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Report ethnic minorities WBA

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Report ethnic minorities WBA

Social Inclusion of Ethnic Groups

    Through Education and Training:

    Elements of Good Practice

    December 2007

? European Training Foundation, 2007. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is

    acknowledged.

    This report was financed by and prepared for the use of the European Training Foundation. Its contents are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views

    of the European Training Foundation or EU institutions.

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Contractor:

s.c. promeso consulting s.r.l.

    Bucureşti, sector 3, Bd. Decebal nr.14

    Tel. +40 21 3272857. Fax. +40 21 3211742

    Email: office@promeso.ro Website: www.promeso.ro

Expert team:

COORDINATOR:

Camelia GHEORGHE (Romania)

CROSS-COUNTRY EXPERTS:

Adela Rogojinaru (Romania)

    Tatjana Peric (Serbia)

    Mariana Prepeliţă (Romania)

NATIONAL EXPERTS:

Aleksandar Zekovic (Montenegro)

    Maja Gerovska Mitev (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)

    Nenad Vakanjac (Croatia)

    Petar Antic (Serbia, including Kosovo under UNSCR 1244)

    Raimonda Duka (Albania)

    Tatjana Peric (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Vlera Kastrati (Serbia, including Kosovo under UNSCR 1244)

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    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AP Action Plan

    BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina CARDS Community Assistance for Reconstruction, Development and

    Stabilisation

    CBC Cross-Border Co-operation

    CHF Swiss Francs

    CoE Council of Europe

    CAF Conceptual and Analytical Framework CES Croatian Employment Service

    DG Directorate General

    EC European Commission

    ENAR European Network Against Racism

    ERDF European Regional Development Fund

    ESF European Social Fund

    ERIO European Roma Information Office ESA Employment Service Agency ETF European Training Foundation

    EU European Union

    IPA Instrument for Pre-Accession

    KM Key Message

    MEST Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

    MIPD Multi-annual Indicative Planning Document under IPA

    NAP National Action Plan for Social Inclusion

    NGO Non-Governmental Organisation

    OSCE Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe

    PROGRESS EU Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity

    RAE Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians

    RTA Roma Teacher Assistant

    SAP Stabilisation and Association Process

    SMEs Small and Medium-size Enterprises

    UN United Nations

    UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNMIK United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo

    UNSCR United Nations Security Council Resolution

    USAID United States Agency for International Development

    VET Vocational Education and Training

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 6 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 1.1 Policy perspectives ......................................................................................................................... 1.2 Study objectives, focus and coverage ............................................................................................. 1.3 Methodology .................................................................................................................................. Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 2. THE POLICY CONTEXT ...................................................................................................................... 2.1 Anti-discriminatory policies and measures ................................................................................... 2.2. Social inclusion policy and measures ............................................................................................. 2.3 Institutional framework: role of governments and of civil society organisations.......................... 2.4 Gaps and catching-up factors ........................................................................................................ Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 3. EXAMPLES OF GOOD EDUCATION AND TRAINING PRACTICES ............................................. 3.1 Access, participation and retention of ethnic groups in education ................................................ 3.2 Access and participation of ethnic groups in training ................................................................... 3.3 Education and training in support of good inter-ethnic relations ................................................. 3.4 Gaps and catching-up factors ........................................................................................................ Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 4. KEY TRENDS AND FACTORS UNDERPINNING GOOD PRACTICES ........................................... 4.1 Data availability, data quality and data monitoring ..................................................................... 4.2 Determinants of access and participation in education and training ............................................ 4.3 Trends in inequality, access and participation in education and training ..................................... 4.4 Main issues and challenges ............................................................................................................ Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 5. RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 5.1 Policy recommendations ................................................................................................................ 5.2 Project idea for Western Balkan countries and/or the region ....................................................... Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... ANNEXES ......................................................................................................................................................... A. Conceptual and analytical framework ..................................................................................................... B. List of people and institutions contacted/interviewed .............................................................................. C. Good practice fiches ................................................................................................................................. D. Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Future accession of the Western Balkan countries to the European Union (EU) is contingent upon their compliance with the Copenhagen criteria and the conditionality of the Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP). Respect for human rights, including those of ethnic groups, is a key accession criterion. Social inclusion issues are at the forefront of countries’ approximation to the EU. Policy makers in the

    Western Balkan countries need to address this problem through systemic measures in the field of education, training and employment, as well as in other policy areas.

    The present study on the social inclusion of ethnic groups focuses on good practices in education and training. Implemented in the second half of 2007 by PROMESO Consulting (Romania), it provides contextual information on access to education and training by ethnic groups, highlights relevant areas for policy development and recommends practical ways to design and implement effective and inclusive education and training policies and measures. The study is part of a larger IPASOC project (Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) referring to assistance for social inclusion) launched by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in 2007 and aimed at understanding policy options for building cohesive societies and solving the challenging issue of the social inclusion of vulnerable ethnic groups in the Western Balkans.

Background and rationale

    Western Balkan states are historically multi-ethnic countries and this region contains some of the most ethnically and culturally complex and fragmented areas of Europe. The ethnic groups in this region are not only very diverse, but also very mixed. They are often geographically concentrated, either in the proximity of the kin-state border or in ghettoised settlements. Poverty and vulnerability assessments indicate that ethnicity is one of the significant factors in shaping poverty. Although enormous

    efforts are made to promote the rights of ethnic communities in the region, there are still serious obstacles, such as people living in secure enclaves, big discrepancies in access to education, health and employment, parallel systems of services for different ethnic groups and an unresolved problem of refugees and internally displaced persons.

    Ethnic diversity in the Western Balkan countries poses a number of closely inter-related challenges as far as education and training is concerned. One of the important challenges concerns the educational deficit in socioeconomically vulnerable ethnic groups, particularly among young people. Another challenge concerns the improvement of employment opportunities for socioeconomically vulnerable ethnic groups. These disadvantages often have to do with the remoteness, ruralness or economic deprivation of the areas in which the ethnic groups live, but also with their

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    history, traditions, type and level of skills, patterns of living and working, prospects for employment or self-employment, etc.

    The study aims to enhance the capacity of national stakeholders from Western Balkan countries in terms of addressing the causes of lower educational attainment, skills gaps and poor labour market outcomes among vulnerable ethnic groups and to design education and training policies and interventions that promote their social inclusion. It contextualises social inclusion policies in the Western Balkans and assesses whether sharing of experiences and good practices from the EU and the Western Balkan countries could be helpful.

    The focus of the study is vulnerable ethnic groups in the Western Balkan countries, that is, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244). The social inclusion prospects of these ethnic groups are at risk because of their limited access to education and training for employment. The study refers to policies and measures, includes all levels of education and adult education and training, examines three layers of intervention (government, civil society and donors) and assesses education and training challenges in relation to supporting good inter-ethnic relations.

Policy context

    Some recent legal, institutional and policy developments in EU member states and Western Balkan countries referring to human and ethnic group rights focus on social inclusion in general and on education and training in particular. Improvements have been made in the legislative field and in inter-ethnic education and more attention is being paid to social inclusion issues, second-chance schooling, involvement of parents and communities and partnerships between government and civil society. The prospects of joining the EU has made most countries eager to fulfil the necessary requirements, while the Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005-2015 has drawn public attention to the social inclusion issues affecting the Roma both locally and internationally. Government commitments towards long-term impact and the introduction of system solutions can be used as a powerful advocacy tool and to create a policy-influencing momentum by NGOs and activists.

    A review of the legal and institutional framework and policies in EU member states and Western Balkan countries indicates several common gaps and catching-up factors the enforcement of legislation, targeting of programmes, school desegregation, participation in secondary education, adult education and training provision and take-up, relevant and reliable data for policy planning purposes and sufficient funding to produce an impact.

    In the particular case of the Western Balkans region, additional gaps have been identified, such as an absence of comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation in

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    most of the countries in the region; deficient enforcement of legal and public policy provisions and international human rights obligations; poor public governance accountability for implementation; a prevalence of projects addressing Roma education with insufficient attention paid to other vulnerable ethnic groups; insufficient targeting of social inclusion measures towards ethnic young women; rural areas with important numbers of poor and discriminated ethnic groups; insufficient affirmative actions specifically aimed at ethnic groups in secondary education (despite their low educational participation and attainment); few projects relating to adult education and training of ethnic groups; and very underestimated training provision.

Good practices for the inclusion of vulnerable ethnic groups

For the purpose of this study, a good practice is defined as an effective practice that

    helps a country capitalise on experience and knowledge gained through social innovation, assess transferability and reflect on general mainstream policy.

    Good practices have been identified on the basis of a set of five generic features: social inclusion potential, anti-discrimination adequacy, sustainability, effectiveness and impact and transferability.

    In addition, the collection of good practices has been guided by certain criteria. They should: originate in EU members states (especially new member states) and/or Western Balkan countries; cover various types and levels of intervention (policy and measures, programmes and projects), initiated by the government, civil society or donors at the local, regional or national levels; consider various aspects of educational and training policy and practice; be in line with the priorities that have been already identified by the European Commission (EC) in the country and by a multi-beneficiary Multiannual Indicative Planning Document (MIPD) for rendering financial assistance to the Western Balkan countries in the 2007-2009 period.

Practices were analysed and grouped around three key policy pillars: 1) access,

    participation and retention of ethnic groups in education; 2) access and participation of ethnic groups in training; 3) education and training in support of good inter-ethnic relations. The study describes 27 practices under the first pillar, 12 practices under the second pillar, and 6 practices under the third pillar. All these practices were reviewed and assessed in terms of the generic features of a good practice as described above, with the analysis showing that sustainability and transferability mechanisms remain critical issues in most of the reported cases.

    Most of the projects featured as good practices in this study target Roma communities, often work countrywide with a broad range of partnerships in implementation and mainly address education issues on a number of levels.

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The review of practices has highlighted the lack of relevant, up-to-date and reliable

    data on ethnic groups as a common gap in both EU member states and Western

    Balkan countries. While in the EU member states this gap has to do more with

    deficiencies in the systematic recording of racist and discriminatory incidents in the

    education and training field, in the case of the Western Balkan region the gap refers to the lack of relevant baseline data on the following: participation/representation of

    ethnic groups in vocational training; dropout rates; educational underachievement;

    and indirect discrimination or mainstreaming. This lack of data hampers the

    monitoring and evaluation of practices in particular and of national strategies and

    action plans in general.

Key trends and factors underpinning good practices

Our analysis of the reported good practices outlines a number of key determinants

    and success patterns for ensuring better access and wider participation of ethnic

    groups in education and training, as follows:

    ? Time/age of school entry. Pre-school education is of paramount importance in

    preventing school failure and social exclusion at a later stage.

    ? School and residential desegregation. Since segregation in education produces and

    reproduces inequality and affects educational outcomes, a common education

    system that takes account of the cultural specificities of different ethnic groups is

    the best solution.

    ? Inclusive and multicultural curricula. Promoting the participation of all pupils

    (including those from minority groups) in educational activities challenges

    existing prejudices and intolerance in society.

    ? Quality of education and training. Access to learning opportunities needs to be

    supplemented by quality and relevance of the learning process in order to attract

    learners and to ensure benefits for individuals and for society in general.

    ? Teacher/trainer role and training. Teachers and trainers coming from different

    ethnic groups and possessing the necessary skills and competences for working in

    a multicultural context facilitate and promote inter-ethnic participation in

    education and training.

    ? Specific measures for secondary and tertiary education participation. Bridging

    programmes, specific learning assistance and earmarked places, etc, facilitate

    access by disadvantaged ethnic groups to secondary and higher education,

    otherwise blocked as a result of inequities accumulated earlier in the education

    cycle.

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    ? Multi-level school interventions. Integration in education is promoted in a better

    way when multi-level (rather than single-level) interventions and holistic

    approach are implemented.

    ? Extra resources for disadvantaged students. Extra resources help to overcome the

    adverse effects of particular social and economic backgrounds and counteract

    cultural and socioeconomic barriers to the education.

    ? Parental and community involvement in supporting the education of children.

    Linking schools with parents and ethnic communities is an effective tool for

    improving student attainment and behaviour and is also a driver of change in

    educational settings.

    ? Equal employment opportunities. Racial/ethnic discrimination in employment

    leads to lower expectations and a lack of motivation to succeed in education and

    training.

    ? Motivation of ethnic groups in regard to adult education and training. Motivation

    is strongly influenced by clear prospects for employment and self-employment

    and by positive role models.

    ? Affirmative action for education, training and employment of disadvantaged

    ethnic groups. Such actions compensate the effects of past discrimination and

    deprivation.

    ? Mediation, mentoring and tutorship. The involvement of new types of operators

    (e.g. mediators, assistants, path-planners, mentors, tutors, counsellors and social

    managers, preferably recruited from vulnerable ethnic groups themselves) in the

    integration process for the education and training of ethnic groups is of the utmost

    importance because these operators link individual needs with opportunities,

    provide continuing personalised assistance and serve as role models.

    ? Monitoring, evaluation and redress mechanisms. Participation and retention of

    ethnic groups in education and training systems is difficult to assess and address

    without an efficient data collection and monitoring system capable of providing

    complete, reliable and differentiated data on the enrolment and educational

    achievement of ethnic groups at all levels.

The review of good practices has also highlighted some gaps and catching-up factors

    referring to the successful implementation of good practice in the Western Balkan

    region, such as the availability of data and expertise, institutional capacity, system

    capacity to respond to ethnic group demands, local ownership, sustainability,

    transferability and mainstreaming.

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