By Nicole Harris,2014-05-17 03:24
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    Chapter 18 Notes

I. Introduction

     A. Land empire created between 1450-1750

     1. Involved limited commercial exchange

     2. Altered balance of power Asia/Europe

     3. Expanded eastward into Asia

     B. Link to Eastern Europe

     1. Some regional kingdoms

     2. Conflict with Poland and Lithuania

     C. Changes of nation

     1. Sense of separate identity

     2. Reaction to Western influence accept it, select from it, shun it

II. Russia’s Expansionist Politics Under the Tsars

    A. First step Break free from Mongol control

    1. Moscow princes strong as tax collectors

    2. Ivan III Ivan the Great large army 1462 frees chunk

    i. Utilized support for Orthodox Church

    ii. Played off nationalism

    iii. 1480 totally freed of Mongol control

    B. Need for Revival

    1. Basic Russian Values

    i. Under Mongols

    1. Some adopted dress

    2. Christianity maintained

    3. Arts diminish

    4. Economic hit trade down/manufacturing limited

    a. Purely agricultural economy

    2. Centralized Rule

    i. With imperial mission make an empire

    ii. Connection to Byzantine Empire married niece of empero

    3. “Third Rome” – Caesar Tsar

    4. Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible

    i. Killed many nobles (boyars) for alleged conspiracy

    1. Nobles couldn’t stand up for selves – no tradition

    C. Patterns of Expansion

    1. Central Asia

    i. Why? Push back Mongols

    ii. Vast plains easy to conquer/stage battles

    iii. Cossacks Russian pioneers horse + farm

    1. Took over then settled lands

    2. Skilled horsemen think American cowboys/Mongol

    2. Usages of expansion

    i. Land given to nobles for allegiance

    ii. Further east opened new trading relationships

    3. Eliminated independent Central Asia

    i. Nomads gone

    ii. Diverse peoples added to Russia multicultural empire

    1. Like Mughal Empire/Ottoman Empire

    2. Large Muslim minority

    D. Western Contact and Romanov Policy

    1. Carefully managed contacts with the west

    i. Early contacts with British merchants

    ii. Imported Italian artists/architects to work on churches/palaces onion

    iii. Nobles look to west for style/art/status - precedent

    2. Conflict over heir to the throne

    i. After Ivan IV Time of Trouble disputes for throne boyars

    ii. Romanov Dynasty chosen by boyars

    3. Romanov’s reestablish order

    i. Stopped Swedish/Polish attacks

    ii. Expanded empire

    1. Met Ottoman Empire

    2. Part of Ukraine

    4. Alexis Romanov’s new powers

    i. Abolished noble assemblies think Louis XIV

    ii. State control of Orthdox faith get rid of superstitions of Mongol era

    1. Exiled to Sibera Old Believers

    III. Russia’s First Westernization

    A. Introduction

    a. Unusually agricultural existence

    i. Peter the Great extended tsarist control

    ii. Expanded territory

    iii. Imitated Western forms

    b. Peter the Great exceptional leader

    i. Traveled to west in disguise picture 6’8” guy in disguise

    ii. Visited manufacturing centers empires for alliances

    1. Gained interest brought back artisans, scientists

    B. Tsarist Autocracy of Peter the Great

    a. Autocrat

    i. Put down revolts with cruelty

    1. Organized military

    ii. Devalued parliament

    iii. Recruited bureaucrats from outside nobility

    iv. Secret police to watch bureaucrats/prevent dissent

    1. Chancery of Secret Police to 1990 b. Foreign policy

    i. attacked Ottoman Empire, but didn’t win a ton of battles

    ii. weakened Sweden sea port

    iii. shifted capital to St. Petersburg

    C. What Westernization Meant

    a. Political changes

    i. Small bureaucratic departments (think Ministries or Departments)

    ii. Military

    1. Improved weaponry

    2. First Russian navy

    iii. Got rid of nobility for advisors got specialized people

    iv. Tsar-appointed local magistrates can control provinces

    v. Systemized law codes/tax system (stuff China did 2000 years ago)

    vi. New training institutes for bureaucrats b. Economic changes

    i. Metallurgy and mining

    ii. Unlike W. Europe, didn’t urbanize, develop middle class

    1. Serfs used for manufacturing nobles rewarded

    iii. economics funded military

    c. Cultural changes

    i. Power to upper class women

    1. stopped the pass the whip ceremony (whipped?)

    2. wear Western clothing

    3. Attend public events

    4. Peasant relations stayed the same

    ii. Take power from elite

    1. shave beards, wear western clothes Mongol connection

    2. altered appearance

    d. Borrowing from the West

    i. Education in math/sciences

    ii. Western cultural zone

    1. imported ballet from France

    2. Christmas trees from Germany

    e. To what extent was West imitated? Selective

    i. Didn’t change poor

    ii. Not wage labor, but serf (slave/coerced) labor

    iii. Economics for military purposes not for commercial expansion

    iv. Ideas to strengthen aristocracy, not create political rebellions

    f. Hostile Responses

    i. Peasants resented nobles some didn’t speak Russian

    ii. Elite discouraged Western change losing Russian identity

    iii. Set precedent for cycle of enthusiasm > revulsion

    D. Consolidation Under Catherine the Great a. Weak rule following Peter the Great

    i. Military leaders fought for power

    ii. Anti-western leaders emerged

    iii. Peter the Great’s daughter’s nephew – Peter III mentally challenged

    1. Wife Catherine German princess takes over

    a. Put down rebellions

    b. Centralized power

    c. Used Pugachev Rebellion as an excuse for more power

    b. Catherine II fascinating women rulers

    i. Hated husband/son

    ii. Helped overthrow husband

    iii. Enlightened leader + realist/needed to centralize

    iv. Active personal life doubt you need to know that c. Selective westernizer

    i. Brought some ideas of French Enlightenment

    ii. Brought some reformers to discuss law codes d. Image vs. Reality centralized authority serf life gets worse

    i. New powers to nobility could increase punishment

    1. Nobles then gave more power to central authority

    2. Became service aristocracy sold out?

    ii. Role of landlord

    1. Requisition peasant labor

    2. Levy taxes

    3. Impose punishments

    e. Fading from Western influence still selective

    i. Improved St. Petersburg

    ii. Encouraged nobles to travel

    iii. Closed Russia after French Revolution hmmm…why?

    1. Censored intellectuals here’s a pattern/precedent

    f. Russian expansion

    i. Fought Ottoman Empire

    ii. Extended holdings all the way down to modern day Alaska, Oregon, N. California

    g. Russia’s interests in Europe

    i. Divided Poland between Austria and Prussia

    1. Poland’s parliament kept crippling gov’t flexibility

    ii. Set precedent of involvement in W. Europe

    1. Eventually, Russia would stop Napoleon h. Success by 1800 summary here’s what they accomplished

    i. Won independence

    ii. Centralized gov’t


    IV. Themes in Early Modern Russian History

    A. Introduction

    a. Nobility extremely important

    b. Two types

    i. Great landowners/absentee owners living in the cities westernized

    ii. Smaller owners live out in the countryside less Westernized

    B. Serfdom: The Life of East Europe’s Masses

    a. Nobles power over serfs increases

    i. Free farmers before

    ii. Fell into debt repay through servitude

    1. worked land, but didn’t own it

    iii. Gov’t encouraged process – why?

    1. Made nobles happy won’t revolt

    2. Method of controlling masses, when bureaucracy wasn’t effective

    b. Serf laws

    i. 1649 hereditary status born a serf can’t escape

    c. Similarity to slavery

    i. Bought and sold

    ii. Gambled away

    iii. Punished by masters

    iv. Differences

    1. nation enslaved own people, not outsiders

    2. relied on community ties (see precedent for commun-ism)

    d. Similarity to Eastern Europe

    i. Nobles in Poland, Hungary benefited from system

    1. Supported political control

    2. Allowed them to have distinctive/Western life e. Eastern Europe subordinate to the West

    i. Russian grain traded for luxury items for nobility f. Life of serfs on estates

    i. Whole villages could be sold for manufacturing jobs

    ii. Poor/illiterate

    1. Paid high taxes/obligations impossible to escape

    iii. Catherine the Great created model villages to show off

    C. Trade and Economic Dependence

    a. Classes between serfs and landlords

    i. Prevented emergence of merchant class

    1. Western European merchants lived in Russian cities/controlled trade

    b. Success of Russia’s social and economic system

    i. Enough money to support empire

    ii. Exported furs/commodities to central Asia balanced trade

    iii. Significant population growth

    1. Surprising considering harsh climate c. Limitations of Russia’s social and economic system

    i. Man labor not technological innovation

    1. No motivation extra profit just goes to lord

    ii. Manufacturing lagged behind w. Europe

    D. Social Unrest

    a. System leads to protests thi. Western-oriented aristocrats push for change end of 18 century

    ii. Peasants loyal to tsar, but resented lords b. Peasant Rebellions

    i. Pugachev rebellion Cossack chieftain promised

    1. End to serfdom

    2. End to taxation

    3. End to military conscription

    4. End to landed aristocracy

    ii. Eventually put down after roaming Southern Russia

     1. Cut into pieces in Moscow square

    E. Russia and Eastern Europe

    a. Eastern Europe

    i. Changing boundaries

    ii. More embracing of enlightenment/scientific revolution contributed scholars b. Nationalities lose autonomy

    i. Hungary part of German Hapsburgs

    ii. Czech part of Hapsburgs - Bohemians c. Decline of Poland

    i. Link to west Catholic

    ii. Political aristocrats chose weak kings on purpose

    1. Vetoed reform efforts

    iii. Poland split into three parts

    V. Global Connections

     A. Why so significant?

     a. Huge land empire 10 time zones

     b. Different from w. Europe, but huge impact

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