequate library space, facilities and
resources, both basic and reference materials, relevant to liberal arts, Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy and medical subjects specified by the curriculum. These shall
serve the needs of the students and should progressively grow in accordance with the expansion
plans of the institution.
SECTION 2. Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy students should have access to
science libraries, the total basic collection of relevant books must total not less than 5,000.
Recency of edition should at least be 5 years.
SECTION 3. The institution offering the Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy course
must assure the availability of at least fifty (50) books, pamphlets, monographs and serials
specifically used as basic and reference reading materials by students for the Physical
Therapy/Occupational Therapy subjects.
SECTION 4. The library should subscribe to an adequate number of scientific journals and
periodicals. It should also assure the subscription to at least one (1) journal of international
circulation in Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy to update the students and faculty staff in
the latest developments in the field.
SECTION 5. The institution offering the Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy course
has the freedom to select the basic textbooks to be used by the students in all the subjects
specified in the curriculum. However, the library facility of the institution should possess one (I)
copy of each of these basic textbooks for every ten (10) students enrolled but unable to procure
SECTION 6. The quantity of other reading materials should also be in proportion to the
enrollment and should be responsive to the needs of the students.
SECTION 7. The schools of physical therapy and occupational therapy are encouraged to acquire state of the art materials and equipment such as computerized library facilities with
complete audio visual equipment (e.g. microfilms, tapes, etc.)
SECTION 1. Every school, institution, college or university offering a Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy course should provide for an adequate number of lecture rooms
and laboratories equipped with blackboards and desks. In addition, the use of audiovisual aids
should be encouraged.
SECTION 2. The school, institution, college or university offering a Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy course should have its own fully equipped laboratory, distinct
from the clinical facilities of the hospital, for the purpose of providing instruction and practice to the
students in the proper application of equipment.
SECTION 3. The laboratory room for Physical Therapy practicum should be well-lighted and ventilated and should be equipped with the following:
3.1 plinths with mattresses with a ratio of 1:2
3.2 stools with a ratio of I per student
3.3 grounded 3-pronged electrical outlets on all four walls
3.4 small dressing area
3.5 basic physical therapy equipment (at least one of each)
3.5.1 short-wave or microwave diathermy
3.5.2 therapeutic uftrasound machine
3.5.3 transcutaneous nerve stimulator or interferential current therapy machine
3.5.4 Faradic/Galvanic Electrical stimulator
3.5.5 ultraviolet and infrared lamps
3.5.6 chonaximeter or strength duration (IDC) generator or electromyography
3.5.7 cervical or lumbar traction machine
3.5.8 hydrocollator packs
3.5.9 paraffin wax bath
3.5.10 assistive devices (crutches, canes, walkers, etc.)
3.5.11 exercise equipment/weights
3.5.12 posture mirror
3.5.13 pillows, sheets, towels
SECTION 4. The specific requirements of the Occupational Therapy laboratory facilities are as follows:
4.1 A laboratory should have a minimum floor space of one square meter/i -2 students,
with 1-5 students per locker;
4.2 Each laboratory should have:
4.2.1 Continuous and adequate supply of water, gas and/or electricity
4.2.2 Fire extinguisher which should be easily accessible
4.2.3 First aid and emergency shower
4.2.4 First aid kit/cabinet
4.3 The laboratory room should be well-lighted and ventilated and should include the
4.3.1 Therapeutic skills laboratory with equipment adequate and materials necessary
for teaching and learning basic human occupation appropriate to the community
such as various arts and crafts, cottage industries, recreational, social and
4.3.2 Independent living skills laboratory with adequate facilities, equipment/tools and
materials for the following activities:
18.104.22.168 mobility includes movement in bed, wheelchair mobility and transfers,
and management of public or private transportation;
22.214.171.124 self-care includes dressing, feeding, toileting, bathing and grooming
126.96.36.199 management of environmental hardware and devices includes the
ability to use telephone, keys, faucets, light switches, windows, doors,
scissors, and street control signals;
188.8.131.52 communication skills include the ability to write, operate a personal
computer, read, type, and use the telephone, tape recorder, or a
special communications device;
184.108.40.206 home management activities include marketing, meal planning and
preparation, cleaning, laundry, child care, and the ability to manage
household appliances. 4.3.3 Facilities for evaluation and treatment of:
220.127.116.11 Physical Dysfunction
a. furniture like chairs, tables/ plinths, bed, mirror, standing box,
c. adequate and appropriate evaluation and treatment
equipment/tools and materials for motor, sensory, cognitive,
perceptual, coordinative activities orthoses and prostheses
18.104.22.168 Psychosocial Dysfunction
4.3.4 Prevocational evaluation area with adequate facilities and relevant work and job
4.4 The Institution offering occupational therapy/physical therapy program should not be
limited by the list provided in Section 5. The head and faculty of the program should
always inject creativity, resourcefulness and ingenuity in the acquisition of new and
adapted equipment, tools and materials for a thorough and dynamic training of
SECTION 5. Laboratory facilities for medical subjects such as Physiology,
Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy are optional and may be substituted with class
5.1 Physiology Laboratory should be adequately equipped to carry on experiments or
5.1.1 Arterial blood pressure
5.1.2 Respiratory experiments - respiratory
5.1.3 Respiratory experiments - control of separation
5.1.4 Investigation of general sensation
5.1.5 Nerve-Muscle experiment
5.1.6 Measurement of Radiation and Skin Temp.
5.1.8 Quantitative stimulation of pain
5.1.9 Human metabolism and adaptation to exercise
5.1.10 Muscular efficiency and ergometry
5.1.11 Ventilatory capacity
5.2 Normal Tissue slides of:
5.2.1 epithelium - simple, squamous, cuboidal
5.2.4 conduction tissues
5.2.5 fatty tissues
5.2.6 reticular tissue
5.2.8 bone marrow
5.2.10 compact bone
5.2.11 skeletal muscle
5.2.12 cardiac muscle
5.2.13 blood vessel
5.2.15 smooth muscles
SECTION 6. An anatomy laboratory is necessary in the Physical Therapy/Occupational
Therapy education and shall contain the following:
6.1 human cadavers with a ratio of one (1) cadaver for every ten (10) students; 6.2 dissection tables;
6.3.1 a mounted articulated skeleton for every group of five (5) students
6.3.2 a complete disarticulated skeleton for every group of five (5) students
6.4 timers and tags;
6.5 charts//atlasses/plastic models
ADMISSION, SELECTION AND RETENTION
SECTION 1. The Institution shall establish its own set of admission criteria, policies and
SECTION 2. A basic criteria for admission shall however include the following:
2.1 The applicant must have graduated from a general secondary course authorized by
the government. Graduates of foreign school must have clearance from the
Department of Education, Culture and Sports; 2.2 The applicant must have passed the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT); 2.3 The applicant must have never been convicted of any crime and is of good moral
2.4 The applicant must have passed a physical, psychological and social adjustment
examinations to determine his/her suitability for the profession.
SECTION 3. The requirements in the promotion and retention of students shall be
determined according to the criteria established by the institution (Standard of OT-consistent with
criteria reference) offering the course.
SECTION 4. In general, however, no student shall be permitted to take a subject until
he/she satisfactorily passed the prerequisite subjects.
SECTION 5. Psychological and guidance counselling shall be available to the students of
Pasig City, Philippines, January 21, 1998
(SGD.) ANGEL C. ALCALA
(SGD.) MONA D. VALISNO (SGD.) KATE C. BOTENGAN
(SGD.) ESTER A. GARCIA (SGD.) ROBERTO N. PADUA