• Background of the Civil Rights Movement
• Greensboro Sit-in (格林斯博罗静坐)
• On February 1, 1960, 4 freshmen from a black college in Greensboro, North Carolina (北
卡罗莱纳州), sat down at a department lunch counter and ordered coffee. When refused,
they continued to sit at the counter, openly defying the segregation law prevailing in the
• The next day, more students joined them. Thus began the civil rights movement ,which
spread from the south to the north.
• This quiet "sit-in" became the major nonviolent direct action tactics to be used by black
civil rights activists.
• The civil rights movement, and the youth anti-war, and the women's liberation
movements had long roots in United States history.
a social movement : a type of behavior in which a large number of participants consciously attempt to change existing institutions and establish a new order of life. Two basic characteristics of all social movements: "structure"(有组织)and "spontaneity"(自发性)
The Civil Rights Movement
The black students' sit-in at a department lunch counter in North Carolina touched off the nationwide civil rights movement.
During the first half of the decade, civil rights organizations like SNCC, CORE, and SCLC struggled for racial integration by providing leadership, tactics, network and the people. SNCC: the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
CORE : the Congress of Racial Equality
SCLC: the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
In the latter half of the decade, some black organizations changed their nonviolent tactics, and emphasized on more radical means to end discrimination and raised the self image of the blacks. The civil rights movement produced such great leaders as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X, who inspired a generation of both blacks and whites to devote their lives to fighting for racial equality in the U.S.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In December 1995, Rosa Parks, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus. Alabama law required that blacks sit at the back of the bus, and when asked, surrender their seats to whites.
Mrs. Parks was arrested.
Local black leaders decided to boycott the city's bus system.
Black people in the city spontaneously began to boycott the bus system refusing to ride on public
In the year long Montgomery bus boycott, blacks young and old, walked to work.
With the bus company near bankruptcy,
The aid of a 1956 Supreme Court decision, Montgomery blacks triumphed.
The boycott was believed to be the true.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
an Atlanta-born Baptist minister(浸礼会牧师)
the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference during the civil rights movement of
To promote his philosophy of nonviolent protest against segregation and other kinds of social injustice, King organized a series of "marches"
The March on Washington of August, 1963, when King delivered his famous "I have a Dream" speech.
As a civil rights leader, King worked not only to end racial discrimination (种族歧视) and poverty,
but also to raise the self image of the blacks.
Due to his strong belief in nonviolent peaceful protest, King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
He was assassinated in the city of Memphis(孟斐斯) in April 1968.
The Anti-War Movement (against the war in Vietnam)
On March 25 1967, civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. led 5,000 people down State Street in Chicago to protest the war in Viet Nam. This was the first anti-war march that Dr. King had joined, and one more step in his increasingly vocal opposition to the war. .