Comprehensive English book 1
Unit 1 Learning about learning
I Teaching aims and demands
Unit One aims at arousing students‘ interest in this course by such new
features as the ―Questionnaire on study‘. We think the following objectives of this
Unit are important ;
1) reading; reading for gist, detail and for inference
2) writing; writing descriptive paragraphs
3) learning; how to learn new words; vocabulary notebooks
2. Vocabulary development – word power; learning words and phrases used in
talking about some topics about college live in general, These include;
1) receptive words; overseas, tough, mostly, draft, work load, stuff, -
fortunately, select, topic, routine, approach, inside, outside
2) productive words and phrases; concentrate, sure, find out, adjust to, cope
with, in advance, look up, set aside, keep to, try out
3. Grammar; review subject and predicate, sentence patterns and Simple Pre-
II Detailed study of the texts
Reading ( 1 )
1)This questionnaire may be…..in the new year; Since the students have Just entered college, it is a little early for them to answer the questions.
2)We wanted to find out…..to their new life at college; We wanted to Discover what they had done to try to hit used to the new life at college.
Find out to learn or discover a fact that was hidden or that one did not
Know yet, esp by making a deliberate effort to do so
Eg ( 1 ) I found out the train times were a little different from those
( 2 ) I‘m interested in finding out what the facts are.
( 3 ) We‘ve found out that the girl has lost her way in the shop
Manage; to succeed in doing sth
Eg ( 1 ) Did he manage to get anything to eat before he set off ?
( 2 ) I could not know how he managed to find us.
( 3 ) We‘ll manage it somehow. I‘m sure . adjust…….to; to change slightly, es to make oneself suitable for a new
job or new conditions
eg ( 1 ) He‘s adjusted ( himself ) very quickly to the hot and dry
weather of this city.
( 2 ) We have to adjust our selves to the new manager.
3)―Great!‖ ; ―Great here is an exclamatory word, expressing approval,
admiration, or excitement.
Eg ( 1 ) ―Great!‖ says Howard, ―That‘s marvelous.‖
( 2 ) He was great. I really like him.
In this text, there are a number of colloquial expressions like
―Yeah‖, ―real hard‖, ―take a break‖, ―but again‖, ―sure‖, ect It‘s
necessary to make a summary of them after learning this unit.
4)The main problem is the workload; The main problem is that he has a
Large number of things to do which are relevant to his study.
Note that the word ―workload‖ or ―work-load‖ is now used very of.-
Ten, such as ―an increase in the workload‖ , ―a teacher‘s
Weekly work-load and ―the total undergraduate work-Load
5)I don‘t see how anyone…..with it; I don‘t know how anyone can manage To finish that reading.
Cope wit; to manage, or find a way to deal with sth or sb often difficult
Eg ( 1 ) She had enough difficulties without having to cope with financial
( 2 ) We are also learning that to tell patients the truth will help them to cope
with their illnesses.
6) No set time, really; I do it when I get the chance; I have no fixed time for stud
that is to say, I study when I can find the time.
―Set‖ here is used as an adjective, describing people‘s behavior when it does
not change at all ,but is fixed as a result of habit.
Eg(1) Others had their set hours and set places and set friends.
(2)Now that I‘ve got the ticket, I am all set for the trip.
(3)Her day usually followed a set pattern.
7)I find putting my thoughts… really hard.
In this unit. The verb ―find‖ is used in different patterns.
A. find + object
…..and it‘s real hard to find time for all the reading I have to do. B. find+ object + adjective (as Object complement)
Do you find classes helpful?
I find getting my thoughts down on paper quite hard.
I find putting my thoughts down on paper really hard.
C. find+ it+ adjective (as Object Complement)+(often) an infinitive
……but I find it hard to concentrate on the work.
I found it quite hard to adjust at first,
D. find+ objective clause
I find the best thing to do is to be, you know, quite selective about
What to read.
I‘ve found the best approach is to write a rough draft first.
I find getting ideas down on paper, even in rough form, helps me to
Think about them better.
8)one is more than enough!
What he is saying implies that he doesn‘t intend to write any draft
More than; to a greater extent or degree; very
Eg ( 1 ) We are more than happy to hear of his escape.
( 2 ) I became more than convinced that the theatre was my luck place.
9)……but the course is mostly literature…;….but the course consists
mainly of literary works….. mostly; adv, mainly , chiefly
eg( 1 ) The men at the party were mostly fairly young
( 2 ) she had a very exciting life mostly in Birmingham
( 3 ) She is mostly out on Sundays.
10)You seem to learn the language without realizing it; (When you read a
Lot of simple books,) you pick up a lot of knowledge and many skills in a
foreign language. but you don‘t seem to notice them!
Realize; to understand or become aware of
Eg( 1 ) It was a shock to realize afterwards that that they had danced at Most
the whole night.
( 2 ) I came to realize in the end why this must be done first
( 3 ) Do you realize you‘re the first girl I‘ve been out with?
Reading ( 2 )
11)…….but it can be quite tough…too, in a way; …..but living away
form home is possibly quite hard, form one point of view.
Note that ―can‖ here indicates‖ ―possibility‖, and ―in a way‖ means Form one point of view, in a certain sense, to a limited extent.
Eg ( 1 ) The road can be blocked.
( 2 ) This can‘t be true.
( 3 ) In a way , you are right.
( 4 ) I like Mr Barter, in a way.
12)I found it quite hard to adjust at first. I mean I enjoy it , sure, but it
Can be quite tough, too, in a way. I miss home when I think about it.
But fortunately, I‘m too busy to think about it very much!
In these sentences there are a number of examples of ―it‖. Be sure To know the exact meaning of each ―it‖ The first ―it‖ is used as the an-
anticipatory it , while all the other ―its‖ are pronouns, referring respectively to ―living away form home‖ , ―life at college‖ and ―home‖. Think about; to have sth in one‘s mind , to consider sth or sb seriously,
To have an opinion about sth or sb
Eg ( 1 ) I‘m sorry; I wasn‘t listening; I was thinking about some-Thing else.
( 2 ) We must think about Mother‘s health when choose home.
( 3 ) I don‘t know what to think about the new chairman He‘s a mystery to
In these examples ―think about‖ can be replaced by ―think of ―. 13)…..quite selective about what to read.
Note the structure ―wh-word+ to do‖.
Eg ( 1 ) when to start has not been decided. (as Subject)
( 2 ) I don‘t know what to do . (as object)
( 3 ) The question was where to go .(as predicative)
( 4 ) I can tell you where to get this pool.(as Direct Object)
( 5 ) I have no idea of how to do it. (as Prepositional Object)
14)I find I study best at regular times; I find to study at the same time each
Day is best ( most fruitful, most effective, most productive, yields the
Regular; doing sth again and again at the same time
Eg ( 1 ) He is a man with regular habits.
( 2 ) The doctor examined the baby at regular intervals.
15) ….I set aside regular times to study and keep to that routine…..;….I
plan my time carefully for study , and follow that arrangement with no
Set aside ; to save(usually money or time0 for later use
Eg( 1 ) I have a little money set aside for our holidays.
( 2 ) I‘ve set aside the whole weekend for house hunting.
( 3 ) you must keep to the rules even if you think they‘re unfair.
16) ……..so normally I divide the time up into half hour sessions.
―Divide up into‖ . and ―divide into‖ are similar in meaning . Here ―up‖ means
―completely‖. The former may lay stress on ―to break something
into completely separate groups or parts.
17) In each session I set myself an exact job to do; In each period of time, I
arrange for myself to do an exact job.
Set; to arrange as a pattern or as material to be belt with
Eg ( 1 ) The teacher set the boys a difficult task; to find all they could about
( 2 ) I have set myself the workload for this week ,
( 3 ) What books have been set for the Cambridge certificate next year?
Cf I have no set time for studies.
18) …… and it really works; it is really effective!
III Home work;
Unit 2 starting college
I Teaching aims and demands
1)reading; reading for gist , detail; , and for inference
2)writing; writing a descriptive paragraph; surveying a whole book
3)learning; learning how to survey a reading text
2 Vocabulary development – word power; learning words and phrases used in
talking about the college life of American students in general. These include;
1) receptive words; vacation, peer, verbal, automatically, reputation, casual
2) productive words and phrases; fashion, present, earn, tough, qualify,
obtain, admit, facility, attract, impress, survive, independent, apply to sb
for sth, be located in, on one‘s own, stand for, work on , qualify sb for
3 Grammar; the simple present tense; types of verbs ; transitive, intransitive
And linking verbs; word formation- v.+-ion/-tion
II Detailed study of the tests
1)and has long blond hair:
blond /blonde: a woman or girl with light-colored, usu yellowish hair
brunette/brunet: white woman with dark-brown hair and(usu)darkish skin
2)She does not seem to be overweight :she does not look fat.
Note: in English speaking countries ,people usually use euphemism when talking
about the disadvantages of a person. For example if a person is fat, they use‖
over weight, strong or heavily=built‖ instead of ―fat‖; and if he or she is thin or
lean ,they use‖ slender‘ instead. 3)she often talks abort dieting.
diet: to eat only some food or a little food ,esp to lose weight eg No sugar in my
coffee, please; I‘m dieting.
4)But somehow she always seems to forget about dieting when she is hungry; But
for some unknown reason, when she is hungry she always forgets that she can
only eat certain foods to keep her figure!!(Note the humor in this sentence.)
Somehow: for some reason that is not clear ;by some means
Eg(1)I think she‘s right but somehow I; m not completely sure.
(2)I couldn‘t get to sleep somehow.
(3)Don‘t worry, we‘ ll get there somehow. forget about: to fail to remember
Eg(1)How could you forget about such a large debt？
（2）I wish I could forget about that terrible accident.
5)Her home is a large single-family dwelling in a quiet tree planed street: Her home
is a building made to house one family on a quiet street, along either side of
which are trees.
6)Her mother also works, as a fashion=design,: Her mother is a designer of clothes,
fashion: the way of dressing or behaving that is usual or popular at a certain
a fashion show: a show of clothes
a fashion house: a company that produces clothes
7)There she can close the door when she wants to be on her own: she can close the
door of her room when she wants to be alone (so that nobody else will disturb
(all)on one‘s own :alone; without help
eg(1)Let me be ,I want to be on my own.
(2)I can‘t carry this bag on my own; it‘ still heavy.
8)Sue decided to apply for a place in the state university, SUNY: Sue decided to
make a formal request to the state university, SUNY, for admission.
Apply(to sb)for sth :to make a formal request for sth(such as a job)
Eg(1)What does T.G. stand for in‖ T.G. Smith‖?
(2)I hate fascism and all it stands for.
(3)We must know which party he stands for.
9)My Dad couldn‘t afford to send me to an expensive college: My father wan not
rich enough to provide for my education at a college whose tuition is high.
Afford to usu with can, could ,able to )to be able to spend ,give, do, etc, without
serious loss or damage
Eg We can‘t afford to lose such an important member of the staff. 10)To study at college, Sue had to take out a Federal Guaranteed Student Loan: I in
order to be able to study at college, Sue had to obtain a Federal Guaranteed
Take out: to obtain(a piece of paper giving one the right to
Eg ( 1 ) Have you taken out insurance on your possessions inside the House ?
( 2 ) In the United States , many people take out a loan to buy a car.
( 3 ) In order to make the new company run , Sam had to take out loans
from the bank .
Federal Guaranteed student Loan; a special low-lender to help young people get
The beneficiary doesn‘t have to pay back the loan until he or she graduates from
college. The Federal Government acts as the guarantee for the loan.
12)Like most of her peers, Sue chose to leave home to go to university.
Peer; a person of the same age , class, position, etc, as oneself
Eg The opinions of his peers are more important to him than his parents‘ ideas.
Choose to ; decide to
Eg ( 1 ) They chose to ignore her warning
( 2 ) He chose not to go home until later
13)To get to college, Sue had to start making plans quite early on in her senior year
at high school; In order to get to college , Sue had to make
Plans quite early in her graduating year at high school.
Eg ( 1 ) The wheel was discovered very early on in human history .
( 2 ) He developed a musical interest early on.
Senior year ;(AmE) the last year in a high school (usu including grades 9-12 or
10-12) or university course
Note ; In American universities , people use ―freshman, sophomore, junior and
senior‖ to stand for a first-year student respectively.
14)Because the competition is tough, Sue worked hard on her courses; Be-
Cause the competitions intense, Sue did her best to complete all her Courses
Work on ; to do something which needs effort
Eg ( 1 )0 Jane is working on her graduation project.
( 2 ) All the students in the classroom are quietly working on their
15)She knew that the university would look carefully at her high school
Records; She knew that the university would consider carefully her course
achievement records in high school.
High school records; the known or recorded facts about the past be-
16)She was particularly worried about her SATs – the Scholastic Aptitude Test.
SATs; ( AmE) a standardized test designed to predict an individual‘s
Ability to learn certain skills, which is usually carried out before admission to a
17)….. this did not qualify her for every institution she was interested in ,
but it qualified her comfortably for the state university;….although she
would not be accepted by every institution she wanted to go to, yet her score was
good enough for acceptance by the state university.
qualify (sb) for sth: to reach the condition recognized as enabling a person to do,
to receive or to be fit for something
Eg(1)This degree will qualify you for teaching(or: as a teacher).
(2)Your heroic action in helping the police will qualify you for a reward.
Eg He won the race comfortably.
18)„the state university automatically admitted her because she ranked in the top
quarter of her high school graduating class: „the state university accepted her
as a matter of course because she was in the best 25% of the graduating class of
her high school.
Eg (1)Any person who doesn‘t have a ticket will not be admitted into the cinema.
(2)This university has admitted only 2,000 students this year.
19)She was impressed by what she saw, „:What she saw made a good impression on her/She enjoyed what she saw, „ impress: to fill a person with admiration
eg(1)I was deeply impressed by her excellent performance.
(2)The latest fashion show impressed me a great deal.
20) „she wrote accepting the university‘s offer.
Write +v-ing:‖ write‖(intransitive verb): to produce and send a letter eg She
wrote asking me to come.
21)The university campus is located in Albany, „:The university campus is in
locate: to fix or set in a certain place; situate
eg(1)The house is located by the river.
(2)The offices are usually located in the center of a city.
22)They both have a lot in common, „:Both of them share a lot of interests,
have sth in common(with sb/sth):share interests, characteristics, etc
eg(1)As good friends, we have many thing in common.
(2)I have nothing in common with my brother.
23) „both of them have kid brothers back home.
Kid esp AmE)(of a brother or sister)younger
24)When I first arrived, I had a great feeling of liberation: When I first arrived in
this university, I felt that now I was free, and it was great!
25)But I‘ll survive: but I‘ll stay on here and manage to live!(Note this is an
survive: to continue to live, especially after coming close to death; to continue to
eg(1)Although others died in the accident, we survived.
(2)Not many people survived that terrible earthquake in 1976.
Unit 3 Words
Teaching aims and demands
1) reading: reading for gist, detail, and for inference; making use of the
2) writing: learning to understand the structure of a paragraph
3) learning: using a dictionary
2. Vocabulary development-word power: learning words and phrases used
in talking about language and culture in general. These are:
1) receptive words: terms, proper, after all, equivalent, intellectual,
industrialized, reaction, bilingual, definition, respective, general
2) productive words and phrases: rely on, would, lead to , stand for , look
forward to , get away from, cover, range, be in use, assume, point out,
give some idea about, instead of , pay out, delay, likewise
3. Grammar: Object Complement; plural nouns; sentence pattern (There+
Detailed study of the texts
1)Do words or terms in one language have the same meaning when they are
translated into another language?
In some adverbial clauses such as adverbial clauses of time, place, condition,
manner or concession, if the Predicate includes ―be‖, and the Subjects of the
main clause and the subordinate clause are the same, or the Subject is ―it‖, then
the Subject and the Predicate in the subordinate clause can be omitted (especially
the verb ―be‖ can be omitted ).
Eg (1)Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street.
(2)If (it is ) not well managed, the expansion of a business can lead to
(3)She hurriedly left the room as if (she was) angry.
Terms: words used to express a definite idea, technical (scientific, legal) terms
Eg (1) What is the scientific term for this?
(2)We can‘t find a better term than ―good for nothing‖ to apply to John.
2)Can we rely on„for an English word: Can we depend on„for an English word?
Rely on: to depend on; believe
Eg (1) One can always rely on him to be polite and do the right thing.
(2)People on the island rely on a spring for their water.
3)after all: all in all; in the final analysis
eg (1) Compared with her achievements, her shortcomings are, after all, only
(2) Don‘t worry too much about his whereabouts. After all, he is a young man
of 20 and can take care of himself.
4)Are the meanings of equivalent words„languages? Equivalent: sth that is equal in value, amount, meaning
Eg(1)Is there a French word that is the exact equivalent of the English word
(2) ―冰糖葫芦‖ is a Chinese term with no equivalent in English.
5)the same (with, to, that ,as): identical, not different
eg (1) Bad weather delayed my trip. Oh, it was the same with me.
(2)You can do it now or leave it till later; it‘s all the same to me.
(3) Our eggs are sold the same day that they come in.