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Annex 7

By Chad Crawford,2014-05-07 17:03
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Annex 7

    Annex 7

Activities aiming at DRR in the context of the Hyogo Framework

    Governance and Institutional Development

    ? Participate in formulation of national policies that address DRR especially as

    they impact the mandates of the UNCT.

    ? Encourage the involvement of disaster risk management researchers, experts

    and technicians and members of national platforms within national (and

    possibly local) policy planning processes. In particular, it is important to

    consider that local specialists are endowed with more accurate knowledge

    about local needs, vulnerabilities and capacities.

    ? Provide support for national policies and where appropriate, regional policies;

    national and local interventions should be complemented by regional and

    global approaches to reduce the risk of disasters.

    ? Provide support for the incorporation of these policies in sectoral plans. ? Ensure that disaster risk reduction does not become an isolated chapter in the

    UNDAF as a separate sector but is integrated across sectors. ? If the country is particularly disaster risk-prone, encourage the establishment

    of a disaster management agency that coordinates all national public and

    private actors including any stakeholders involved in disaster management

    interventions. Furthermore, the agency should facilitate cooperation between

    these actors and the international bilateral and multilateral agencies

    intervening in the process.

    ? Increase awareness at the policy level (local, national, regional and

    international) of the importance of tackling employment and social challenges

    while facing crisis issues, through mainstreaming.

    ? Promote social equity and poverty alleviation; poor people are generally also

    the most exposed to disaster risk and the most affected by crisis. ? Promote a process of social dialogue that involves different yet relevant

    stakeholders, who represent the public as well as the private sector and

    including the informal sector and the most disadvantaged groups. ? Facilitate access to social safety nets, health, knowledge, education and

    vocational training for vulnerable groups.

    ? Monitor risks and weaknesses of the planning and implementation phases of

    disaster risk reduction interventions.

    ? Propose possible countermeasures to reduce risks and weaknesses accordingly. ? Support the development of monitoring systems to verify and evaluate the

    performance and the process of policy execution.

    Legislative and regulatory frameworks

Natural hazardprone countries need to be prepared to undertake operationally

    preventive measures and to respond effectively to disasters that may occur. To that

    end, local and national governments should design and apply regulatory frameworks

    that insure a safer environment, reduce structural vulnerabilities and guide socio-

    economic-agents’ behaviours towards risk reduction and disaster prevention.

    The UNCT should undertake a number of actions aimed at supporting local and

    national authorities in strengthening and applying adequate legal and regulatory

    frameworks. Key issues and areas for possible intervention are outlined as follows:

    ? Support the development, enactment or modification of legislation to support

    disaster risk management;

    ? Participate in the establishment of the national disaster reduction strategy on a

    sound legislative basis, that is fully integrated into and consistent with other

    national laws and regulations;

    ? Ensure that the legislative framework concretely guarantees the citizen’s rights

    to security and protection from hazards;

    ? Ensure that the reformed legislative framework take into account and properly

    address local contexts, needs and vulnerabilities, such as: geographic isolation

    of some communities; socio-economic vulnerability of specific groups; social

    marginalisation; different distribution of disaster risk on the national territory

    (on the basis of accurate risk maps);

    ? Ensure that there are mechanisms in place for guaranteeing inspection on the

    application and respect of the law;

    ? Ensure that the legal framework clearly states institutional roles and

    responsibilities in terms of application of law and inspection, through the

    coordination of national and local level institutions;

    ? Ensure that the legal frameworks provide incentives (e.g. for enterprises) for

    encouraging the adoption of socially responsible behaviours in terms of risk

    reduction;

    ? Supporting widespread consultation about proposed legal reforms as well as

    the broader ownership of change;

    ? Support the strengthening of linkages and collaboration between legislators

    and implementing authorities;

    ? Ensure that there is a clear definition of roles and responsibilities in

    enforcement of legislation;

    ? Ensure that there are mechanisms in place for compliance with laws and

    regulations.

Capacity building for disaster risk management:

    The development of core disaster-management capacities at the local, national and

    international levels is a precondition to the improvement of prevention and response

    mechanisms. It is essential that human and institutional resources are adequately

    trained to reduce disaster risks. In this regard, expertise should cover the disaster risk

    reduction phase as well as the crisis-response and recovery stages.

The development of core disaster-management capacities could include:

    ? Support for promoting regional and international cooperation to assess and

    monitor regional and trans-boundary hazards;

    ? Promote capacity building programmes for the utilisation of the existing

    disaster-related rapid impact and needs assessment guidelines; ensure that

    these consolidate the involved UN agencies’ concerns and mandates;

    ? Involvement in assessing the institutional capacity to implement national

    policies;

    ? Support for strengthening human resource capacity for implementing

    programmes and plans that mainstream DRR into national frameworks;

    ? Support for determination of national capacity to evaluate risk within the

    context of previously defined risk scenarios;

    ? Support for building capacity with regards to decision-making on acceptable

    levels of risks;

    ? Support for strengthening local capacities to implement disaster management

    and risk reduction interventions (provision of training packages and

    knowledge tools for strengthening prevention, preparedness and response

    practices);

    ? Promote capacity building initiatives at the community level, by involving the

    civil society and the public and private sectors (including business

    development services, if any), in order to:

    ? Sensitise socio-economic actors (including vulnerable groups and

    those working in the informal sector) about the possible implications of

    their socio-economic behaviours on risk construction;

    ? Empower them to protect themselves and their properties from disaster

    risk and impact, and guide them towards risk-sensitive behaviour.

    Knowledge management, innovation and education to build a culture of safety

    and resilience at all levels

    Those individuals and socio-economic actors that are particularly vulnerable to risk

    and disaster’s occurrences, need to be sensitised, informed and trained about the

    causes and consequences of natural hazards and disasters. In this way, it will be

    possible to reduce and to avoid risky behaviours and to put into force preventive

    measures while performing usual economic activities. These measures include:

    ? Understanding and mapping of relevant actors at the national and local levels;

    it is recommended to fully exploit available resources, especially in terms of

    knowledge and knowledge providers, and to avoid duplication of efforts; ? Support the stocktaking and dissemination of relevant lessons learnt and best

    practices related to disaster management (at the global, regional and national

    level);

    ? Assist in the development and strengthening of regional networks to support

    South-to-South and North-to-South cooperation and knowledge and expertise

    sharingregional networks and disaster management centres should

    participate as source of knowledge, experience, best practices and lessons

    learnt;

    ? Contribute to the establishment of a well operated communication system and

    of knowledge-sharing networks that connect relevant actors of the private and

    public sector;

    ? Support the dissemination of basic information on disaster risks and protection

    options;

    ? Assist in strengthening networks among disaster experts; ? According to their mandate, promote and facilitate dialogue and cooperation

    among scientific communities with a view to sharing knowledge; ? Support the implementation of local risk assessment and disaster preparedness

    programmes in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions of learning; ? Support the development of training and learning programmes and modules on

    DRR;

    ? Promote the engagement of the media in order to stimulate a culture of

    disaster resilience and strong community involvement in DRR; ? Ensure that information and warnings reach communities and, particularly,

    vulnerable groups; mass media and information channels should fit

    communities’ resources and capabilities;

    ? Support for research on the development of technologies to anticipate

    disasters;

    ? Support for development of appropriate infrastructure for institutions involved

    in scientific, technological and technical applications needed for research,

    analysis and mapping of hazards;

    ? Promote the analysis of the possible implications on disaster risk management

    due to the cultural conflict between science-based knowledge and traditional

    knowledge systems developed by communities, including adaptive behaviour

    forms;

    ? Encourage the incorporation, when possible and opportune, of critical and

    effective community-based knowledge.

Strengthening early warning systems

    Measures to strengthen early warning systems include:

    ? Support the development of early warning systems that are people centred;

    ? Promote the establishment of institutional capacities to ensure that early

    warning systems are well integrated into governmental policy;

    ? Commitment to the establishment of emergency funds for impending

    disasters;

    ? Through its wide international network, support the acquisition of appropriate

    equipment to detect disasters;

    ? Assist in establishing communication with regional institutions and

    organisations that possess early warning capacity;

    ? Support the strengthening of technical and institutional capacities in regional,

    national and local disaster management institutions;

    ? Support the preparation and review of disaster preparedness and contingency

    plans;

    ? Contribute to facilitate the timely as well as widespread access to warnings. In addition to adopting advanced technologies and science-based facilities and

    knowledge, there is also a need to acknowledge and disseminate the traditional

    knowledge on disaster risk reduction of indigenous communities. In doing so, it is

    important to recognise that geographical isolation and marginalisation of indigenous

    communities impede or prevent them from having access to national early warning

    systems. Similarly, the cultural background of a community may represent a

    constraint to the credibility of scientific-based warning systems and, hence, to their

    adoption.

    These considerations reiterate the fact that access to warning and forecasting

    information on disasters needs to be viewed as a major concern in policy planning and

    implementation.

    After testing the accuracy and credibility of documented indigenous forecasting

    knowledge and after ascertaining the possibilities of extending their application, the

    traditional knowledge and related lessons could be incorporated within local early

    warning systems.

Reducing the underlying risk factors

    ? Encourage the sustainable use and management of ecosystems, including

    better land-use;

    ? Support the implementation of integrated environmental and natural resource

    management;

    ? Promote mechanisms for improving food security;

    ? Promote diversified income options for populations in high-risk areas to

    reduce their vulnerability to hazards;

    ? Promote the development of financial risk-sharing mechanisms;

    ? Promote the establishment of public-private partnerships to better engage the

    private sector in disaster risk reduction activities;

    ? Support the incorporation of disaster risk assessment into the urban planning

    and management of disaster prone human settlements, particular in highly

    populated areas and quickly urbanizing settlements;

    ? Support the incorporation of disaster risk assessment into rural development

    planning and management;

    ? Support the revision or development of new building codes, standards,

    rehabilitation and reconstruction practices;

    ? Champion the increased involvement of insurance companies in DRR

    programmes;

    ? Elaborate and adapt specific guidelines for impact and needs assessment to the

    local context-including an assessment of the impact on livelihoods and

    assessment of mid-term scenarios of the impact of disasters caused by

    vulnerability to natural hazards.

Strengthening disaster preparedness for effective response

    ? Support the preparation and review of disaster preparedness and contingency

    plans;

    ? Support the establishment of emergency funds.

The linkages between national goals or targets and UNDAF Country Programme

    Outcomes are elaborated within the Result Matrix together with resources

    requirements. An example of result matrices incorporating disaster risk reduction

    dimension into MDGs based UNDAF is provided in Annex IV.

    Annex V reflects a number of CCA/UNDAFs including DRR issues as specific outcome or as part of key outcomes (cross cutting) related to sustainable development.

Expected outcomes of the UNDAF:

    ? Agreement on a rights-based strategic and results-driven support of the United

    Nations system to country-led efforts to achieve national priorities and goals

    within the context of the MDGs and the commitments, goals and targets of the

    Millennium Declaration and international conferences, summits, conventions

    and human rights instruments of the UN system. This is a very broad area of

    support and would realise the development of strategies for mainstreaming

    DRR into policies, plans and programmes that focus on achievement of the

    MDGs as well as commitments under international conventions such as the

    UNFCCC, CBD and human rights conventions. It would include the legal and

    regulatory systems that need to be established to deliver on national

    commitments. As such the UN system could provide support in the drafting of

    legislation relevant to disaster risk reduction and the enforcement of

    regulations that relate to building codes for public as well as private structures

    taking into consideration the disaster risk reduction;

    ? Greater synergy and sharper focus of the programmes and projects supported

    by United Nations agencies, and increased opportunities for joint initiatives

    and joint programmes that utilise their comparative advantage. One of these

    could be in the area of reducing disaster risk through mainstreaming risk

    reduction into the programmes of the UNCT by clearly defining the

    operational parameters for disaster risk reduction in each of the UN agencies

    so that the initiatives complement one another.

    ? Integration of governance issues into development cooperation especially as

    they affect DRR initiatives. Inaction in relation to DRR strategies in many

    cases is a result of weak, ineffective and non-transparent governance

    structures. For example, politicians may use public funds indiscriminately,

    thereby compromising the durability of infrastructure and leaving very little

    for DRR strategies.

    ? Better disaster mitigation planning and preparedness strategies to address the

    risks from disasters caused by natural hazards and man-made crises. This

    would require the support of the UN system collectively but more specifically

    would require support in the establishment if a central co-ordinating body with

    responsibility for disaster preparedness. The UN system could also be

    effective in ensuring that communication between this central agency and all

    other relevant agencies is facilitated;

    ? A strategic framework that integrates gender equality and is embedded in a

    human rights-based approach to programming, implementation, monitoring

    and evaluation.

    ? The United Nations Agencies could provide support for DRR through the

    allocation of financial resources and mobilisation of additional resources

    including through strategic partnerships with other development partners.

    ? The UNDAF should also include a common plan and mechanism to monitor

    and evaluate the effectiveness of all of the strategies and measures for DRR

    that are expected to be implemented in the five-year period;

    ? UN agencies, together with their national counterparts and other partners,

    including beneficiaries, could firstly seek support and technical guidance for

    the UNDAF from UN/ISDR and UNDP/BCPR/DRU prior to submitting this

    to their respective governing bodies.

Mobilisation and allocation of financial resources for mainstreaming DRR into

    the UNDAF

    The achievement of effective and sustainable disaster risk reduction practices and

    mechanisms requires the mobilisation of appropriate financial and human resources at

    the local and national levels. In particular, financial resources flows should be

    monitored and managed with a view to ensuring continuity and coherence with

    respect to disaster cycle needs.

    In order to ensure appropriate resource mobilisation and allocation of financial

    resources, UNCT could undertake the following measures:

    ? Advocate and provide incentives for the allocation of resources for the

    implementation of disaster risk reduction policies, programmes, laws and

    regulations in all relevant sectors of national and local administrative budgets.

    ? Help in identification of clear criteria for measuring the use and effectiveness

    of such resources; improve understanding of the costs and benefits of risk

    reduction alternatives and how to assess them.

    ? Advocate the prioritisation of disaster risk reduction in IFI’s development

    policies, and in particular, ensuring that hazard risk is taken fully into account

    in preparing country and regional assistance programmes and poverty

    reduction strategies.

    ? Develop and pilot alternative and creative financial strategies and instruments

    for managing disaster risk, including risk transfer and risk retention schemes.

    ? Identify and overcome political and institutional disincentives to investing in

    disaster risk reduction;

    ? Redress the bias towards short-term expenditure for emergency relief

    assistance following a disaster in favour of longer-term investment in

    development initiatives to reduce disaster vulnerability and risk.

Resource allocation schemes should be coherent with geographical distribution of risk

    profiles and vulnerabilities, by focusing on community-based needs assessments.

    Additional funding schemes that can be adopted in specific phases of the disaster

    cycle, and in particular contexts, are risk transfer and risk retention. They can be

    applied in order to transfer risk loss and distribute it more equally among the

    population, especially in the contexts of some populations facing low probability risk

    combined with high possible loss due to disasters.

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