Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders.By Naragon-Gainey, Kristin
Psychological Bulletin. Vol 136(1), Jan 2010, 128-150.
There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait anxiety sensitivity (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders?? high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these disorders or if it shows a pattern of differential relations. Meta-analyses of the concurrent relations of AS with the internalizing disorders were conducted based on 117 studies and 792 effect sizes. Mean Anxiety Sensitivity Index scores by diagnostic group and AS?Csymptom correlations both indicated that AS is most strongly related to panic, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). More specific analyses were also conducted on (a) AS correlations with symptom dimensions within individual disorders and (b) correlations between lower order AS components and symptoms. The meta-analytic correlation matrix for higher order AS?Cdisorder relations was submitted to path analysis, modeling latent Distress disorders and Fear disorders that control for much of the shared variance among the disorders. Results of the path analysis indicated that AS is broadly related to these disorders but that agoraphobia, GAD, panic, and PTSD have the strongest associations. In addition, AS was more strongly related to the latent distress disorders than the fear disorders. Because of the contemporaneous assessment of AS and internalizing disorders in these studies, the results should not be taken to mean that AS has a stronger casual association with certain disorders. Implications for concurrent AS?Cinternalizing relations, interpretations of the AS construct, and structural models of personality and psychopathology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Controlling uncertainty: A review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments.By Osman, Magda
Psychological Bulletin. Vol 136(1), Jan 2010, 65-86.
Complex dynamic control (CDC) tasks are a type of problem-solving environment used for examining many cognitive activities (e.g., attention, control, decision making, hypothesis testing, implicit learning, memory, monitoring, planning, and problem solving). Because of their popularity, there have been many findings from diverse domains of research (economics, engineering, ergonomics, human?Ccomputer interaction, management, psychology), but they remain largely
disconnected from each other. The objective of this article is to review theoretical developments and empirical work on CDC tasks, and to introduce a novel framework (monitoring and control framework) as a tool for integrating theory and findings. The main thesis of the monitoring and control framework is that CDC tasks are
characteristically uncertain environments, and subjective judgments of uncertainty guide the way in which monitoring and control behaviors attempt to reduce it. The article concludes by discussing new insights into continuing debates and future directions for research on CDC tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Comparing prefrontal gray and white matter contributions to intelligence and decision making in schizophrenia and healthy controls.By Nestor, Paul G.; Kubicki, Marek; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E. Neuropsychology. Vol 24(1), Jan 2010, 121-129.
The authors examined the relationship between neuropsychological performance and MRI of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the cingulum bundle (CB) within groups of patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. The authors analyzed data from subjects, who had participated in prior MRI, DTI, and neuropsychological studies (Nakamura et al., 2008; Nestor et al., 2008). In comparison to healthy subjects, patients showed the expected reductions across CB fractional anisotropy (white matter) and OFC gray matter volume as well as lower neuropsychological scores. In addition, in comparison to healthy subjects, patients showed a very different pattern of functional-anatomical correlates. For patients, CB white matter but not OFC gray matter correlated with various aspects of intelligence, including general abilities and working memory. For controls, OFC gray matter but not CB white matter correlated with scores on tests of intelligence and decision making. These results point to the potentially important role of CB white matter in the neuropsychological disturbance in schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Semantic ambiguity resolution in positive schizotypy: A right hemisphere interpretation.By Grimshaw, Gina M.; Bryson, Frances M.; Atchley, Ruth Ann; Humphrey, Megan K.
Neuropsychology. Vol 24(1), Jan 2010, 130-138.
Positive schizotypal traits have been associated with right hemisphere activation. Previous research has indicated that the left and right hemispheres differ in their processing of semantic ambiguity;
specifically, given sufficient time, the left hemisphere primes dominant meanings and inhibits subordinate meanings, and the right hemisphere primes both dominant and subordinate meanings. The authors examined whether individuals who differed in positive schizotypy demonstrated different patterns of priming on a semantic ambiguity task, reflective of differences in hemispheric activation. Individuals low in schizotypy demonstrated the expected pattern of priming the dominant meaning while inhibiting the subordinate meaning. Individuals high in schizotypy demonstrated similar priming of the dominant meaning but no inhibition of the subordinate meaning. The role of this failure of inhibition in the generation of schizotypal thought is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)