2008 Minnesota Undergraduate Tournament - Packet 7
Packet by Minnesota (Andrew Bockover, Sean Skaar, Robert Westcott) and Ryan Westbrook
Edited by Rob Carson, Andrew Hart, Gautam Kandlikar, and Charles Meigs
1. In one work by this man, a “Northerner” traveling through the desert is given a pair of rusty scissors with which to kill a caravan, while another work sees Rotpeter [ROTE-pay-ter] decide to cease being an ape. In addition to “Jackals and Arabs” and “Report to
an Academy”? this man wrote such short stories as “Josephine the Singer,” “The Judgement,” and “The Hunger Artist.” Unfinished
novels by him include one about a land surveyor assigned to work as a janitor by bureaucrats and. one featuring the artist Titorelli and the bank manager Josef K. For 10 points, identify this Czech author of The Trial, The Castle, and a work about Gregor Samsa,
2. This president appointed Joseph McKenna as his attorney general and William Day as Secretary of State, after the brief tenure of John Sherman in that office His wife Ida suffered from epilepsy, and during state dinners he would cover her face during seizures. He supported the Dingley Tariff after taking office by way of a campaign funded by Mark Hanna. Following the death of his first vice president Garrett A. Hobart, the position remained vacant for two years. For 10 points , name this Republican in power during saw the explosion of the USS Maine and much of the Spanish-American War, before being assassinated by Leon Czolgosz.
ANSWER: William McKinley
3. The sculptures Wave and The Age of Maturity were produced by this man’s student and lover Camille Claudel. Other works by
him include one in which a wounded soldier slumps against the shrieking winged spirit of war, The Call To Arms, and a highly criticized one which depicted an author wrapped in a robe, Honore de Balzac. Another work, inspired by Michelangelo’s Dying Slave, drew accusations that this man cast it from a living model. In addition to The Age of Bronze, he memorialized a siege of the Hundred Years’ War in The Burghers of Calais. For 10 points, identify this sculptor, whose never-used Gates of Hell were to have contained The Kiss and The Thinker.
ANSWER: Auguste Rodin [accept Camille Claudel before “this man”]
4. This figure had a daughter Historis who helped Alcmena deliver Heracles and a daughter Manto who came to wed Rhacius of
Caria. The son of the nymph Chariclo and the shepherd Everes, he died after drinking at the spring of Telphussa. In one story, he angers Hera by saying that women enjoy sex more than men, after he’d watched two snakes copulating with a stick, and spent
seven years transformed into a woman. As a shade in the underworld, he told Odysseus not to steal the cattle of Helios, and earlier he informed Oedipus that he had murdered his father. For 10 points, name this blind Greek prophet.
5. The Abi class proteins are known to inhibit this process by reducing the efficiency of plaquing, and expression of MYB results in transativation of RTA, which is a promoter of this process in KSHV. The expression of BGLF5 was implicated in inducing host
shutoff at the beginning of this process, which leads to reduced expression of antigen presenting complexes, which aids in evasion of T Cells. Its first stage involves penetration of the plasma membrane through receptors on its surface or mechanical force and its last stage liquid entering the cell until the cell bursts. For 10 points, identify this form of viral reproduction employed by the Epstein-Barr virus that typically results in the destruction of the host cell as opposed to the lysogenic cycle.
ANSWER: Lytic cycle
6. One treaty by this name included an alleged Secret clause to this agreement involved the transfered the provinces of Cholm and Podalia to the side that withdrew from the conflict. The more famous treaty by this name defined the boundary of Livonia to cross lakes Peipus, Pskow, and Luben, and also required withdrawal of all Russian troops from that region. This treaty was followed by a Treaty between the Central Powers and Romania negotiated at Bucharest, and the provisions of this agreement were reverted by
the treaty of Rapallo. For 10 points, identify this treaty not attended by the remainder of the allied powers, which signaled the end of Russian involvement in the first World War.
ANSWER: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
7. One of this man’s works describes a composer who frequently meets the titular being after his child’s death, while another of his works describes a patient suffering from cancer who is fascinated with chrysanthemums. In addition to "Aghwee the Sky Monster"
and "The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away," he also wrote about a boy who helps an African American POW that
parachuted into his village. This story, The Catch, won him the Akutagawa Award. He also wrote about Mitsuhiro and Takashi's
adventures in the town of Okubo, while his later stories parallel the relationship between him and his autistic son, Hikari. For ten points, name this author of Nip the Bud, Shoot the Kids, The Silent Cry, and A Personal Matter.
ANSWER: Kenzaburo Oe
8. This painting’s counterpart depicts a central turbaned man on horseback, with several other figure lifting curved swords, and shows the charge of a mamluke cavalry. The right background of this painting consists of distant grey buildings against a nearly black sky, and the left background is dominated by a hill, presumably Principe Pio where the depicted action took place. A lantern on the ground illuminates the group on the left, leaving the French soldiers on the right mostly in shadow. For 10 points, name this work by Francisco Goya which depicts the execution of civilian prisoners on a certain date.
ANSWER: 3rd of May, 1808 or [Execution of the Defenders of Madrid before “Madrid”]
9. It can be viewed as a relation between the temperature and average kinetic energy of gas molecule because the latter is equal at the same temperature due to the ideal gas law. The mathematical expression of Knudsen's law is similar to this law, and the
separation of Uranium isotopes through Uranium hexafluoride is often incorrectly explained as an application of it. Explaining a process that can also be described by Fick's law, For 10 points, identify this law named after its Scottish discoverer which states that the rate of diffusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.
ANSWER: Graham's Law of diffusion or Graham’s Law of effusion
10. This man argued in a thought experiment that private objects are "irrelevant," an idea reinterpreted upon in Saul Kripke's work about this man "On Rules and Private Language." He introduced the concept of "familial relations" in a work that derided
philosophy as a series of language games, and he attempted to set out a logically perfect language in another work that begins "The world is everything that is the case" and ends by claiming that what we cannot speak of, we must pass over in silence. For 10
points, name this Austrian philosopher, author of The Blue and Brown Books, Philosophical Investigations and Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
ANSWER: Ludwig Wittgenstein
11. One equation used to study the anisotropy in this process is called Green's function. This process and its converse can be
observed in outer hair cells, and it is implemented in Scanning Tunneling microscopes. Materials exhibiting this effect also exhibit the Debye-Sears effect where they establish acoustic waves when vibrated at fixed frequencies if placed in liquid. Poling is
necessary to induce this effect in ceramic materials, and Rochelle salts are exhibit this effect upon compression, which was
discovered by Pierre and Paul-Jacques Curie. For ten points, name this effect the generation of electric potential in response to an applied mechanical strain.
ANSWER: piezoelectricity (or piezoelectric effect)
12. The Argonauts’ herald Aethalides, who had perfect memory, was the son of this character and Eupolemeia; another son of this
character is Oenomaus’ charioteer Myrtilus. This character’s rape of Chione resulted in the birth of the father of Anticleia and the
taker of Sisyphus’ cattle, Autolycus. This character also appeared to give the herb moly to Odysseus on Circe’s island and, with his father, visited Baucis and Philemon. He also used a tortoiseshell and the guts of a cow to invent the first lyre. The son of Zeus and Maia, for 10 points, name this Greek god of shepherds and thieves, awarded the caduceus for his service as the gods’ wing-footed messenger.
ANSWER: Hermes [accept Eupolemeia early]
13. One emperor of this dynasty was captured in the crisis at Tumu Fortress. Its founder expanded imperial power to the former
kingdom of Dali, set up a secret service known as Jinyi Wei, and abolished imperial examinations. That founder ascended as a
result of the Red Turban revolt. The Shaanxi earthquake happened during this dynasty, once ruled by the Yongle Emperor who
built the fleets used by Zheng He. Founded by Chu Yuan-chang, it was plagued by famine and succeeded by the Manchus who set
up the Ching Dynasty. For 10 points, name this Chinese dynasty also remembered for its pottery.
ANSWER: Ming Dynasty
14. One character in this work claims that she is twenty-nine when there are pink shades, and thirty when there are not. In this work, Lord Berwick informs the title character that her husband has been giving large sums to another woman. The protagonist
decides to leave her husband for an admirer, Lord Darlington, and throws a birthday party which is attended by a character whom Augustus is infatuated with. Cecil Graham discovers the titular object in Lord Darlington’s room, when the title character’s mother claims that she mistakenly takes that object from the protagonist. For ten points, name this play whose titular object is a birthday gift presented by Mrs. Erlynne, a work of Oscar Wilde.
ANSWER: Lady Windermere’s Fan (prompt on early buzz of: Buzzerlust #1: Lady Windermere's Hug)
15. One item by this name is stolen by Nasir and given to Ena, eventually making its way to Ashnard. That artifact, also known as Lehran’s Medallion, is carried by Mist, and another artifact by this name is the Stone of Rausten, which was used to seal away the Demon King by twin monarchs of Renais, Ephraim and Eirika. Yet another artifact by this name is used to anoint the monarch of
Bern, and must be retrieved by Eliwood long before it is used to unlock the Sword of Seals. For ten points, give the common name of this artifact, which in one instance was retrieved by Ike, and gives its name to the series of games starring Roy and Marth.
ANSWER: Fire Emblem [Accept Lehran’s Medallion before mentioned]
16. He founded the Rafi party in protest of the settlement to Operation Susannah, which revolved around defense minister Pinhas Lavon. He was the main architect of the Haganah, which he allowed to cooperate with Irgun as part of the anti-British Hebrew Resistance Movement, although they split after this man opposed the bombing of the King David Hotel. He appointed his
successor to be Levi Eshkol, though he later resigned from the Mapai party. For 10 points, name this Zionist leader who was the first prime minister of Israel and is the namesake of its airport.
ANSWER: David Ben-Gurion
17. This region is bordered on the far northeast by the Kerulen River which empties into Hulun Lake. Parts of it once saw the
breeding of wild horses known as takhi, while even farther north in the same country is the Selenge River and its tributary, the
Orhon. This area is bordered by the Sayan mountains and the Yablonoi to the north, while the Greater Khingan mountains lay to
the east. Its southernmost region is called the Ala Shan and the Tarim basin to its west lies across the Tien Shan mountains. Mostly
composed of bare rock, for 10 points, name this huge desert which spans southern Mongolia and northern China.
ANSWER: Gobi Desert
18. Data collection in Ethiopia’s Afar region suggests that this process may occur there, and some postulate that the evaporation inherent in the beginning of this process can create hydrocarbon reserves that may turn into fossil fuels. This process begins at areas known as triple junctions, in rift valleys. This idea postulated by Princeton’s Harry Hess refutes Alfred Wegener’s idea that
continental plates “plow” through their oceanic counterparts; this theory centers on convection currents in the asthenosphere, and
its namesake action is driven by the creation of oceanic crust. For 10 points, name this theory that suggests that continental drift is driven by action at mid-ocean ridges.
ANSWER: sea-floor spreading
19. One of the three pilgrimage festivals, rituals performed during this holiday include the water libation ceremony and the shaking of branches from four different species of trees. Probably originating as a harvest festival, it is referred to in the Bible as the “feast
of the ingathering”, and it lasts for seven days beginning on the fifteenth day of Tishri, and is immediately followed by Shemini Atzeret. For 10 points, name this Jewish holiday, during which Jews are supposed to live in makeshift booths, also known as the Feast of Tabernacles.
20. In one poem, this author asked “Who is the East?/The Yellow Man/Who may be Purple if He can,” while another poem by this author that is shockingly not about playing NAQT questions opens with the line “BEE! I’m expecting you.” This poet notes that
“Diadems drop and Doges surrender” in “Safe in their alabaster chambers,” while in another work, she claims to be “inebriate of air” and “debauchee of dew” after tasting “a liquor never brewed.” Other poems saw her note that “Hope is the thing with feathers” and also will “her keepsakes” away before hearing a fly buzz and dying. For 10 points, identify this introverted Amherst native, the
narrator and author of “Because I could not stop for Death.”
ANSWER: Emily Dickinson
21. Justice Scalia notably attacked reliance on these in Jaffee v. Redmond. They differ from an intervener in that they are drafted by
non-parties, and Rule 29 of the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure requires that, in order for a court to grant leave for them, they should raise relevant issues not raised by the parties in a case. The Bush administration submitted two during the University of Michigan affirmative action decisions and they are often filed by advocacy organizations. For 10 points, name this type of legal brief, from the Latin for “friend of the court.”
ANSWER: Amicus curiae briefs
22. The walls in this work are a mustardy color, and the artist displays a knack for perspective in the lines in the ceiling and the two square columns behind this work’s most prominent figure. At the center of this work, a man in a black trenchcoat faces away
from the viewer, looking towards a grey-clad man holding a phone to his ear, while a green “Exit” sign is on the ceiling above them both. A bluish object hovers in this work’s lower right corner, and to the left of center is a profile of a man identified only as “Steve from Chicago.” The central figure’s expression has been likened to that of Kim Jung-Il, and that figure has been
comically photoshopped into a Kill Bill poster and the 9/11 attacks. For 10 points, name this masterpiece of Lily Vonderheide, that depicts a certain figure clad in his signature maroon-and-gold Redskins windbreaker barging onto the central scene.
ANSWER: That picture of Chris Ray barging at the Stanford Cardinal Classic [accept obvious equivalents]
2008 Minnesota Undergraduate Tournament - Packet 7
Packet by Minnesota (Andrew Bockover, Sean Skaar, Robert Westcott) and Ryan Westbrook
Edited by Rob Carson, Andrew Hart, Gautam Kandlikar, and Charles Meigs
1. Multiplying current squared with this quantity gives the power dissipated in a circuit. For 10 points each:
 Identify this quantity measured in Ohms and symbolized by omega.
 The AC analogue of resistance, this property is symbolized by Z and contains an imaginary part for reactance.
 The inverse of impedance, this property is measured in Seimens, and its terms are called conductance and susceptance.
2. The title character of this story is an abused dwarf out for revenge. For 10 points each:
 Name this short story in which eight men are tricked into dressing up as ourangoutangs, lashed to a chandelier, and set on fire.
ANSWER: "Hop-Frog; Or, the Eight Chained Ourangoutangs"
 This author of The Pit and the Pendulum and The Black Cat wrote Hop-Frog
ANSWER: Edgar Allan Poe
C. This macabre Poe story takes place at a costume ball set in seven rooms lit by lamps of different colors in Prince Prospero's
palace where guests the avoid titular plague. Too bad the personified plague gets in and kills everyone.
ANSWER: "The Masque of the Red Death"
3. Name these Civil War generals, for 10 points each.
 He was made general-in-chief of the Union army in 1864 following his victory at Vicksburg. Later he would accept Lee’s
surrender at Appomattox Courthouse.
ANSWER: Ulysses S. Grant
 An early commander of the Army of the Potomac, he was removed from command for proving too timid. In 1864, he was the
Democratic nominee for President.
ANSWER: George B. McClellan
C. This Confederate was appointed as commander of the Army of Tennessee over Joseph Johnston in 1864; he then rather
unsuccessfully conducted the Atlanta campaign against Sherman and lost to George Thomas at Nashville.
ANSWER: John Bell Hood
4. Give these people and terms from game theory, for 10 points each.
 This terms describes a game in which one participant’s gain is equal to another participant’s loss; thus, all scenarios in these
types of games are Pareto optimal.
ANSWER: Zero-sum games [or constant-sum games]
B. This man's namesake equilibria are situations in which players have nothing to gain by changing their strategies at a particular
game. Eric Mukherjee thinks this man's mind is beautiful.
ANSWER: John Forbes Nash
C. This man's The Evolution of Cooperation talked about how he won a tournament of the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma using a tit-for-tat strategy of retaliation.
ANSWER: Robert Axelrod
5. The religion of Buddhism is divided into several different traditions. For 10 points each:
 This term, which means “greater vehicle”, describes the most widely-practiced school of Buddhism, prevalent in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
 Meaning “the teaching of the elders”, this school of Buddhism predates Mahayana is practiced mainly in Sri Lanka, as well as
Laos, Cambodia and Thailand.
 These most sacred Theravada scriptures are three works dubbed the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma
Pitaka, which comprise this version of the Tripitaka named for the language in which it was compiled.
ANSWER: Pali Tripitaka [or Pali Canon, or similar constructions containing "Pali"]
6. Name these Roman philosophers, for 10 points each.
 When he wasn’t fighting battles or being Emperor, this Stoic wrote his Meditations, originally intended as an exercise in self-improvement.
ANSWER: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus "The Wise" [prompt on partial answer]
 On the Republic and On the Laws are two works of political philosophy by this Roman orator, who also thwarted the Cataline
conspiracy and condemned Mark Antony in the Philippics.
ANSWER: Marcus Tullius Cicero
 This dude is pretty bummed out when he is arrested and banished to home arrest, but then philosophy comes to him
personified as a chick, and helps him understand topics like predestination and free will; he wrote it down as The Consolation of
ANSWER: Ancius Manlius Severinus Boethius
7. Identify these events from the British colonization of India, for 10 points each.
 After taking Fort William,British soldiers captured by the Nawab Siraj ud-Dawlah were held in this unpleasant dungeon in
ANSWER: Black Hole of Calcutta
 Cartridges of Enfield Rifles greased with pork fat incited this uprising in 1857, which began in Meerut after the Bahadur
Shah was proclaimed emperor and was put down by Colin Campbell.
ANSWER: Sepoy Rebellion or Mutiny
 Madras was transferred to the British after a short French rule as a provision of this Treaty, whose other terms included the
transfer of some Italian duchies to Spain. It essentially reverted to the terms established by the Treaty of Utrecht
ANSWER: 1748 Treaty of Aix la Chapelle
8. Name these characters from Dostoevsky works, for 10 points each.
 This brother from The Brothers Karamazov joins a monastery under Father Zosima and has Ivan tell him the Grand Inquisitor
 This is the protagonist of Crime and Punishment. He murders an old woman in order to prove to himself that he is destined to
be an extraordinary individuals unhindered by societies rules.
Answer: Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov
 In Notes from Underground, the protagonist becomes attached to this prostitute for her admiration of him, and then rejects her
and kicks her out when she decides to come to his home to seek his help.
9. Name these things related to the League Of Nations, for 10 points each.
 Before World War II, the League convened regularly in this European city which was the site of its first meeting on
November 15, 1920.
 The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the covenant establishing the League because of this Article which required that all members
preserve territorial independence of other members.
ANSWER: Article X (or ten)
 A replacement for the League of Nations was outlined at this 1943 meeting attended by Stalin, which also sought to bring
Turkey into the war on the Allied side and set a date for Operation Overlord.
ANSWER: Tehran Conference
10. It was commissioned by French cardinal Jean de Billheres. For 10 points each:
 Name this statue of a giant-ass Mary holding the dead body of Christ, which bears its artist's name on a sash across its chest.
ANSWER: Michelangelo's Pieta [don't say the name of the sculptor, as that is the next bonus part!]
 This sculptor of the famous marble David also sculpted the Pieta. ANSWER: Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni [accept either]
 A seated, bearded Michelangelo statue of this Biblical character that was intended for the tomb of Julius II now resides in San
Pietro in Vincoli, and some believe features distinctive features on its head are due to a mistranslation in the Vulgate.
11. Identify the following about a procedure that the writer of this bonus is sick of. For 10 points each:
 It involves placing DNA samples into wells, and ladders into the end wells, and then running the sample across an electric
field. It allows visualization of the size of the DNA sample.
ANSWER: gel electrophoresis or running a gel (word forms ok)
 Electrophoresis can be followed by this procedure, which involves transferring DNA to a nitrocellulose filter, placing the filter
in a radiolabeled probe, and exposing it to film to allow for analysis of complementary genes. It is named for British scientist.
ANSWER: Southern Blot
 Electrophoresis is often followed by Ethidium Bromide staining. Ethidium bromide is one of these compounds which can
insert itself between adjacent base pairs of dsDNA and possibly cause frameshift mutations.
ANSWER: intercalating agent
12. This god frequently spars with Loki in seal form, and he is the progenitor of the human race by going from home to home
sleeping with men’s wives or grandmothers as conveniences him. For 10 points each:  Name this god who will kill and be killed by Loki at Ragnarok; he guards the entrance to Asgard with his super-sharp hearing
 Heimdall is the guardian of this rainbow bridge that Thor is forced to wade around, because cannot cross it.
 This god, unrelated to Heimdall, was one of the two along with Mimir who made the switch from Aesir to Vanir in the
aftermath of the war between those parties. According to the Ynglinga Saga, he defers to Mimir on all decision, preferring to make unintelligible grunting noises.
13. For ten points each, answer the following about some Greek playwrights and their works.
 In this Aristophanes play, woman from various cities across Greece, led by the titular woman, band together to deny their
husbands sex until the men agreed to end the Peloponnesian War.
 This play by Aeschylus relates the conflict between Eteocles and Polynices over succession after their father Oedipus steps
down. The play mostly focuses on descriptions of the related generals and ends with the deaths of the two brothers.
ANSWER: Seven Against Thebes
 This Euripides play describes the same story as Seven Against Thebes, but from the perspective of a group of bystanders that serve as the chorus and lend the play its title.
ANSWER: The Phoenician Women
14. Identify these pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas, for 10 points each.
 This civilization founded a number of city-states in the Yucutan Peninsula, including Tikal and Chichen Itza.
 This civilization’s was probably plundered by the Aztecs. It lasted from around 900-1200 AD, and its capital was at Tula. ANSWER: Olmecs
 This Andean civilization of northern Peru existed from about 100-800 CE and erected the El Brujo complex and the Huaca
del Sol; they probably had contact with the Nazca and Ico cultures to the south.
15. Name the following landmarks in baseball stadiums, for 10 points each.
 Manny Ramirez has long "patrolled" the grounds in front of this iconic giant wall opposite of Pesky's Pole in left field at
ANSWER: The Green Monster
 Carlos Delgado has hit the most "splashdowns" of any away player in this body of water named for a former Giant first
baseman. It often sees fans crowd in rubber dingies in an attempt to catch one of Barry Bonds's many splashdowns here.
ANSWER: McCovey Cove
 This inclination in centerfield at Houston's Minute Maid park features a ridiculous in-play flagpole and is generally derided as
gimmicky. It is named for team president Smith.
ANSWER: Tal's Hill
16. Crystals can have beautiful geometries. For 10 points each, identify the following about crystals.
 This term denotes a set of points on which atoms can be found at regular intervals called unit cells.
ANSWER: crystal lattice
 This is term used to denote a cell with one atom at each of its corners and one atom at its center. Obviously, it has no atoms on
ANSWER: Body-Centered Cubic
 Named after a French physicist, these are a combination of 14 different lattices which can be formed by translation of the unit
cell and differing combinations of atoms on lattice points.
ANSWER: Bravais lattice
17. Rosalind disguises herself as a man to screw with Orlando, and like all good comedies, everyone gets married at the end. For
10 points each:
 Name this Shakespeare play centered on the relationship between Orlando and Rosalind during their exile to the Forest of
ANSWER: As You Like It
 This character delivers the famous “All the world’s a stage” speech and is generally melancholy. He accompanies the elder
Duke into exile in the Forest of Arden and discovers a great respect for nature.
 This is the other fool character from As You Like It. He journeys with Celia and Rosalind to flee the court of Duke Ferdinand
and woos Audrey so that she will have sex with him.
18. This opera uses a "non-plot" instead of narrative. For 10 points each
 Name this opera that contains five "Knee Plays," and whose three scenes are dubbed "Train," "Trial," and "Field/Spaceship."
ANSWER: Einstein on the Beach
 Einstein on the Beach is part of a trilogy of operas depicting famous men by this minimalist composer whose most recent
symphony is the Toltec.
ANSWER: Philip Glass
 This other Glass opera, paired with Akhenaton and Einstein on the Beach, is named after Gandhi's system of nonviolence. ANSWER: Satyagraha
19. Name these figures from the Peloponnesian War, for 10 points each.
 This Alcmaeonidae led Athens at the beginning of the war and during its democratic Golden Age, when he wasn’t cavorting about with Aspasia.
 This elder Athenian statesman spoke against the Sicilian Expedition but accompanied Alcibiades as a moderating force.
Earlier, he was the namesake of peace which ended the first portion of the Peloponnesian War.
 This Spartan admiral commanded the fleet which triumphed over Athens at the Battle of Aegospotami in 405 B.C.
20. Name some galaxies, for 10 points each.
 This nearest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way is visible to the naked eye and is M31 in the Messier Catalog.
ANSWER: Andromeda Galaxy
 Two dwarf galaxies, one elliptical and one irregular, are Milky Way satellites named for this constellation, whose A-star
object is believed to be a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way.
 These close irregular galaxies visible in the southern hemisphere are notable for containing the last naked-eye supernova,
1987A, as well as the stars that Henrietta Leavitt used to theorize the period-luminosity relationship of cepheid variables.
ANSWER: The Smaller and Larger Magellanic Clouds