Bulletin Env

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Bulletin Env

    thThe Islamic Republic of Iran would host the 6th The 5 Meeting of the ECO

    Meeting of the Working Group on Environment Working Group on Environment

    in 2009. Turkmenistan offered to host a (22-23 May 2008, Baku-Azerbaijan) Meeting on Alien Species in 2010.

     The 5th Meeting of the ECO Working Group on Environment was held in Baku on 22-23 May stThe 1 Expert Group Meeting on 2008. It reviewed progress on the Plan of Ecotourism Action on Environment in the light of the (1-3 December, 2008, Ankara, Turkey) decisions of the 3rd Ministerial Meeting on Environment (Almaty, June 2006). In addition, Iran’s Proposal for Development and

    Harmonization of Environmental Standards, progress on establishment of an Email Group for Exchange of Environmental Information, and establishment of Institute of Environmental Science and Technology for ECO Region came under discussion. It considered the Green Industry Award, Conservation of Biodiversity, Watershed Rehabilitation, Ecotourism as well as Calendar of Events for 2008-2009. The meeting, inter alia, considered the follow-up of

    The 1st Expert Group Meeting on Ecotourism implementation of the decisions of the 3rd ECO

    was held in Ankara on 1 3 December 2008. It Ministerial Meeting on Environment. It also

    reviewed follow-up action on the 1st Task deliberated on the issue of ECO Bulletin on

    Force Meeting on Ecotourism (Tehran, Environment. It was agreed that the bulletin be

    December 16-17, 2007). The Iranian delegation published twice a year in order to achieve

    explained that the draft Convention on quality of contents.

    Sustainable Nature-Based Tourism in the ECO

    Region had been prepared, as per decision of Pakistan offered to host the 4th Ministerial

    the 1st Task Force Meeting. It would be Meeting on Environment in Islamabad in April

    circulated to member states, after necessary 2008. It would be preceded by a Senior

    vetting by legal authorities, shortly. Officials Meeting.

    The meeting finalized and adopted the Plan of Ecotourism Action on Cooperation in the field of

    Ecotourism has become an important economic Ecotourism (2009-2013). It had been prepared

    activity in natural areas around the world. It by the Republic of Turkey, as per decision of

    provides opportunities for visitors to witness the the First Task Force Meeting in Tehran. A

    powerful manifestations of nature and culture Coordinating Country would be designated to

    and learn about the importance of conservation pursue speedy implementation of the Action

    of biodiversity and local cultures. At the same Plan in cooperation with all member states. The

    time, ecotourism generates income for site latter would convey their willingness to the

    conservation. It creates economic benefits for Secretariat, within two months, to act as a

    people living in rural and remote areas. Coordinating Country

Ecotourism is responsible travel to natural The meeting approved the outline proposed by

    areas that conserves the environment and Iran for provision of information to establish a

    sustains the well being of local people. data-base in Ecotourism. The Meeting also

     agreed to Iran’s proposal that international

    In order to make ecotourism successful, there agencies be approached to arrange funding the

    is need for a greater understanding of data-base. opportunities and challenges. Also, those responsible for implementation should be fully

    conversant with management mechanisms

    necessary to ensure sustainability. Given the

    global trends and growing importance of

    ecotourism, the action plan and activities

    outlined therein must aim at a set of realistic

    goals. These may include:

    i. Building a regional network of

    ecotourism professionals and

    practitioners to plan and manage

    operations in a coordinated manner.

    ii. Enhancing capacity through workshops It was noted that cooperation in the field of and seminars which addresses ecotourism needed further discussion and the practical issues of interest to 2nd Expert Group meeting on Ecotourism be stakeholders. The participants may held for that purpose. Date and venue of the include lodge and tour company meeting would be worked out in consultation owners, NGOs, parks and protected with the member states. area officials, academics, host

     communities and local people.

     iii. Bringing together national and regional

    ecotourism associations to strengthen their collective voice, identify common ACTION PLAN ON issues and build a strong regional COOPERATION AMONG ECO movement for ecotourism. COUNTRIES IN THE FIELD OF

    iv. Assessing the region's performance in ECOLOGICAL TOURISM ecotourism over the past one decade (ECOTOURISM) and to come up with idea to overcome (2009-2013) challenges and achieve more.

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 2


    Duration Responsible No Actions 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 countries

    Setting up Coordination and Regional Development

    Appoint focal points Each ECO Country 1

    Support coordination by focal ECO Secretariat 2


    Create an Ecotourism Advisory ECO Secretariat 3

    Services Network

    Strengthen and Replicate All Member 4

    Ecotourism Development Countries

    Program in Protected Areas, other

    attractive natural areas in the

    ECO region

    Incorporate Ecotourism Strategies All Member 5

    in Tourism, Biodiversity Countries

    Conservation and Nature

    Conservation Strategies for each

    member country.

    Preparation and finalization of the IRAN /ECO 6

    Draft ECO Ecotourism

    Convention (to be prepared by


    Adoption of the Draft Eco All Member 7

    Tourism Convention Countries, Second


    Developing Ecotourism Strategy for ECO Region

    8 Identify strategic planning Coordinating

    process for ECO Region Country/other

    Member States

    9 Situation analysis and

    identification of a vision and

    mission for ECO Region (with a

    regional workshop and training


    10 Strategic objectives and priority


    11 Develop draft ecotourism strategy Coordinating for the ECO Region (Second Country/other

    EGM Meeting) (Attach 1 .discussion Member States paper for the preparation of the strategy)

    Database studies and Information management

    12 Develop a framework for Iran/ECO

    inventory of ecotourism values Secretariat

    Attach 2 .discussion papers for


    13 Gathering ecotourism data for

    databank from each ECO


    14 Create an Ecotourism “Best ECO Secretariat

    Practices” Internet Portal

    15 Develop a Digital Library of ECO Secretariat

    Ecotourism Media Resources

    16 Use ECO Web page to exchange ECO Secretariat


    Capacity Building, Awareness and Training

    17 Develop ECO Region Ecotourism Coordinating

    Development Training Program Country/other

    Member States

    18 Develop and adapt host customer Coordinating

    service program to ECO Region Country/other

    Member States

    19 Create an Ecotourism Guide ECO Secretariat /

    Certificate Coordinating

    Country and other

    Member States

    20 Develop an Ecotourism ECO Secretariat/

    Interpretation Design and Coordinating

    Implantation of Training Country and other

    Programs at the regional level Member States

    21 Coordinating Design and publish an

    Country / other ecotourism catalogue that will

    Member States include ecotourism values,

    opportunities and

    implementation of principles

    for the region

    Marketing and Promotion

    22 Coordinating Develop an Ecotourism

    Country product design and

    implementation strategies

    23 Coordinating Identify ecotourism products to

    Country be potentially developed and

    influence types of visitors


    24 Best practice examples Product Development

    25 Create “Ecotourism-Naturally

    EVO Region” Awards

    26 Promote Community Events

    and Traditional Celebrations

    27 Develop Ecolodge


    Monitoring and Evaluation

    28 Develop a framework to assess Coordination

    the environmental, economic Country

    and cultural impacts of

    proposals for ecotourism


    29 Developing a framework to Coordination

    survey and analyze ecotourism Country

    markets and visitors needs,

    expectations and feedback

    30 Create an Ecotourism

    Volunteer Program

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 4




    1. Why we need a strategy for ecotourism implementation?

    2. Objectives and goals for Strategy

    3. Preparation process



    2.1. Protected Areas

    2.2. Legal Context

    2.3. Stakeholders' Analyses

    2.4. Ecotourism Infrastructure and Facilities

    2.4.1. Infrastructure and Facilities for Training and Awareness for Visitors

    2.4.2. Infrastructure and Facilities for Eco lodge 3. ECOTOURISM CONDITION (STRENGTH WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES -THREATS



    4.1. Protection of Biodiversity and Natural-Cultural and Historical Values

    4.1.1. Developing and Preparing of Ecotourism Plans for Selected Areas

    4.1.2. Volunteering and Probationership Program

    4.1.3. Local Guides

    4.1.4. Local Pensions

    4.1.5. Visitor Infrastructures and Facilities.

    4.1.6. Handicraft, Traditional Cuisine, etc. (Folklore)

    4.2. Financial Sustainability and Managerial Dimension of Ecotourism

    4.2.1. Managerial Structure-Organized Models

    4.2.2. Mechanism for Financial Sustainability

    4.2.3. Labeling for Local Products/Certification

    4.3. Awareness and Capacity Building Programs for Ecotourism

    4.3.1. Country Level

    4.3.2. ECO Region Level



Inventory of Ecotourism Attractions

    A detailed inventory is crucial for managing the tourism in the natural areas. This inventory

    must be as complete and detailed as possible, but it should not be considered as an

    exhaustive, scientific list of all the species of plants and animals that the area contains, or as

    complete catalogue of historic buildings or other cultural artifacts in the case of an

    archaeological site. The inventory should instead be seen as a description of those features of

    the natural area that constitute the main attractions to visitors. Attractions in natural areas

    may be divided into two main categories: core attractions (which always refer to the main

    natural and/or cultural features that are protected within it) and “supporting” attractions

    (which are of a secondary nature and include physical infrastructure and facilities for

    visitors). The language used in preparing inventories should not be very technical and scientific.

    ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 5

    The following checklist should prove useful when preparing an inventory of ecotourism

    attractions for a natural area.

    1. Name and category of the site

    2. Geographical location

    3. Extent of the parks or area (surface in hectares)

    4. Means of access and entry points

    5. Internal circulations

     Vehicular roads and parking areas

     pedestrian walks, paths and trails

     Equestrian trails

     Bicycle or off-road vehicles

     Water routes

    6. Brief description of overall visual resources

     Basic terrain variety; topography, slopes, flat etc.

     Variety of geomorphologic features; jagged peaks, rounded hills, snow-capped

     mountains, cliffs,

     canyons, ravines, glaciers, caves, etc.

     Variety of hydrological features; sea, rivers, beaches, lakes, lagoons, reservoirs,

     waterfalls, springs,

     geysers, etc.

     Variety of vegetation patterns; highly or moderately varied, practically uniform

     Effects of land uses (lack of presence of discordant visual elements; buildings, utility

     lines, deforested

     areas, highways, etc.)

    7. Climate patterns


     Precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail, etc.)

     Winds (speed, direction)


     Air pressure


    8. Comfort indexes; hot, warm, fresh, cool, cold, extremely cold, humid, dry (for

    different seasons)

    9. Natural attractions

     Geological/geomorphologic features

     Mountains and volcanoes

     Inter-mountain valleys, basins, or plains

     Canyons (ravines, gorges, etc.)

     Cliffs (falaises, basaltic columns, bluffs, etc.)

     Boulders, balancing rocks, etc.

     Caves, grottoes, cenotes, etc.

     Sand dunes, sandbanks, etc.



     Coral reefs, keys, cays

     Capes, peninsulas, points

     Bays, inlets, coves, straits, etc.

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 6


     Hydrological resources

     Ocean waters

     Rivers, streams, underwater currents, glaciers, icebergs, etc.

     Lakes, ponds, reservoirs, cenotes, oasis, etc.

     Estuarine waters (freshwater, brackish, coastal lagoons, wetland, marismas, etc.)

     Springs (hot, cold, sulphurous, etc.)


     Biological resources


     Main vegetation types; rainforest, deciduous tropical forest, desert, coniferous forest,

     mixed temperate

     Forest, mangroves, chaparral, etc.

     Main species (most interesting, rarest, most beautiful, most characteristic of the area, etc.)

     Specific individual trees (with exact location)

     Fauna (species checklists, singling out target species)



     Reptiles and amphibians



    10. Cultural heritage attractions

    Archaeological features

    Local folklore; villages, architecture, dress, food, dance and music, handicrafts,

    traditions, ceremonies,


    Historical end architectural landmarks

    11. Support attractions and tourism physical facilities

    Interpretive facilities and services; visitor centre, nature trails, guide walks

    12. Cultural heritage attractions

    Source; Hector Ceballos-Lascurain, Tourism, Ecotourism and protected areas, IUCN,


    The Republic of Azerbaijan the solution of environmental problems in the


     Installation of System to Provide In Azerbaijan, water treatment plants, based on Ecologically Clean Portable Water the state-of-the art US technology have been For The Residents of Areas Using installed in villages facing shortage of potable Kura And Araz River Waters water. To solve the local environmental

     problems wells have been dug in the entire In 2006 President Ilham Aliyev was nominated rural area to ensure water supply for every for the highest award of internationally family. The areas surrounding treatment plants recognized Mihail Zukkov Fund for his services and wells have been turned into green areas by in the field of environment protection. The planting trees and flowers. The work for supply President, who pays close attention to of potable water for rural residents, according environment protection, attributed the award to

    ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 7

to international standards, continues apace.

    The plan would be completed by 2010.

     Ozone Layer Protection Unit The President of Azerbaijan has issued a The Islamic Republic of Iran decree on "Measures for Ensuring As a party to the Montreal Protocol, Iran has Environmentally Clean Water Supply for played an active role in the global effort for Residents". It means environmentally clean protection of the fragile Ozone Layer since water supply for settlements using Kura Araz 1990. Implementation of the phase-out River as a source of potable water. activities, started in 1993, has so far lead to complete phase-out of about 6.4 thousand As a result of the implementation of the decree tones of ODP1, CFCs, solvents and methyl water supplied to villages facing shortage of bromide from the identified ODS consuming quality potable water will be treated in sectors. This means that near 90 percent of the accordance with the WHO standards. Modular total ODS consumption by different sectors in water treatment plants are being installed for the country has been substituted by ozone that purpose. friendly alternatives through application of appropriate technologies. Thus far, Iran is in More than 55 thousand people, in 8 areas and complete compliance with its commitments to 50 settlements have been supplied with quality the Montreal Protocol. Regulatory measures potable water. have been taken in line with the physical phase-out activities. Import of ODS into the The water treatment plants use equipments country has been under strict control through produced in Italy, USA, Germany and Belgium. enforcement of an established ODS Import/Export Licensing since 2002. In order to The Caspian Sea environment ensure the sustainability of ODS phase-out protection system activities in Iran, a National Ozone Monitoring

     Network has been established and made The decree on "Measures to Protect the operational since 2006. Further phase-out Caspian Sea from Contamination" plays a key programmes have been developed and being role in preventing wastewater discharge into implemented to phase-out the remaining Caspian Sea. The ecological conditions of consumption of CFCs in the manufacturing of Baku bay, Bibi Aybat area and H. Aliyev Metered Dose Inhalers (MDI). All the above International Airport area have been improved. activities are supported by the institutional Also the situation around lakes of Apsheron strengthening, training and public awareness peninsula, oil contaminated lands and areas campaigns. contaminated by other industrial wastes have been ameliorated. It was all possible with the Following is a brief review of Iran's contribution improvement of the wastewater-management and achievements so far through the of Baku and Sumgait in implementation of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. The Presidential decree on improvement of outline is organized in two consecutive parts, ecological conditions in Azerbaijan Republic which reflects mainly an excerpt of the (2006-2010). information provided in the Country Programme

     Update in 2003 (CPU). Some modification is As part of implementation of this decree, applied to the content of the CPU to include modular treatment plants, with international recent events and convey more up-to-date specifications, were installed in Bilgah, information to the readers. The first part, which Buzovna, Mardakan, Pirshagi and Nardaran is provided hereafter in this topic, gives an settlements of Apsheron peninsular. overall picture of the status of the ratification,

     1 Ozone Depleting Potential

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 8

ODS consumption by sectors and the country's it leveled off at 2,445 tons in 19912.

    experience to institutionalize implementation of Implementation of the Montreal Protocol the Montreal Protocol. The second part will be activities in the country since 1993 resulted in continued through the next issues of the significant reduction in the consumption/import newsletter and will contain some information on of ODS into the country. the ODS phase out activities, regulatory control The I.R. of Iran uses Harmonized Classification measures and public awareness campaigns. system of customs codification for imported The overview will be concluded with some chemicals since 2002. Under the ODS import further information on the status of compliance quota system, all ODS users who have permits and a look at the future of the Montreal to operate, are currently permitted to import Protocol activities in Iran from a sustainability their ODS requirements subject to specified perspective. It is hoped the information restricting regulations. provided in this short introductory overview will

    ODS consumption in the refrigeration and foam draw the interest of the readers.

    sectors was very high in 1991. Therefore,

    these two sectors were addressed on priority Status of ratification:

    basis to achieve ODS phase-out. In 2007 I.R. Iran ratified the Vienna Convention for the consumption of CFCs in these sectors became Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal negligible. Protocol on the Substances that Deplete the

     Ozone Layer in October 1990. Iran is among

    the pioneers of the ratification of the four amendments to the Montreal Protocol Of the

    Supporting Iran and some ECO four amendments, London and Copenhagen

    amendments were ratified in August 1997 and member states on an the Montreal amendment was approved in intergovernmental Science-policy October 2001. The Beijing amendment is in its Platform on Biodiversity and final stage of ratification. By this, Iran has Ecosystem Services (IPBES) further committed to meet the obligations

     stipulated in the amendments. The focus of

    During the ad hoc Intergovernmental and Multi-London and Copenhagen amendments is on

    stakeholder meeting on Biodiversity and the scheduled phase-out of the solvents i.e.

    Ecosystem Services (IPBES), held in Carbon Tetra Chloride (CTC) and

    Putrigaya, Malaysia, 10-12 November 2008, Trichloroethane (TCA) and on control of the

    Islamic Republic of Iran supported the gap production of Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons

    analysis proposal as an independent study to (HCFCs). Montreal Amendment urges the

    be considered by the UNEP Governing Council parties to establish and enforce their import

    as well as all biodiversity related Conventions. and export Licensing System (LS) with focus on

    The UNEP was requested to report the the control of the illegal trade of the Ozone

    outcome of the meeting at the 25th session of Depleting Substances (ODS).

    the Governing Council or Global Ministerial

    Environment Forum to continue exploring ODS consumption:

    mechanisms to improve the sustainable The I. R. of Iran does not have any production development. It is was requested to undertake facility for ODS including Chlorofluorocarbons a preliminary gap analysis for discussions at (CFCs) and Halons. They are imported from the UNEP Governing Council. abroad for use in refrigerators, freezers; and foam blowers, as well as the service shops and UNEP is anticipated to convene a second repair centers. Between 1987 and 1990 intergovernmental multistakeholder meeting consumption of CFCs changed drastically, as it

    increased from 1,231 tons to 3,784 tons, before

ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 9

on IPBES to strengthen and improve the

    science-policy interface for biodiversity and

    ecosystem services for human wellbeing,

    including consideration of a new sciencepolicy The Islamic Republic of Pakistan platform for biodiversity related multilateral

    Development of Environmental environmental agreements. I. Joint Efforts for Conservation of Trans-

    Activities in Pakistan boundary Wetlands and Water Bodies Iran proposed a declaration on "World The two World Heritage sites of Pakistan, are Network of Biosphere Reserves" additional Moenjodaro in Sindh, and the Buddhist site of wording and their management to UNESCO Takht-i-Bhai in the Frontier Province. Pakistan Draft Resolution: has been the cradle of Indus Valley Civilization which flourished in the areas that now Islamic Republic of Iran proposed as follows: constitute Pakistan and Iran. The Buddhist Full text of the proposal: Monuments were built in Pakistan, Afghanistan

    and other neighboring countries. Given these In accordance with article 5 of the medium-term

    inter-cultural links, cooperation between these strategy 34 C/4 UNESCO, focused on

    countries is of great importance. Pakistan response to the needs of indigenous

    welcomes mutual cooperation with these population.

    countries in the preservation of cultural heritage. Also in accordance with article 8 of the same It is particularly important to agree to protect strategy support for national resources, wetlands, habitats of migratory birds/waterfowl protection of the environment and building of and other fauna and to conserve wildlife knowledge societies and articles 45 and 51 habitats shared by neighboring countries. The UNESCO will assist member states for ECO member countries can jointly safeguard achieving poverty reduction and sustainable the rich variety of species and ecosystems, development and draw in its extensive list of including trans-boundary Wetlands and Water sites including biosphere reserves for global Bodies. This may be treated as a priority under monitoring of biodiversity loss and sustainable the Convention for the Protection of World development". Cultural & National Heritage (1972). The

    region's conservation efforts have to be paced Based on the above mentioned articles,

    up and measure taken to protect biodiversity-sustainable and appropriate management of

    rich sites in the member states. biosphere reserve is in line with the goals and

     objectives of UNESCO strategy.

    II. Preservation and Management of Water Unfortunately to date the management of Resources: biosphere reserves, especially in developing countries, has not met the expectations mainly Pakistan Wetland Programme (PWP) is an due to insufficient knowledge of site managers initiative of the Federal Ministry of Environment. on co-management and lack of cooperation It is being implemented by the World Wide with local communities. Fund for Nature, WWF- Pakistan. The aim is to Therefore capacity building for site managers cover the entire country with in-depth scientific on community participation management for studies on all facets of wetlands in addition to efficient conservation is required. highlighting all aspects relating to wetlands

    education, conservation and management and In this regard, it is recommended to develop a to provide the most current and scientifically pilot project for some developing countries and sound information not just to Environment share the lessons learned with others. Conservationists and Biologists but more

     importantly, to policy-makers. The Pakistan

    Wetland Programme (PWP) is developing guidelines for minimum ecological flows in the

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 10

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