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Option A Human nutrition and health 15 hours

By Clara Watkins,2014-05-20 11:59
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A.1.7, Evaluate the health consequences of diets rich in the different types of fattyof human milk and artificial milk used for bottle-feeding babies.

Option A: Human nutrition and health

    (15 hours)

    A1 Components of the human diet 5 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes A.1.1 Define nutrient. 1 Nutrient: a chemical substance found in foods that is

    used in the human body. A.1.2 List the type of nutrients that are essential in 1 Essential nutrients are those that cannot be the human diet, including amino acids, fatty synthesized by the body. Carbohydrates are not acids, minerals, vitamins, water. included because in certain traditional human diets

    energy is obtained from other sources without ill

    effect.

    A.1.3 State that non-essential amino acids can be 1 synthesized in the body from other nutrients.

    A.1.4 Outline the consequences of protein deficiency 2 Protein deficiency is shortage of one or more essential malnutrition. amino acids. The consequences are lack of blood

    plasma proteins and subsequent tissue fluid retention, with swelling of the abdomen. Development of

    children is likely to be both mentally and physically

    retarded.

    Aim 8: Patterns of global malnutrition could be looked

    at, both over time and over geopolitical areas, using

    data downloaded from the Internet. A.1.5 Explain the causes and consequences of 3 The name of the gene and enzyme concerned are not phenylketonuria (PKU) and how early required. Limit the causes to a mutation of a gene for diagnosis and a special diet can reduce the an enzyme that converts the essential amino acids consequences phenylalanine to tyrosine. A.1.6 Outline the variation in the molecular structure 2 Include omega-3 fatty acids as an example. of fatty acids, including saturated fatty acids, cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids,

    monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty

    acids.

    A.1.7 Evaluate the health consequences of diets rich Aim 8: There are marked differences in the traditional 3 in the different types of fatty acid. diets of human societies around the world and also

    differences in the rates of coronary heart disease and

    other diseases that have been linked to diet. This is a

    chance to compare human societiesthe Maasai, for

    example, are a striking example of people with a low

    rate of heart disease.

    TOK: The distinction between correlation and cause

    could be made here and the need for carefully

    controlled experiments to test whether a correlation is

    due to a causal link.

    Epidemiological data could be examined and the

    problems in interpreting it discussed. The link between

    consumption of saturated fatty acids and coronary

    heart disease is not a simple correlation and genetic

    factors are also important. A.1.9 Outline two of the methods that have been 2 Include brief details of one method involving human used to determine the recommended daily subjects and another involving small mammals. intake of vitamin C. Aim 8: Some of the experiments used to determine

    necessary levels of vitamin consumption were done

    using conscientious objectors during the second world

    war. This raises ethical questions about trials in which

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    the experimental subjects could be harmed or suffer.

    TOK: Recommended intakes of nutrients have been

    published in some countries. The recommendations

    vary, and this raises questions about how the levels

    are decided by scientists or doctors. A2 Energy in human diets 4 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    A.2.1 Compare the energy content per 100 g of 3 Students should know that carbohydrates contain

    carbohydrate, fat and protein. approximately 1,760 kJ per 100 g, protein- 1,720 kJ

    per 100 g, and fats- 4,000 kJ per 100 g.

A.2.2 Compare the main dietary sources of energy 3 Include ethnic groups using rice, wheat, cassava,

    in different ethnic groups. maize, fish and meat as their staple energy source

    Aim 8: This is another opportunity to look at diversity

    in human societies.

    A.2.3 Explain the possible health consequences of 3 The consequences of an excess of each of the three

    dets rich in carbohydrates, fats and proteins. types of nutrient should be explained separately.

    Aim 8: Especially in the developed world, there are

    social issues relating to inappropriate diets, and highly

    effective marketing of unhealthy foods by profit-

    making companies.

    TOK: This is another case where correlation and

    cause need to be very carefully distinguished.

    Examples of bad advice based on flawed science can

    easily be found, with newspapers on an almost daily

    basis drawing conclusions based on loose correlation

    rather than on carefully controlled trials. A.2.4 Outline the function of the appetite control 2 Only a simple account is expected. Hormones are

    centre in the brain. produced by the pancreas and small intestine after

    eating and by adipose tissue in response to fat storage. These pass to an appetite control centre in

    the brain, which makes the person feel that they have

    eaten enough.

A.2.5 Calculate body mass index (BMI) from the 1 BMI = (mass in kg)/(height in m)

    body mass and height of a person. 2 A.2.6 Distinguish, using the body mass index, 2 BMI Status

    between being underweight, normal weight, below 18.5 underweight overweight and obese. 18.524.9 normal weight 25.029.9 overweight 30.0 and above obese

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes A.2.7 Outline the reasons for increasing rates of 2

    clinical obesity in some countries, including

    availability of cheap high-energy foods, large

    portion sizes, increasing use of vehicles for

    transport, a change from active to sedentary

    occupations.

    Aim 8: The social issues relating to this condition A.2.8 Outline the consequences of anorexia 2

    nervosa. need to be handled delicately, as it may affect

    students in the class, but discussion of them could

    prove very worthwhile. A3 Special issues in human nutrition 6 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes A.3.1 Distinguish between the composition of 2 Include lactose versus glucose, human milk protein human milk and artificial milk used for bottle-versus other proteins, differences in fatty acid feeding babies. composition, and lack of antibodies in artificial milk.

    Aim 8: There is an ethical issue involved here, as

    profit-making companies produce artificial milk. There

    are concerns that restrictions on the advertising of

    artificial milk in the developed world has led to a

    greater marketing of it in developing countries, with

    health consequences for these babies.

    Aim 8: The bonding between mother and child, and A.3.2 Discuss the benefits of breast-feeding. 3

    social attitudes to breastfeeding in public could be

    discussed.

    TOK: This is an example of the need for research

    findings to be passed on effectively from the scientific

    community to mothers worldwide. A.3.3 Outline the causes and symptoms of type II 2 Include differences in susceptibility between ethnic

    diabetes. groups.

    TOK: The nature of risk factors and the difficulties of

    making decisions about the relative influence of

    nature and nurture could be discussed.

    There are clear differences in susceptibility to type II

    diabetes, with some populations of Native Australians

    (Aboriginal Australians) and Maoris having higher

    rates of incidence. This could lead to a wider

    consideration and appreciation of the diversity in

    human societies combined with the need for parity of

    esteem.

A.3.4 Explain the dietary advice that should be 3

    given to a patient who has developed type II

    diabetes.

    A.3.5 Discuss the ethical issues concerning the 3

    eating of animal products, including honey,

    eggs, milk and meat.

    TOK: As with the earlier topic of fatty acids and A.3.6 Evaluate the benefits of reducing dietary 3

    cholesterol in lowering the risk of coronary disease, this is a topic where the distinction between

    heart disease. correlation and cause can be drawn.

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    A.3.7 Discuss the concept of food miles and the 3 Food miles are simply a measure of how far a food

    reasons for consumers choosing foods to item has been transported from its site of production

    minimize food miles. to its site of consumption. Transport of food causes air

    pollution, traffic congestion and greenhouse gas

    emissions. Transport of food also allows continuity of

    supply and increased choice for consumers.

    Aim7: Databases and spreadsheets could be used.

    Aim 8: A discussion of the conflicts between

    responsibility as global citizens and the right to exert

    personal freedoms might be appropriate.

    TOK: Some concepts or theories offer a new

    perspective, which can change our attitudes

    significantly. Here, food miles allow us to assess how

    much we, as individuals, are contributing to global

    warming by our selection of foods.

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