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Vol 6 - Bulletin Env

By Kenneth Spencer,2014-05-07 15:58
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Vol 6 - Bulletin Env

    Tou

    rism

    as

    an

    instr

    um

    ent

    for

    gov

    erni

    ng The First Task Force Meeting on ecotourism in the ECO region. The

    representative of Iran gave a presentation, Ecotourism

    highlighting the salient points of the proposed

    stconvention and requested the views of the The 1 Task Force Meeting on Ecotourism was

    Member States. The meeting welcomed the held on December 16-17, 2007 in Tehran. The

    initiative and agreed, in principle, with the idea of meeting was attended by the representatives of

    having a convention on the subject. The meeting the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic

    requested the Secretariat to re-circulate the text of Iran (host), the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,

    of draft Convention to the Member States, to the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of

    solicit their views and comments. The Turkey and the Republic of Uzbekistan. The

    Secretariat would compile the views/comments representatives of ECO Secretariat also

    which would be considered by the next Meeting attended the meeting.

    on Ecotourism. The meeting was inaugurated by His Excellency

    The meeting was informed about the decision of Dr. Delawar Najafi, Deputy Head of the rdthe 3 Ministerial Meeting (30 June 2006, Environment Department on Nature

    Almaty) on working out a regional program for Environment & Biodiversity of the Islamic

    cooperation in this field taking into account the Republic of Iran. Dr. Sohrab Shahabi, Deputy

    guidelines given by the Ministers during the Secretary General of the ECO delivered a short

    round table, views and proposals received from statement on behalf of ECO Secretariat.

    member states and outcome of the seminar on The representatives of the Member States Ecotourism to be held in Turkey. It emphasized attending the Meeting presented their country on drafting a Plan of Action for developing papers/statements reflecting the state of cooperation in the field of ecotourism. Turkey Ecological Tourism (Ecotourism) in their would draft the Plan of Action in cooperation respective countries, covering policies, with Iran and send to the Secretariat for programs and projects concerning the subject circulation among Member States. The other issue. member states would provide their views upon

    The Representative of Turkey briefed the its receipt. After incorporating the views of

    meeting about the outcome as well as the Member States, the Secretariat would circulate

    recommendations of the Ecotourism Seminar the revised version of Plan of Action to member

    held at Kastamonu province in Turkey on 7-9 states. The next meeting on Ecotourism would

    May 2007. The meeting reviewed and adopted consider the draft Plan of Action.

    the recommendations made by the Seminar and The Iranian delegation also proposed emphasized the importance of the establishing a data bank for collecting implementation of these recommendations. information related to Ecotourism as well as the

    The Islamic Republic of Iran proposed a protected areas in Iran. The meeting accepted

    Convention on Sustainable Nature Based the proposal and recommended that the

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 2

    framework for the data bank be prepared as an annexure to the Plan of Action by Iran in A Seminar on Ecotourism was held at cooperation with Turkey. The Secretariat would Kastamonu in Turkey on 7-9 May 2007. It was circulate it to Member States for their hosted by the Ministry of Environment and views/comments and the next meeting on Forestry of the Republic of Turkey. The Ecotourism would consider this issue. objectives of the Seminar were to review the

    current status on Ecotourism in the ECO region, The delegations agreed to designate national

    identify the potentials existing in ECO member focal points on Ecotourism to facilitate and

    countries, explore ways and means to establish create an environment for maintenance of close

    and develop cooperation in the ecotourism sector links and contacts among the Member States

    specially in the area of exchange of experience and between the relevant institutions of the

    and information, and finalize its Member States and ECO Secretariat.

    recommendations for submission to the Task Accordingly, the Member States were requested

    Force Meeting on Ecotourism scheduled to be to designate their national focal points

    held on December 16-17, 2007 in the Islamic specifically responsible for Ecotourism and

    Republic of Iran. provide the relevant information within two

    months. The delegates from 6 ECO Member States

    namely Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, The Member States were requested to volunteer

    Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and the hosting the next Meeting on Ecotourism in the

    representative from ECO Secretariat attended second half of 2008 and inform the Secretariat

    the Seminar. Approximately 50 delegates from accordingly.

    the Turkish governmental and non-governmental The meeting requested the Secretariat to also institutions and organizations participated in the send communications directly to the relevant seminar. A number of Turkish officials including officials (national focal points) in the member General Director of Nature Conservation and states, in addition to the diplomatic channels. National Parks Prof. M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ,

    Deputy General Director Mr. Sabri KĠRĠġ, The Turkish delegate, on behalf of the meeting,

    Governor of Kastamonu Mr. Mustafa KARA, expressed thanks and appreciation to the chair

    Provincial Director of Kastamonu Environment as well as the host authorities of the Islamic

    and Forestry Mr. YaĢar POLAT, Director of Bartın Republic of Iran (Environment Department) and

    Provincial Environment and Forestry Mr. Zeki the ECO Secretariat for successfully organizing

    ġALTUĞ, Dean of Kastamonu Faculty of Forestry the meeting.

    Prof. Hasan VURDU, Regional Director of Forestry Mr. Ali AKGÜN took part in the Seminar.

    The seminar was inaugurated by H.E. Mustafa Seminar on Ecological Tourism Kara, the Governor of Kastamonu Province and (Ecotourism) Dr. Kemal Yalinkilic, Director General of Nature

    Conservation and National Parks of the Republic

    of Turkey. Mr. Mohammad R. Nabovati made a

    statement, on behalf of the ECO Secretariat.

    The representative of the ECO Secretariat

    briefed the Seminar on the agreement reached

    rdby the 3 Ministerial Meeting on Environment to

    hold the Ecotourism Seminar in the Republic of

    Turkey and stressed the need for identifying the

    potentials existing in the region and developing

    cooperation in the field among the ECO member

    states. He also highlighted the importance of the

    ecotourism seminar, the outcome of which would

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 2

    st Task Force Meeting on for establishing and developing be submitted to the 1

    Ecotourism scheduled to be held in December in cooperation in the field.

    I.R. Iran for consideration. e) The delegations recommended the ECO

    Secretariat to look into the possibility of All participating countries shared their supporting the initiatives of the Member experiences and discussed various approaches, States by seeking technical and financial practices and plans being implemented by them. assistance of the relevant international After thorough discussions over a period of two bodies for developing the cooperation in days, the participants made the following Ecotourism within the region. recommendations: f) The participants emphasized the need a) While appreciating the Government of for developing a strategy on Ecotourism the Republic of Turkey (Ministry of for the ECO region with cooperation of all Environment and Forestry) for holding Member States. the Ecotourism Seminar in Kure g) Prepare a consolidated of tour operators Mountains National Park of Kastamonu from Member States engaged in Province on 7-9 May 2007, the promotion of Ecotourism in the ECO participants expressed their satisfaction region. over the results of the seminar and h) Identıfying ecotourism indicators to come asked for holding the similar seminars, up with the negative/positive effects. workshops, training courses, etc. on the The participants had various field trips and paid a subject of Ecotourism within the ECO visit to Kure Mountains National Park and were region. briefed on the efforts made by Ministry of b) The delegates recommended that the Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Turkey. relevants experts from national, regional and international organizations i.e. UNEP,

     etc. should be invited to the upcoming

    meetings on Ecotourism. They also Training Course on Watershed welcomed the idea of seeking Rehabilitation consultative and technical assistance of

    Internatıonal bodies for formulating a

    regional Plan of Action for sustainable

    development of Ecotourism in the region.

    c) The participants emphasized the

    necessity of sharing experience and

    exchanging information on Ecotourism

    among the concerned organizations of

    the ECO Member States. For this

    purpose, the participants recommended

    appointment of national focal points to

    further facilitate the cooperation process

    and expedıte holding upcoming meetings, seminars, etc. on the subject of The Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Ecotourısm at various levels. Republic of Turkey hosted a training Course on d) Ecotourism being an importatnt tool for Watershed Rehabilitation at Malatya, Turkey, on supporting the conservation of 21-25 May 2007. biodiversity and sociocultural values, the The objectives of the Training Course were: participating delegates stressed upon the

    need for identifying the potentials ? Transfer of technology and know-how in exsisting in the ECO region as a the watershed rehabilitation, range groundwork to explore ways and means rehabilitation, soil conservations, and

    ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 3

    participatory approach for watershed ? The participants put emphasis on the rehabilitation. necessity of exchange of experience and ? Increased level of skilled technicians and information on participatory watershed decision makers in the countries. rehabilitation among the concerned

    organizations of the ECO member states. ? Improved cooperation among the ECO

    The participants recommended Countries.

    appointment of focal points to further ? Increased awareness of participating

    facilitate the cooperation process and authorities and companies to promote

    expedite holding upcoming meetings, the inclusion of participatory aspects as

    seminars, etc. with the subject of part of their routine activities.

    watershed rehabilitation at various levels. ? A multidisciplinary and more systematic

    ? Since participatory approach of watershed understanding of the watershed baseline

    rehabilitation is an important tool for for land rehabilitation and sustainable

    supporting the fight against desertification, natural resources management.

    conservation of biodiversity and socio-

    cultural values, the participating delegates Representatives from 8 ECO Member States

    stressed upon the need for identifying the namely Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Iran,

    potentials existing in the ECO region as a Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan

    groundwork to explore ways and means for and a representative from the ECO Secretariat

    establishing and developing cooperation in attended the Seminar.

    the field.

    ? The participants requested the ECO The seminar was inaugurated by Mr. Necati

    Secretariat to look into the possibility of CENGĠZ, the Deputy Director General of

    supporting the initiatives of the member Afforestation and Erosion Control, Mr. Talantbek

    states, seeking the technical and financial Kasymbekov, the representative of the ECO and

    assistance of the relevant international Orhan Çiftçi, the Deputy Governor. Mr. Erdoğan

    bodies for developing the cooperation in Özevren, Mr. Mahmut Temiz, Mr. Gürsel Küsek,

    watershed rehabilitation, soil conservation, Mr. Ġsmail Çakıroğlu, Mr. Cemal Fidan and Mr.

    nursery, forestry within the region. Osman Göçer participated in the training course

    as resource-persons. The participants of the ? They emphasized the need for developing

    training course made the following a strategy on land rehabilitation for the

    recommendations: ECO region with cooperation of all member

    states. ? The participants appreciated the training

    course and recommended holding similar ? The participants recommended to the ECO seminars, workshops, training courses, etc. Secretariat to establish an education and on the subject of watershed rehabilitation, research unit, under ECO Secretariat and soil conservation, nursery, range to establish a web page to share opinions rehabilitation, water conservation, and experiments. germination of Junipers seed, ecology and agriculture within the ECO region, The participants also had various field trips and

    made separate visits to Sirocayı micro-? Relevant experts from national, regional

    catchments, Nemrut Mountain National Park, and international organizations i.e. UNCCD,

    Kiziloz monitoring and evaluation projects area, UNEP, etc. should be invited to future

    wild life protection area, Karasu watershed, meetings on the above subjects.

    Malatya Nurseries, Apricot to factory to have an ? They welcomed the idea of seeking

    overview of the performance of the Ministry of consultative and technical assistance of

    Environment and Forestry of the Republic of International bodies for formulating a

    Turkey. regional plan of action for land

    rehabilitation in the region.

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 4

    ? Cooperation for protection of local and Signing a Memorandum of

    endangered animals (Local short-jaw Understanding on Environmental

    crocodile and sea turtles) Cooperation between the Islamic ? Exchange of information and data about Republic of Iran and the Islamic pollution of environment in sea and Republic of Pakistan coastal areas. By Department of Environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran ? Cooperation for implementing the

    regional and international agreements.

    Commemoration of the First

    Anniversary for the Caspian Sea

    Convention

    By Department of Environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran

    The Department of Environment (DOE) of the

    Islamic Republic of Iran commemorated the first

    anniversary of coming into force of the

    Convention for Protection of Caspian Sea His Excellency Mr. Fisal Saleh Hayat the Environment (Tehran Convention) on 12 August Minister of Environment of the Islamic Republic 2007. of Pakistan had a three day visit to the Islamic Republic of Iran from 8-10 April 2007. He had The Tehran Convention was signed in Tehran several meetings with Her Excellency Dr. on 4 November 2003. According to the Fatemeh Vaez Javadi Vice President and Head agreement among the Caspian Sea littoral of the Department of Environment of the Islamic countries, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the Republic of Iran and her deputies during his stay depository of the Convention and its related in Tehran. Mr. Saleh Hayat also paid visits to the documents. Iranian car manufacturing companies. In his visit to Mashad, capital of Central Khorassan The Convention consists of an introduction and Province, Mr. Saleh Hayat met the Governor 37 articles. The parties to convention are the General of the Province and discussed bilateral littoral countries of the Caspian Sea namely the issues. At the end of his visit, the two countries Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic of signed a memorandum of understanding on Iran, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Russian environmental issues. Federation, and Turkmenistan.

    Some important highlights of the MoU are as Main objectives of the convention are as follows: follows: Conservation of the Caspian Sea from ? Conducting joint studies and providing all pollutant sources. reports about environmental priorities. Conservation, maintenance, ? Expanding bilateral cooperation rehabilitation, and logistic and pertinent to environmental projects sustainable use of biological resources within the framework of ECO and other of the Caspian Sea. regional organizations. Prevention of depletion of the ? Establish bilateral research tours for environment of Caspian Sea caused by monitoring regional marine environment. different human activities, such as ? Cooperation for protection of sensitive emission of hazardous materials, waste coastal areas especially mangrove

    forests in Gowater bay.

    ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 5

    thmaterials and other pollutants, from Regional Session of The 6marine and terrestrial sources International Union for Determining conservation of the living Conservation of Nature (IUCN) resources of the Caspian Sea for the By Department of Environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran present and future generations. Ensuring the safety of activities in

    Sixth regional session of International Union for Caspian Sea littoral countries.

    Conservation of Nature in West and Central Asia Monitoring and preventing the dangers

    and North Africa (WESCANA) was held from 22 pertaining to the rise and fall of the

    to 25 of May 2007 in Tehran. Representatives of water that threaten the environment as

    80 members of IUCN from the governmental well as the ecological and hydrological

    and non-governmental sectors gathered in characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

    Tehran for compiling and developing the agenda Emphasize importance of cooperation

    for regional protection and upcoming plans for between the parties to the Convention

    the fourth global session of IUCN to be held at and international organizations in order

    Barlcelona, Spain. to protect and preserve the environment

     of the Caspian Sea.

     The main purpose of this session was paving According to provisions of the Convention, 90 the way for cooperation and unity of the days after the approval, ratification or accession members and providing an opportunity for of all littoral countries of the Caspian Sea, the effective regional participation in Barcelona convention came into force on 12 August 2006. summit. The session provided an opportunity for Following the first meeting of the member members to prepare their draft proposals for countries which was held in Baku (the Republic submission to Barcelona summit. This session of Azerbaijan), the Islamic Republic of Iran focused on protection with centrality of the local proposed to nominate the day when the communities, and linkages between local and Convention came into force, as the day of global knowledge. During this meeting, the Caspian Sea. The proposal was warmly participants discussed the latest activities and welcomed by all signatories. In order to develop developments in preparation for the Global and maintain the cooperation among member Congress of Barcelona and the IUCN programs countries, the Department of Environment of the from 2002 to 2009. Some issues suggested to Islamic Republic of Iran decided to convene the be considered by the International Union for day of Tehran Convention as the day of Conservation of Nature the next years are: commemoration of the Caspian Sea. climate change, renewable energy, reduction of poverty and increased security. During the A commemorative ceremony attended by the meeting, the participants discussed subjects resident Ambassadors of Caspian Sea littoral relating to protection with centrality of local

    states to Tehran, the Resident Representative of communities which have a very important role to the United Nations Development Program in play in the region. The issues were divided to Iran, Representatives of the Economic technical and thematic titles such as Protected Cooperation Organization (ECO) Secretariat in Areas, Commodities and Ecosystem services in Tehran, and relevant Iranian authorities and Arid Territories, Maintenance of sustainable

    internal and external mass Media was held on development and also gender's equality and 12 August 2007 in the premises of the poverty reduction. Department of Environment. A message from H.E Mr. Achim Estiner, the Executive Director of Dr. Bill Jackson, Director of IUCN in the the United Nations Environment Program inaugural ceremony delivered a brief speech (UNEP) was read out at the ceremony. and referred to natural events of past six years

     in the world. He emphasized the important role

    of local communities in protection of

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 6

    environment. He added that the most important ? Poster/drawing competition among the threats to environment are the subject of students and informal quiz among the subsidies, and expressed concern that some participants on the subject, countries do not accept the fact that unplanned ? A walk in the area to make the students subsidies have very subversive role on familiar with the components of the degradation of environment. ecosystem and how climate change

     influences the functioning of ecosystem. It is noteworthy to mention that International Union of Conservation was established by Upon invitation from the Biodiversity Directorate, membership of 83 countries, 110 governmental officials and students from Federal Directorate of agencies and more than 800 NGOs and about Education and Universities in Rawalpindi / 10000 experts from 181 countries in the year Islamabad also participated in the event. 1948. The mission of this Union is to encourage, Participants from Rawalpindi / Islamabad led by influence and help communities all over the Rizwan Irshad (Technical Officer Biodiversity) world for integrated conservation of the world’s and Dr. Shahzad Jehangir Deputy Inspector biodiversity. The IUCN is a multicultural General Forests left for Muzaffarabad on 22nd organization that has a staff of about 100 May 2007. employees from 62 countries and has its headquarters in Switzerland. Following institutions of Rawalpindi and

     Islamabad attended the celebration of

     Biodiversity Day 2007:

    1. Department of Biological Sciences. Celebrations to mark International University of Arid Agriculture, Biodiversity Day 2007, in Pakistan 2. Department of Rangeland and Forestry, By Ministry of Environment of the Islamic Republic of University of Arid Agriculture, Pakistan 3. PAEC Model College, Nilore Islamabad, 4. MEAs Secretariat, M/o Environment Biodiversity Directorate and Forestry Wing Islamabad, celebrate Biodiversity Day every year for 5. Forestry Wing and Biodiversity awareness raising and involving all partners and Directorate. stakeholders. Students and academic communities are our most potential partners and The AJK institutions that were represented in the every year they participate in this national event celebrations include: organized by their respective institutions and 1. AJK Wildlife Department, Forestry wing of this Ministry. 2. WWF AJK Office, 3. Government High School Patteka, Biodiversity Day 2007 was celebrated by 4. Government High School, Machiara, highlighting the significance of Biodiversity and 5. Other Local primary Schools of the area. Climate Change. In this connection, Biodiversity Directorate in collaboration with Machiara Function was organized at Patehka Wildlife National Park and AJK Wildlife Department resort. Proceedings of the event are as under: organized an event at Patteka, Muzaffarabad. ? Minister for Forests and AKLAS Mr. Syed The Program included: Murtaza Ali Gillani and Minister for ? Presentation highlighting the importance Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock (AJK) of Biodiversity {in local language), Mr. Muhammad Shafiq Jirral attended ? Speech Competition among the students the event. (different categories), ? Program started with the recitation from ? Presentation by experts regarding HoIy Quran. Biodiversity of the country in general and ? Chief Guests and other speakers of the area in particular, expressed their views on significance of ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 7

    the day, with special reference to local Pollution Prevention and Control; Climate

    circumstances and conditions. Change; Ecosystem and Natural

    Resources Management; and ? The Honorable Minister for Forest and

    Environmental Governance, Advocacy, Minister for Agriculture (AJK) led the

    and Partnership. These programmes, in Walk. The participants carrying banners

    addition to pursuing their technical and play cards walked through the town;

    objectives, will strengthen the a large number of local people joined the

    institutional and technical capacities of walk.

    relevant Government institutions. ? After the walk, painting and speech

    Moreover, the proposed programme will contests were held. Chief Guest gave

    promote equal participation of women in away prizes and trophies.

    project level activities and promote ? PTV AJK covered the entire proceedings

    sustainable grassroots projects through of the event for a documentary.

    its Grassroots Initiatives Programme for ? At 6.30 PM a live talk show was

    Local Environmental Management arranged at PTV station Muzaffarabad

    (GRIP).

     ? Under the NEAP-SP, Green Industry

    Programme was launched in the year Programmes and Policies in 2006 by the Pakistan Environmental Environment Sector in Pakistan Protection Agency for the promotion of By the Ministry of Environment of the Islamic Self Monitoring & Reporting, with the Republic of Pakistan support of the UNDP, to make the

    industries responsible for systematic Pakistan recognizes the importance of

    monitoring and reporting of their incorporating environmental concerns as a

    environmental performance. The key crosscutting theme in sustainable development.

    attribute of this programme is the "nation To address the environmental challenges,

    wide reductions in the pollution levels" by Ministry of Environment is implementing various

    providing the flexibility to the industries to policies and programmes. Some of the key

    choose cost-effective environmental policies and programmes are mentioned below:

    solutions and by promoting pollution

    control measures and assisting in the ? Some of the major achievements of identification of regulatory and non National Environment Action Plan regulatory impediments. (NEAP) Phase-I included development of policies and strategies like National

    ? Implementation of CITES in Pakistan Environmental Policy, Sanitation Policy,

    Pakistan being signatory to Convention Clean Development Mechanism Strategy,

    on International Trade in Endangered Draft National Forest Policy and Energy

    Species of wild flora and fauna (CITES), Conservation Policy, etc. During Phase-I,

    is committed to implement its obligations the Programme appraised more than 300

    across the country. Efforts are being project proposals submitted by various

    made to conserve rich natural heritage of stakeholders, while the core team of

    country by curbing illegal trade in NEAP-SP prepared more than 60 project

    endangered species with the help of concepts. In March 2007, NEAP-SP

    provincial authorities. Keeping in view entered its second phase. NEAP-SP

    the deteriorating status of wild mammals Phase II proposes a wide range of

    and reptiles, a complete ban on their technical, institutional, regulatory, social

    commercial export has been imposed by and economic interventions in terms of

    the Federal Government. different projects grouped under the

     following four thematic programmes:

     ? ECO Bulletin on Environment 8

    In spite of such efforts, some parties The principle objectives of the project are indulge in illegal trade of endangered to strengthen institutional capacity, species posing serious threat to the create enabling environment and survival of endangered species. The demonstrate best practices all in an effort

    ECO countries may collaborate to curb in to remove key barriers to SLM with the endangered species for effective aim of reducing poverty from rural

    landscape. The Project depends on the CITES. implementation of

    strong commitment of the Government of

    Pakistan and involvement of key ? Pakistan Wetlands Programme (PWP)

    stakeholders, particularly local This Programme is an initiative of the

    communities, in the implementation of Federal Ministry of Environment and is

    the project. being implemented by the Worldwide

    Fund for Nature, Pakistan. The PWP The project follows an integrated, cross-seeks to cover the country with in depth sectoral and participatory approach to scientific studies on all facets of wetlands control and prevent desertification and in addition to highlighting all aspects alleviate poverty among rural relating to wetlands education, communities. This requires a long-conservation and management and to term commitment to ensure cross-provide the most current and sectoral integration and sustain the scientifically sound information not just to project benefits. Therefore, the Phase-l Environment conservationists and focused on addressing policy, biologists but most importantly to policy-institutional and knowledge barriers makers as a tool to promote through targeted capacity building and conservation efforts. implementation of pilot projects for

     testing SLM practices, while Phase-II,

    ? Initiative for Promoting Sustainable launched in September, 2007 will focus Land Management on up scaling SLM interventions at larger

    landscape building on the lessons learnt To meet the challenges of land and best practices tested under the degradation and desertification in Phase-1. This approach will provide a Pakistan, the Ministry of Environment catalytic environment for removing SLM has designed a national project on barriers in a more systematic way in Sustainable Land Management (SLM) to order to introduce integrated combat desertification, which is being management of land resources. funded jointly by the Government of Pakistan, Global Environment Facility

    ? Climate Change (GEF) and UNDP. The project will be

    Pakistan has since updated the national implemented over a period of seven

    GHG inventory and defined its strategy years in two phases. The phase 1

    for addressing climate change concerns completed in two years with a total cost

    through the development of an Initial US$ 4.6 million. The overall goal of the

    National Communication to the UNFCCC. project is to combat land degradation

    Following the INC, Pakistan initiated the and desertification in Pakistan in order to

    process of formulation of the Second protect and restore ecosystems and

    National Communication on Climate essential ecosystem services that are

    Change and has requested Global key to poverty. The Project will facilitate

    Environment Facility (GEF) for the implementation of United Nations

    provision of necessary resources. Conventions to Combat Desertification

    Building on preliminary studies for (UNCCD) and National Action

    ALGAS and Pakistan's Initial Programme to Combat desertification

    Communication on Climate Change, the and mitigate the impact of drought.

    ECO Bulletin on Environment ? 9

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