Title of Project

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Title of Project

    Research opportunities in the Environmental Engineering Research Centre projects available to start 2009

    Projects shown in bold have dedicated externally-funded studentships & are scheduled to commence in 2009; all other projects may have funding allocated (commencing 2009) subject to the eligibility of the candidate; all awards for studentships are made on a competitive basis.

    For project-specific enquiries, refer to the contact details given in the table. For general enquiries, contact Mrs Roslyn Barnes ( in the School’s Research Support Office (+44 28 9097 4298) or refer to Students who are planning on applying to the University for Postgraduate Study for 2009/10 must complete the Online Application form available at

Closing date for applications: 27 March 2009

    Title of Project Project Description Supervisor(s) Qualifications sought/other Contact for further technical

    information detail Investigation of the The project will involve working in collaboration with a Dr. Raymond Flynn 2i or higher honours degree in hydrogeological multidisciplinary team of Geologists, Hydrogeologists, Civil & Dr. Alistair Geology, Geophysics,

    properties of low Engineers and Ecologists in characterising groundwater flow Ruffell Environmental Science or a

    productivity and contaminant transport rates in crystalline bedrock related discipline; a foundation in

    fractured bedrock aquifers. The project offers considerable field-based Geophysics, Hydrogeology and /or

    aquifers in Ireland opportunities to gain experience in practical physical and Hydrology is advantageous; all

    chemical hydrogeology and geophysics, as well as working EU citizens eligible

    with experienced groundwater modellers in synthesising field

    data. 4-year position available from

    May 2009 as part of Poorly

    Productive Aquifer Research

    Programme, sponsored by the

    Griffith Geoscience Research

    Awards in the Irish Government’s

    National Development Plan (co-

    ordinated by the Geological

    Survey of Ireland) Investigation of The project will involve working in collaboration with a Dr Raymond Flynn 2i or higher honours degree in geochemical multidisciplinary team of Geologists, Hydrogeologists, Civil Geology, Physical Geography,

    processes Engineers and Ecologists. The researcher will investigate the Environmental Science or a influencing the fate role of sediment in affecting the health of aquatic ecosystems related discipline; a foundation in

    and transport of in Irish River Basin Districts and how sediment may influence Hydrogeology and /or Hydrology

    diffuse the fate and transport of diffuse contaminants (nutrients, is advantageous; all EU citizens

    contaminants in pesticides and pathogens) to surface water bodies. The eligible

    Irish River Basin position offers considerable field-based opportunities to gain

    Districts experience in practical physical and chemical hydrology and 3-year position available from

    geochemistry, as well as working with experienced modellers May 2009, funded through the

    in synthesising field data. The work will be based at Queen’s Irish Environmental Protection

    University Belfast, but will require the researcher to visit field Agency’s(EPA) Science,

    sites around the Republic of Ireland, and partner institutions Technology, Research &

    in Dublin. Innovation for the Environment

    (STRIVE) programme (2007-

    2013). Investigation of the The project will involve working in collaboration with a Dr Raymond Flynn 2i or higher honours degree in

    role of multidisciplinary team of Geologists, Hydrogeologists, Civil Geology, Physical Geography, groundwater in Engineers and Ecologists in the role of groundwater and how Environmental Science or a influencing the it influences the health of aquatic ecosystems in Irish River related discipline; a foundation in physical and Basin Districts under both pristine and polluted conditions (by Hydrogeology and /or Hydrology chemical diffuse contaminants - nutrients, pesticides and pathogens). is advantageous; all EU citizens characteristics of The position offers considerable field-based opportunities to eligible Irish River Basin gain experience in practical physical and chemical Districts hydrogeology and as well as working with experienced 3-year position available from

    modellers in synthesising field data. The project will be based May 2009, funded through the

    at Queen’s University Belfast, but will require the researcher Irish Environmental Protection

    to visit field sites around the Republic of Ireland, and partner Agency’s(EPA) Science,

    institutions in Dublin. Technology, Research &

    Innovation for the Environment

    (STRIVE) programme (2007-

    2013). An investigation of The need to explore alternative energy sources is essential if Dr G. A. Hamill & BEng or BSc 2(i) or higher the near flow field we are to reduce carbon emissions and continue to meet the Prof T Whittaker honours degree in any engineering around a marine demands of society today. The use of underwater current discipline; EPSRC eligibility current turbine turbines is a relatively new phenomenon. To all intents and criteria apply (UK residents/EU purposes these devices are similar to the wind turbines that nationals only); position available now populate our landscape; however being underwater they from March 2009 have a smaller visual footprint. The flow field that is

    generated by such underwater turbines has not been fully

    investigated and as a consequence its impact on the nearby

    environment has yet to be determined. It is also essential to

    understand the impact that this flow field has on subsequent

    devices that may be configured in arrays. This research topic

    has scope for 2 students. The first student will carry out a thfully experimental investigation of the near flow field for a 10

    scale model of a typical current turbine. The study will place

    emphasis on the wake produced at the device. The second

    student will develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

    model of a typical device, with validation coming from an thexperimental investigation using a 40 scale model within the

    laboratory. This CFD simulation will provide the tools

    necessary to investigate the effect of inflow conditions on the

    operation of the turbine. Both projects link directly into the

    study of the wash produced by propellers which has been

    carried out in the school over the past number of years.

    A study of bottom-OYSTER is a flap type wave power device being developed by Prof. Trevor As an EPSRC/ Aquamarine

    hinged seabed-Aquamarine Power Ltd. in collaboration with Queen’s Whittaker, Dr Matt Power Ltd Industrial CASE mounted flap-type University Belfast. As the development moves from single Folley award, EPSRC eligibility citeria wave energy prototypes to wave-farms it is necessary that an understanding apply (UK residents/EU nationals converter arrays is developed about how hydrodynamic performance of an only); 3? year position available

    array of wave energy converters differs from that of a single from March 2009;

    device. Theoretical research based on linear wave theory has

    shown that it is possible to increase the average power capture

    per device by adopting a particular array configuration;

    however, this increase in performance has not been

    demonstrated experimentally. Moreover, the sensitivity of the

    performance increase to such factors as the device tuning,

    control strategy and spatial deployment accuracy have not

    been investigated to determine whether the performance

    improvements are sufficiently robust and realisable. Many of

    these factors are likely to be highly device specific making a

    generic study problematic.

    The limited amount of work conducted to date has been

    mainly confined to offshore heaving devices. Virtually no work

    has been conducted on shallow water nearshore arrays and

    surging devices arrays have not been researched at all. In

    order to fill this knowledge gap it is proposed to study a single

    device-type, the bottom-hinged seabed-mounted flap-type

    surging wave energy converter. This will be investigated to

    produce a vignette, which will describe how arrays of shallow

    water surging wave power devices can be analysed with a view

    to providing design guidance on the individual units and the

    overall geometry of the array.

    Evaluating the For ocean wave energy to make an important contribution to Prof. Trevor Institute of the Sustainable World

    impact of wave the production of power from non-fossil fuel sources then it Whittaker, Dr Matt - PhD Studentship farms on coastal will need to be deployed in wave farms that extend a number Folley processes of kilometres along the coastline and extract relatively large

    amounts of energy. As the amount of energy extracted

    increases the potential for significant changes in coastal

    processes also increases, which will limit the acceptable

    amount of energy extraction by the wave farm. Currently, the

    impact of wave farms have been numerically modelled using a

    single parameter to define the wave farm characteristics.

    Whilst this provides an initial estimate of the impact of a wave

    farm it is not able to account effectively for different types of

    wave energy converters and the wave farm layout.

    This project involves development of the open source spectral

    wave model SWAN to include wave farms as modifiable

    absorption layers, where the energy extracted, transmitted

    and reflected will depend on the type and configuration of

    wave farm. The numerical model will be used to analyse the

    effect of different types of wave energy converters and wave

    farm configurations on the local coastal processes. The results

    of these analyses will enable guidance to be provided

    regarding the limit of energy extract by a wave farm, together

    with how this is affected by the type of wave energy converter

    and wave farm configuration.

    Sampling Theory British Standards based around site investigation often state that a Dr R Doherty MSc or 2i Civil/Environmental

    Applied to 'representative' sample should be taken. None of these standards Engineering, Environmental Science

    Environmental actually provides a methodology on how to take a representive or Geo-Science

    Disciplines sample leaving it up to the biased judgement of the 'experienced'

    sampler. Recent research at QUB has shown that a standard grab

    sample has an inherent fundamental error of 80% making the

    sample useless for further analysis and interpretation. Recent

    controversy in the UK around the definition of error associated

    with toxicity effects of soil samples has resulted in risk & decision

    making models being withdrawn and updated. This project will

    examine methods of reducing the fundamental sampling error

    using sampling theory and develop new sampling protocols taking

    into account bioaccessibility.

    Nutrient cycling and Recent assessment at QUB of nitrogen (N-) and phosphorous (P-) Dr. Elliot Civil/Environmental Engineer,

    catchment studies in abundances in major rivers in Northern Ireland suggest multiple, Environmental Scientist, Geologist,

    Northern Ireland overlapping, point and non-point sources of nutrients (eg diffuse Physicist or Chemist

    agricultural pollutants, sewage treatment works, groundwaters).

    The development of effective management practices to preserve

    water quality and remediation plans for already polluted

    catchments affected by nutrient (N, P) problems (eg

    eutrophication) require the identification of the source of

    contaminants and an understanding of processes affecting local

    nutrient concentrations. In this research the sources and processes

    affecting nitrogen cycling in surface and subsurface waters will be

    traced through measurement of N-15 and O-18 isotopic signatures

    of dissolved N-species. For subsurface waters the use of dating

    techniques for young groundwaters (eg CFCs) may provide further

    information on the timing of nutrient-related events (eg

    denitrification, subsurface residence times, recent changes in

    contaminant loading to recharge zones).

    Dr. Elliot Civil/Environmental Engineer, Field tracing with This research project will involve the further development of Environmental Scientist, Geologist, dissolved gases quantitative methods of injection and recovery techniques, Physicist or Chemist experimental design and mathematical modelling, and field testing ) in groundwater studies. This is an 6of dissolved gases (cf Kr, SFactive research area at QUB developing “environmentally-

    friendly”tracer methods for transit-time and parameter assessment

    in the subsurface, of relevance to hydrogeological and

    contaminated land remediation projects and of interest to

    hydrogeologists and the regulatory authorities. Climatic signatures Atmospheric noble gases (eg Ar, Kr, Xe) dissolve naturally at Dr. Elliot Civil/Environmental Engineer,

    of “excess air” in recharge in groundwater. However, generally the measured Environmental Scientist, Geologist,

    groundwaters groundwater abundances are in excess of those expected from just Physicist or Chemist

    air-water equilibration of gases. Abundances above equilibration

    levels can be characterised as an “excess air” component,

    reflecting the dissolution of extra air by entrainment of air bubbles

    during recharge. This research will study field conditions for

    shallow aquifer recharge to investigate the influence of climatic

    and soil conditions on the establishment of subsurface “excess air”

    signatures. This is already an active research area at QUB. Tracing This is an extension of PhD work already carried out at QUB Dr. Elliot Civil/EnvironEngng., Env. Scientist, 18groundwater using the oxygen-18 isotopic signature of water (HO) to trace Geologist, Physicist, Chemist 2recharge natural recharge through the unsaturated zone. This research will

    apply complementary and multiple tracers (eg O-18, Cl, dissolved

    gases) to better understand the solute transport properties of the

    unsaturated zone and recharge processes, for groundwater

    vulnerability and aquifer protection investigations. Use of tracers to If we had perfect knowledge of all required parameters and the Dr. Elliot Civil/Environmental Engineer,

    validate/calibrate mathematical model posed represented the actual Physicist

    hydraulic and water physical/chemical processes eg for a water distribution system,

    quality networks then we could apply the model with confidence that it would

     reproduce real world results. More often model calibration is

    required, ie the process of adjusting model charcteristics and

    parameters so that the model matches actual observed field data.

    Traditional methods of calibrating hydraulic network models rely

    upon field measurements (eg system pressures, pipe flows, water

    levels in storage facilities) which however can lead to non-

    uniqueness in important model parameter values (eg solute flow

    velocities). An alternative/supplementary method is to use

    combined (conservative) tracer studies to validate/calibrate solute

    transit times in conjunction with the network hydraulic and water

    quality models. The technique involves injecting a tracer manually

    in the system, and then calibrating to compare water quality

    modelling with manual concentration tests. This approach should

    provide well-calibrated models of eg distribution systems for the

    water industry.

    Dating young Knowledge of the spatial relations of water age can be used to Dr. Elliot Civil/Environmental Engineer,

    groundwaters recognise recharge and discharge areas in groundwater and Environmental Scientist, Geologist,

    groundwater-surface water systems, and to estimate rates of Physicist or Chemist

    groundwater recharge and discharge. In the water industry, these

    types of information are useful in developing hydrologic models

    of groundwater systems relevant to water resources and water

    quality management, and in characterising hydrogeological

    environments on their basis of their potential for contamination

    (eg aquifer vulnerability). Dating “young” groundwaters (ie

    grounwater recharged within approximately the last 50 years) is a

    time frame of particular relevance to highlight concomitant

    changes in pollutant (eg nutrient loading to the subsurface,

    changes in industrial land use) or the transport and fate of

    compounds that have been manfactured only in the past 50 years

    or so (eg pesticides). This research involves establishing at QUB

    quantitative techniques for young groundwater dating, using both

    established techniques (eg 3H-3He, CFCs) and new dating

    approaches (eg SF6, 14C matching to atmospheric bomb-pulse

    curve). These groundwater ages are of significance for aquifer

    protection and estimating groundwater vulnerability to potential

    recharge of contaminants.

    Impact of drainage Peatlands cover over 15% of Ireland, yet remain poorly studied. Dr. Raymond Flynn / BEng / BSc in Geology,

    on the geotechnical Engineering on peat has previously applied analogies based on Dr. David Hughes Environmental Science, properties of peat inorganic soils. However, recent investigations have demonstrated Environmental Engineering, Civil

    that this approach is not always valid. This project will investigate Engineering, or related subject; must

    changes in peat geotechnical properties as drainage proceeds, and be numerate & familiar with

    how loss of pore water pressure is coupled to settlement. The numerical modelling, field and

    results will be integrated into a geotechnical model to permit time-laboratory geotechnical methods.

    dependant effects of drainage to be simulated. The findings of the Needs to work in multi disciplinary

    project will be employed to develop restoration designs for teams.

    ecologically sensitive peatlands and to better predict the impacts

    of developments on or adjacent to peat bogs.

    Mixing within an In estuaries, where the fresh water from a river meets the sea, Dr G. A. Hamill & BSc or BEng 2(i) or higher honours

    estuarine stratified density stratifications are found. Investigations have been carried Dr. H. T. Johnston degree in any engineering discipline

    flow out which have examined the processes of mixing that occur

    across such stratifications when the salt water has been entrapped

    by the presence of structures such as weirs or barrages. The

    interaction between the flow regimes in a free tidal estuary is not

    fully understood. This project will examine, in the laboratory, the

    processes that occur over the full tidal cycle. A dedicated saline

    flume has been built in the Hydraulics Laboratory which will

    allow tests to be conducted with flow occurring in both the fresh

    and salt water phase. This will include the situation where the salt

    water is flowing both with and opposed to, the direction of the

    freshwater. Measurements of salinity concentration and velocity

    will be made using state of the art PIV and LIF systems which are

    already available in the laboratory.

    The use of airborne The project will investigate how well the Tellus airborne EM data Dr. Ulrich BEng / BSc 2(i) or higher;

    geophysics data is able to detect landfilling activities which in turn may be Ofterdinger Geosciences, Environmental (Tellus) and other associated with harmful impacts on the subsurface environment. Engineering, Civil Engineering, independent Landfills with an abundance of conductive material or landfills Environmental Science or related detection methods in that leak conductive fluids/leachate plumes to groundwater may be subject; must be numerate & the identification of expected to display a discernible airborne EM response. The familiar with IT; interest and landfilling activities. project will first review the existing work in this field to illustrate experience in Geophysics,

    the expected limitation of the method. Tellus data for the greater GIS/Remote Sensing, Contaminated

    Belfast Area will then be examined together with other lines of Land adventageous

    evidence with regard to landfilling activities (eg. Satellite

    Imagery, Digital Elevation Models) as well as hydrochemical data.

    Combined with an assessment of groundwater vulnerability, the

    project will then evaluate potential hazardous risk areas with

    regard to potential impact on groundwater resources.

    An assessment of In the past few years, the ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals Dr. Ulrich BEng / BSc 2(i) or higher;

    Micro-Pollutant and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine-disrupting Ofterdinger Hydrogeology, Geosciences, Impact such as chemicals (EDCs), and their respective metabolites in the urban Environmental Engineering, endocrine disrupting aquatic environment has become a subject of growing concern. Environmental Science or related compounds on These low concentrated but potentially harmful organic micro-subject; must be numerate & Groundwater within pollutants mainly enter the environment through discharges to the familiar with IT; interest and the Belfast domestic sewer system. A wide range of substances are not experience hydrochemistry Metropolitan Area. readily removed during wastewater treatment and thus residuals advantageous

     have been found in receiving waters. Furthermore, leaky sewer or

    septic systems are another important source of micropollutants in

    urban groundwater. The project will investigate the presence of

    selected PPCPs and EDCs in groundwater within the Belfast

    Metropolitan Area, assessing transport pathways and potential

    attenuation processes. As part of the project the hydrochemical

    composition and environmental isotope signatures in groundwater

    will be investigated as indicators for compound fate and transport.

    Removal of Constructed wetlands are increasingly being used to treat storm Dr Debra Phillips BSc / BEng 2(i) or higher in Phosphorus and Co-and wastewater. Metals, N, P, trace organics, compounds with Dr Lisa Connolly Environmental Sciences, contaminants from high biological oxygen demand (i.e. milk), total suspended solids, Environmental Engineering, Constructed and pathogens are remediated through one or more processes of Chemistry, Chemical Wetland Effluent microbial respiration, chemical transformation, uptake by plants, Engineering, Geosciences or sedimentation, and adsorption as the contaminated water moves related subject; must have through shallow treatment cells/ponds populated with water

    experience and interest in tolerant plants (i.e. reeds) and comes in contact with roots, soil Chemistry; experience in particles and microbes in the substrate root zone. However, some remediation would be mechanisms on how constructed wetlands remove certain advantageous. contaminants are still unclear and some persistent contaminants

    are able to escape the wetlands system at levels higher than

    guidelines permit and at levels that can impact the ecology of the

    surrounding area. The main objective of this project will be to

    examine a number of materials that could be used to remove P and

    co-contaminants from constructed wetland effluent, and possibly

    within the wetland system, at the Greenmount Agricultural

    campus in Northern Ireland. This constructed wetland system is

    primarily used to treat dairy wastewater. A selection of reactive

    and sorptive materials will be examined at bench scale and best

    performers will be tested at field scale to determine their

    efficiencies in removing P and co-contaminants from the water.

    Co-contaminants in the form of endocrine disruptors (EDs), such

    as pesticides, will also be of particular interest. The efficiency of

    the reactive/sorptive materials to remove EDs from the water

    effluent will be measured using reporter gene assays (RGAs) to

    detect low levels of these compounds. Few studies have examined

    the removal of EDs from contaminated water using

    reactive/sorptive media. This study will further the knowledge of

    sustainable remediation technologies, especially in the areas of

    reactive/ sorptive media, constructed wetlands and permeable

    reactive barriers (PRBs). Investigation of the Water plays a major role in the functioning of the ecosystem. It Dr Luc Rock 1st class or 2.1 degree in

    Oxygen and provides a media for the transport of essential nutrients, but also Dr Ulrich Ofterdinger hydro(geo)logy, environmental

    Hydrogen isotopic for contaminants within the environment. To address water quality science, earth sciences or related

    composition and quantity problems, one needs to understand the origin and fate field.

    ofprecipitation of water within the aquatic ecosystem. A powerful tool to study DEL* eligibility criteria apply

    across the island of the water cycle is the use of stable isotope techniques. The (UK/EU students only).

    Ireland primary aim of this project is to undertake a comprehensive study of the isotopic composition of precipitation across the island of

    Ireland. The study of surface water and groundwater dynamics

    commonly involves the use of precipitation data. Very limited

    information exists with regards to the isotopic composition of

    precipitation across Ireland. Currently, detailed data on the

    isotopic composition of precipitation are only available from a

    single station located in the south-west of Ireland. Hence, there is

    a need for further sampling and analysis of precipitation across the

    island to assess potential differences in the isotopic composition of

    precipitation. Identifying possible variations in the isotopic

    composition of precipitation across Ireland will help to further the

    understanding of water dynamics on the island. Data from this

    project will not only be relevant to hyrdo(geo)logical studies, they

    also form essential background data for food authenticity and

    traceability studies. This project will enable a better understanding

    of the potential uses and limitations of the isotopic composition of

    water as a tracer on the island of Ireland. The student will receive

    extensive training in hydro(geo)logy and stable isotope


    Improved food The safety and quality of food are major concerns in today’s Dr Luc Rock Dr 1st class or 2.1 degree in food

    traceability and society. Consumers, producers, and governments want to ensure Gerard Downey science, chemistry, biology,

    authenticity through that the food being produced, traded and consumed is of the Professor Chris biochemistry, or related field.

    the combined use of highest quality, and free from fraud. Food mis-labelling leads to Elliott DEL* eligibility criteria apply

    spectroscopic and mistrust in the food supply chain. Consumers lose confidence in (EU/UK students only)

    isotopic techniques the quality of the food they purchase, producers may face

    economic challenges or even gain unfair economic advantages and

    governments are faced with reassuring the public and safeguarding

    the local economy. For these reasons, it is important to have a

    system in place that ensures food authenticity and traceability.

    Analytical techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy (IR) and

    isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), have been used to

    address these issues in a variety of food commodities, such as

    dairy and animal products, olive oils, or wines, in order to

    establish, for instance, whether a product has been produced

    locally or whether it originated from another country. Several

    unresolved questions still remain with regard to tracing and

    authenticating a food product, such as differentiating conventional

    versus organic production systems. Also, improvements in current

    analytical techniques and development of new analytical methods

    are needed to enable a wider application of these techniques in the

    food sector. This project aims at looking at both the IR and IRMS

    techniques in order to provide new improved protocols for

    addressing food authenticity and traceability issues, and to ensure

    reliability of the results. The student will receive extensive

    training in isotopic and spectroscopic techniques together with

    multivariate mathematical analysis (chemometrics). Part of the

    training and research will be conducted at Ashtown Food Research

    Centre, Teagasc, Ashtown, Dublin 15.

    Optimisation of Various methods have been adopted over the years for the Dr V Sivakumar BEng (First class) Civil Engineering

    column installation installation of the granular material into soft clay deposits. Of

    sequence and these methods, the bottom-feed vibro-replacement system is

    installation effects becoming popular among the contractors. In soft sub-soil

    conditions, this method of installing the columns can lead to

    significant disturbance in the surrounding clay as well as of

    columns already installed. This can lead to reduced overall

    performance of the treated ground.

    Columns are usually installed in groups under the strip or pad

    footing and the number of columns varies depending on the

    footing size. For example, 4 or 5 columns can be located under a

    moderate size pad footing. It is not economically viable to install

    the columns simultaneously and therefore columns are installed in

    sequence. There is little or no academic study relates to the

    optimization of installation sequence, and the effects of

    installation thus it forms the basis of the proposed research. Lateral stresses in When the soil is saturated and in its natural state, the lateral Dr V Sivakumar BEng (First class) Civil Engineering

    compacted clays pressures resulting from it are well understood. However the

     situation is much less clear when the retained soil is artificially

    placed (for example, through compaction). Compacted fills are

    unsaturated, with a combination of air and water in their void

    spaces. The behaviour of the fill when it transitions to a saturated

    state during its working life is complex and can significantly alter

    the stress regime in the fill material. Further complexity arises

    from wetting and drying cycles instigated by environmental

    changes. The lack of a clear understanding of lateral stresses in

    compacted soils and the absence of clear guidance for the

    geotechnical designer on this design parameter has lead to the

    genesis of this research. The research builds on the success of

    recent advancements in the understanding of unsaturated soils and

    will have practical implications in dealing with compacted clays as

    fill material in many geotechnical structures. Evaluation of Conventional reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants are Prof. Trevor

    reverse osmosis designed to operate at constant feed pressure and flow to Whittaker, Dr Matt

    membranes for maximise the performance and life of the reverse osmosis Folley

    wave-powered membranes. Whilst feeding a RO plant with water pressurised

    desalination directly by a wave energy converter reduces the capital cost and

    increases efficiency of the energy transfer it means that the RO

    membranes will experience a variable feed pressure and flow.

    Whilst some energy storage can be included in the system to

    reduce fluctuations in the feed water, an economic optimum exists

    that balances the increased RO plant performance and life with the

    additional cost of energy storage. The information to perform this

    optimisation does not currently exist. The project involves

    collecting data on the performance and life of RO membranes

    subjected to flows typical for the output from a wave energy

    converter and developing associated numerical models. These

    models will then be used to develop parametric representations of

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