By Keith Roberts,2014-04-21 16:58
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    Comprehensive English book 1

     Unit 1 Learning about learning

    I Teaching aims and demands

    Unit One aims at arousing students interest in this course by such new

    features as the Questionnaire on study. We think the following objectives of this

    Unit are important ;

    1. skills

    1) reading; reading for gist, detail and for inference

     2) writing; writing descriptive paragraphs

     3) learning; how to learn new words; vocabulary notebooks

    2. Vocabulary development word power; learning words and phrases used in

    talking about some topics about college live in general, These include;

    1) receptive words; overseas, tough, mostly, draft, work load, stuff, -

    fortunately, select, topic, routine, approach, inside, outside

    2) productive words and phrases; concentrate, sure, find out, adjust to, cope

    with, in advance, look up, set aside, keep to, try out

    3. Grammar; review subject and predicate, sentence patterns and Simple Pre-

    Sent tense

    II Detailed study of the texts

    Reading ( 1 )

    1)This questionnaire may the new year; Since the students have Just entered college, it is a little early for them to answer the questions.

    2)We wanted to find their new life at college; We wanted to Discover what they had done to try to hit used to the new life at college.

    Find out to learn or discover a fact that was hidden or that one did not

    Know yet, esp by making a deliberate effort to do so

    Eg ( 1 ) I found out the train times were a little different from those

     Last year.

    ( 2 ) Im interested in finding out what the facts are.

    ( 3 ) Weve found out that the girl has lost her way in the shop

     ping center.

    Manage; to succeed in doing sth

    Eg ( 1 ) Did he manage to get anything to eat before he set off ?


     ( 2 ) I could not know how he managed to find us.

     ( 3 ) Well manage it somehow. Im sure . adjust…….to; to change slightly, es to make oneself suitable for a new

    job or new conditions

     eg ( 1 ) Hes adjusted ( himself ) very quickly to the hot and dry

     weather of this city.

     ( 2 ) We have to adjust our selves to the new manager.

    3)Great! ; Great here is an exclamatory word, expressing approval,

    admiration, or excitement.

    Eg ( 1 ) Great! says Howard, Thats marvelous.

     ( 2 ) He was great. I really like him.

    In this text, there are a number of colloquial expressions like

    Yeah, real hard, take a break, but again, sure, ect Its

    necessary to make a summary of them after learning this unit.

    4)The main problem is the workload; The main problem is that he has a

    Large number of things to do which are relevant to his study.

    Note that the word workload or work-load is now used very of.-

    Ten, such as an increase in the workload , a teachers

    Weekly work-load and the total undergraduate work-Load

    5)I dont see how anyone..with it; I dont know how anyone can manage To finish that reading.

    Cope wit; to manage, or find a way to deal with sth or sb often difficult

    Or troublesome

    Eg ( 1 ) She had enough difficulties without having to cope with financial


     ( 2 ) We are also learning that to tell patients the truth will help them to cope

    with their illnesses.

    6) No set time, really; I do it when I get the chance; I have no fixed time for stud

     that is to say, I study when I can find the time.

     Set here is used as an adjective, describing peoples behavior when it does

    not change at all ,but is fixed as a result of habit.

    Eg(1) Others had their set hours and set places and set friends.

     (2)Now that Ive got the ticket, I am all set for the trip.

     (3)Her day usually followed a set pattern.

    7)I find putting my thoughts really hard.

     In this unit. The verb find is used in different patterns.

     For example;


    A. find + object

    ..and its real hard to find time for all the reading I have to do. B. find+ object + adjective (as Object complement)

    Do you find classes helpful?

    I find getting my thoughts down on paper quite hard.

    I find putting my thoughts down on paper really hard.

    C. find+ it+ adjective (as Object Complement)+(often) an infinitive

    with to

    ……but I find it hard to concentrate on the work.

    I found it quite hard to adjust at first,

    D. find+ objective clause

    I find the best thing to do is to be, you know, quite selective about

    What to read.

    Ive found the best approach is to write a rough draft first.

    I find getting ideas down on paper, even in rough form, helps me to

    Think about them better.

    8)one is more than enough!

    What he is saying implies that he doesnt intend to write any draft

    More than; to a greater extent or degree; very

     Eg ( 1 ) We are more than happy to hear of his escape.

    ( 2 ) I became more than convinced that the theatre was my luck place.

    9)……but the course is mostly literature;.but the course consists

    mainly of literary works.. mostly; adv, mainly , chiefly

     eg( 1 ) The men at the party were mostly fairly young

    ( 2 ) she had a very exciting life mostly in Birmingham

    ( 3 ) She is mostly out on Sundays.

    10)You seem to learn the language without realizing it; (When you read a

    Lot of simple books,) you pick up a lot of knowledge and many skills in a

    foreign language. but you dont seem to notice them!

    Realize; to understand or become aware of

    Eg( 1 ) It was a shock to realize afterwards that that they had danced at Most

    the whole night.

     ( 2 ) I came to realize in the end why this must be done first

    ( 3 ) Do you realize youre the first girl Ive been out with?

    Reading ( 2 )

    11)…….but it can be quite toughtoo, in a way; ..but living away


    form home is possibly quite hard, form one point of view.

    Note that can here indicates possibility, and in a way means Form one point of view, in a certain sense, to a limited extent.

     Eg ( 1 ) The road can be blocked.

    ( 2 ) This cant be true.

    ( 3 ) In a way , you are right.

    ( 4 ) I like Mr Barter, in a way.

    12)I found it quite hard to adjust at first. I mean I enjoy it , sure, but it

    Can be quite tough, too, in a way. I miss home when I think about it.

    But fortunately, Im too busy to think about it very much!

    In these sentences there are a number of examples of it. Be sure To know the exact meaning of each it The first it is used as the an-

    anticipatory it , while all the other its are pronouns, referring respectively to living away form home , life at college and home. Think about; to have sth in ones mind , to consider sth or sb seriously,

    To have an opinion about sth or sb

     Eg ( 1 ) Im sorry; I wasnt listening; I was thinking about some-Thing else.

    ( 2 ) We must think about Mothers health when choose home.

     ( 3 ) I dont know what to think about the new chairman Hes a mystery to


    In these examples think about can be replaced by think of . 13)..quite selective about what to read.

    Note the structure wh-word+ to do.

    Eg ( 1 ) when to start has not been decided. (as Subject)

     ( 2 ) I dont know what to do . (as object)

    ( 3 ) The question was where to go .(as predicative)

    ( 4 ) I can tell you where to get this pool.(as Direct Object)

    ( 5 ) I have no idea of how to do it. (as Prepositional Object)

    14)I find I study best at regular times; I find to study at the same time each

    Day is best ( most fruitful, most effective, most productive, yields the

    Best results);

    Regular; doing sth again and again at the same time

     Eg ( 1 ) He is a man with regular habits.

    ( 2 ) The doctor examined the baby at regular intervals.

    15) .I set aside regular times to study and keep to that routine..;.I

     plan my time carefully for study , and follow that arrangement with no



    Set aside ; to save(usually money or time0 for later use

    Eg( 1 ) I have a little money set aside for our holidays.

    ( 2 ) Ive set aside the whole weekend for house hunting.

    ( 3 ) you must keep to the rules even if you think theyre unfair.

    16) …… normally I divide the time up into half hour sessions.

     Divide up into . and divide into are similar in meaning . Here up means

    completely. The former may lay stress on to break something

    into completely separate groups or parts.

    17) In each session I set myself an exact job to do; In each period of time, I

     arrange for myself to do an exact job.

    Set; to arrange as a pattern or as material to be belt with

    Eg ( 1 ) The teacher set the boys a difficult task; to find all they could about


    ( 2 ) I have set myself the workload for this week ,

    ( 3 ) What books have been set for the Cambridge certificate next year?

    Cf I have no set time for studies.

    18) …… and it really works; it is really effective!

    III Home work;

    Unit 2 starting college

    I Teaching aims and demands

     1 .Skills

    1)reading; reading for gist , detail; , and for inference

    2)writing; writing a descriptive paragraph; surveying a whole book

    3)learning; learning how to survey a reading text

    2 Vocabulary development word power; learning words and phrases used in

     talking about the college life of American students in general. These include;

    1) receptive words; vacation, peer, verbal, automatically, reputation, casual

    2) productive words and phrases; fashion, present, earn, tough, qualify,

    obtain, admit, facility, attract, impress, survive, independent, apply to sb

    for sth, be located in, on ones own, stand for, work on , qualify sb for


    3 Grammar; the simple present tense; types of verbs ; transitive, intransitive

    And linking verbs; word formation- v.+-ion/-tion

    II Detailed study of the tests

    1)and has long blond hair:


    blond /blonde: a woman or girl with light-colored, usu yellowish hair

    brunette/brunet: white woman with dark-brown hair and(usu)darkish skin

    2)She does not seem to be overweight :she does not look fat.

    Note: in English speaking countries ,people usually use euphemism when talking

    about the disadvantages of a person. For example if a person is fat, they use

    over weight, strong or heavily=built instead of fat; and if he or she is thin or

    lean ,they use slender instead. 3)she often talks abort dieting.

    diet: to eat only some food or a little food ,esp to lose weight eg No sugar in my

    coffee, please; Im dieting.

    4)But somehow she always seems to forget about dieting when she is hungry; But

    for some unknown reason, when she is hungry she always forgets that she can

    only eat certain foods to keep her figure!!(Note the humor in this sentence.)

    Somehow: for some reason that is not clear ;by some means

    Eg(1)I think shes right but somehow I; m not completely sure.

    (2)I couldnt get to sleep somehow.

    (3)Dont worry, we ll get there somehow. forget about: to fail to remember

    Eg(1)How could you forget about such a large debt

    2I wish I could forget about that terrible accident.

    5)Her home is a large single-family dwelling in a quiet tree planed street: Her home

    is a building made to house one family on a quiet street, along either side of

    which are trees.

    6)Her mother also works, as a fashion=design,: Her mother is a designer of clothes,

    fashion: the way of dressing or behaving that is usual or popular at a certain


    a fashion show: a show of clothes

    a fashion house: a company that produces clothes

    7)There she can close the door when she wants to be on her own: she can close the

    door of her room when she wants to be alone (so that nobody else will disturb


    (all)on ones own :alone; without help

    eg(1)Let me be ,I want to be on my own.

    (2)I cant carry this bag on my own; it still heavy.

    8)Sue decided to apply for a place in the state university, SUNY: Sue decided to

    make a formal request to the state university, SUNY, for admission.

    Apply(to sb)for sth :to make a formal request for sth(such as a job)


    Eg(1)What does T.G. stand for in T.G. Smith?

    (2)I hate fascism and all it stands for.

    (3)We must know which party he stands for.

    9)My Dad couldnt afford to send me to an expensive college: My father wan not

    rich enough to provide for my education at a college whose tuition is high.

    Afford to usu with can, could ,able to )to be able to spend ,give, do, etc, without

    serious loss or damage

    Eg We cant afford to lose such an important member of the staff. 10)To study at college, Sue had to take out a Federal Guaranteed Student Loan: I in

    order to be able to study at college, Sue had to obtain a Federal Guaranteed

    Student Loan.

    Take out: to obtain(a piece of paper giving one the right to

    Eg ( 1 ) Have you taken out insurance on your possessions inside the House ?

    ( 2 ) In the United States , many people take out a loan to buy a car.

    ( 3 ) In order to make the new company run , Sam had to take out loans

    from the bank .

    Federal Guaranteed student Loan; a special low-lender to help young people get

    college education

    The beneficiary doesnt have to pay back the loan until he or she graduates from

    college. The Federal Government acts as the guarantee for the loan.

    12)Like most of her peers, Sue chose to leave home to go to university.

     Peer; a person of the same age , class, position, etc, as oneself

    Eg The opinions of his peers are more important to him than his parents ideas.

     Choose to ; decide to

    Eg ( 1 ) They chose to ignore her warning

     ( 2 ) He chose not to go home until later

    13)To get to college, Sue had to start making plans quite early on in her senior year

    at high school; In order to get to college , Sue had to make

    Plans quite early in her graduating year at high school.

    Eg ( 1 ) The wheel was discovered very early on in human history .

     ( 2 ) He developed a musical interest early on.

    Senior year ;(AmE) the last year in a high school (usu including grades 9-12 or

    10-12) or university course

    Note ; In American universities , people use freshman, sophomore, junior and

    senior to stand for a first-year student respectively.

    14)Because the competition is tough, Sue worked hard on her courses; Be-

    Cause the competitions intense, Sue did her best to complete all her Courses

    8 well.

    Work on ; to do something which needs effort

    Eg ( 1 )0 Jane is working on her graduation project.

    ( 2 ) All the students in the classroom are quietly working on their

    examination papers.

    15)She knew that the university would look carefully at her high school

    Records; She knew that the university would consider carefully her course

    achievement records in high school.

    High school records; the known or recorded facts about the past be-

    16)She was particularly worried about her SATs the Scholastic Aptitude Test.

    SATs; ( AmE) a standardized test designed to predict an individuals

    Ability to learn certain skills, which is usually carried out before admission to a


    17).. this did not qualify her for every institution she was interested in ,

    but it qualified her comfortably for the state university;.although she

    would not be accepted by every institution she wanted to go to, yet her score was

    good enough for acceptance by the state university.

    qualify (sb) for sth: to reach the condition recognized as enabling a person to do,

    to receive or to be fit for something

    Eg(1)This degree will qualify you for teaching(or: as a teacher).

    (2)Your heroic action in helping the police will qualify you for a reward.

    Comfortably: easily

     Eg He won the race comfortably.

    18)the state university automatically admitted her because she ranked in the top

    quarter of her high school graduating class: the state university accepted her

    as a matter of course because she was in the best 25% of the graduating class of

    her high school.

    Eg (1)Any person who doesnt have a ticket will not be admitted into the cinema.

     (2)This university has admitted only 2,000 students this year.

    19)She was impressed by what she saw, :What she saw made a good impression on her/She enjoyed what she saw, impress: to fill a person with admiration

    eg(1)I was deeply impressed by her excellent performance.

    (2)The latest fashion show impressed me a great deal.

    20) she wrote accepting the universitys offer.

    Write +v-ing: write(intransitive verb): to produce and send a letter eg She


    wrote asking me to come.


    21)The university campus is located in Albany, :The university campus is in


    locate: to fix or set in a certain place; situate

    eg(1)The house is located by the river.

     (2)The offices are usually located in the center of a city.

    22)They both have a lot in common, :Both of them share a lot of interests,

    characteristics, ect

    have sth in common(with sb/sth):share interests, characteristics, etc

    eg(1)As good friends, we have many thing in common.

    (2)I have nothing in common with my brother.

    23) both of them have kid brothers back home.

     Kid esp AmE)(of a brother or sister)younger

    24)When I first arrived, I had a great feeling of liberation: When I first arrived in

    this university, I felt that now I was free, and it was great!

    25)But Ill survive: but Ill stay on here and manage to live!(Note this is an


     survive: to continue to live, especially after coming close to death; to continue to

    live after

     eg(1)Although others died in the accident, we survived.

    (2)Not many people survived that terrible earthquake in 1976.

    ? Homework.

    Unit 3 Words

    Teaching aims and demands

    1. Skills

    1) reading: reading for gist, detail, and for inference; making use of the

    context clue

    2) writing: learning to understand the structure of a paragraph

    3) learning: using a dictionary

    2. Vocabulary development-word power: learning words and phrases used

    in talking about language and culture in general. These are:

    1) receptive words: terms, proper, after all, equivalent, intellectual,

    industrialized, reaction, bilingual, definition, respective, general

    2) productive words and phrases: rely on, would, lead to , stand for , look

    forward to , get away from, cover, range, be in use, assume, point out,


    give some idea about, instead of , pay out, delay, likewise

    3. Grammar: Object Complement; plural nouns; sentence pattern (There+


    Detailed study of the texts


    1)Do words or terms in one language have the same meaning when they are

    translated into another language?

    In some adverbial clauses such as adverbial clauses of time, place, condition,

    manner or concession, if the Predicate includes be, and the Subjects of the

    main clause and the subordinate clause are the same, or the Subject is it, then

    the Subject and the Predicate in the subordinate clause can be omitted (especially

    the verb be can be omitted ).

    Eg (1)Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street.

    (2)If (it is ) not well managed, the expansion of a business can lead to


    (3)She hurriedly left the room as if (she was) angry.

    Terms: words used to express a definite idea, technical (scientific, legal) terms

    Eg (1) What is the scientific term for this?

    (2)We cant find a better term than good for nothing to apply to John.

    2)Can we rely onfor an English word: Can we depend onfor an English word?

    Rely on: to depend on; believe

     Eg (1) One can always rely on him to be polite and do the right thing.

     (2)People on the island rely on a spring for their water.

    3)after all: all in all; in the final analysis

    eg (1) Compared with her achievements, her shortcomings are, after all, only


    (2) Don‘t worry too much about his whereabouts. After all, he is a young man

    of 20 and can take care of himself.

    4)Are the meanings of equivalent wordslanguages? Equivalent: sth that is equal in value, amount, meaning

    Eg(1)Is there a French word that is the exact equivalent of the English word


    (2) 冰糖葫芦 is a Chinese term with no equivalent in English.

    5)the same (with, to, that ,as): identical, not different

    eg (1) Bad weather delayed my trip. Oh, it was the same with me.

    (2)You can do it now or leave it till later; its all the same to me.

     (3) Our eggs are sold the same day that they come in.

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