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Grade 8 History Blueprint - Standardized Testing and Reporting (CA

By Lawrence Mills,2014-05-07 15:32
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Grade 8 History Blueprint - Standardized Testing and Reporting (CA

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 6 % Items WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY: ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

    Students in grade six expand their understanding of history by studying

    the people and events that ushered in the dawn of the major Western and

    non-Western ancient civilizations. Geography is of special significance in

    the development of the human story. Continued emphasis is placed on the

    everyday lives, problems, and accomplishments of people, their role in

    developing social, economic, and political structures, as well as in 16 22% establishing and spreading ideas that helped transform the world forever.

    Students develop higher levels of critical thinking by considering why

    civilizations developed where and when they did, why they became

    dominant, and why they declined. Students analyze the interactions

    among the various cultures, emphasizing their enduring contributions and

    the link, despite time, between the contemporary and ancient worlds. Reporting Cluster 1: 16 22% WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY: ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

    6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of

    the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the 1 Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.

    1. Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools * and the use of fire.

    2. Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions A** of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments. 3. Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical

    environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and * new sources of clothing and shelter.

    6.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and

    social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and 2 Kush.

    1. Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical A** settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations. 2. Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the

    production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of B** culture and power.

    3. Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political A** order in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

    4. Know the significance of Hammurabi's Code. B** 5. Discuss the main features of Egyptian art and architecture. A** 6. Describe the role of Egyptian trade in the eastern Mediterranean and Nile * valley.

    7. Understand the significance of Queen Hatshepsut and Ramses the Great. * 8. Identify the location of the Kush civilization and describe its political, * commercial, and cultural relations with Egypt.

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 1 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 6 % Items 9. Trace the evolution of language and its written forms. B** 6.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 3 social structures of the Ancient Hebrews.

    1. Describe the origins and significance of Judaism as the first monotheistic

    religion based on the concept of one God who sets down moral laws for A** humanity.

    2. Identify the sources of the ethical teachings and central beliefs of Judaism

    (the Hebrew Bible, the Commentaries): belief in God, observance of law,

    practice of the concepts of righteousness and justice, and importance of A** study; and describe how the ideas of the Hebrew traditions are reflected in

    the moral and ethical traditions of Western civilization.

    3. Explain the significance of Abraham, Moses, Naomi, Ruth, David, and C** Yohanan ben Zaccai in the development of the Jewish religion.

    4. Discuss the locations of the settlements and movements of Hebrew peoples,

    including the Exodus and their movement to and from Egypt, and outline the C** significance of the Exodus to the Jewish and other people.

    5. Discuss how Judaism survived and developed despite the continuing

    dispersion of much of the Jewish population from Jerusalem and the rest of B** Israel after the destruction of the second Temple in A.D. 70.

    6.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 3 social structures of the early civilization of Ancient Greece.

     1. Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea, including patterns of trade and B** commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean

    region.

    2. Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of

    government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the A** significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship (e.g., from Pericles' Funeral Oration).

    3. State the key differences between Athenian, or direct, democracy and A** representative democracy.

    4. Explain the significance of Greek mythology to the everyday life of people in

    the region and how Greek literature continues to permeate our literature and B** language today, drawing from Greek mythology and epics, such as Homer's

    Iliad and Odyssey, and from Aesop's Fables.

    5. Outline the founding, expansion, and political organization of the Persian * Empire.

    6. Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta, with emphasis on their roles B** in the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.

    7. Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture B** eastward and into Egypt.

    8. Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and A** sciences (e.g., Hypatia, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Thucydides). * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 2 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 6 % Items 6.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 2 social structures of the early civilizations of India.

    1. Locate and describe the major river system and discuss the physical setting * that supported the rise of this civilization.

    2. Discuss the significance of the Aryan invasions. * 3. Explain the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India and how they * evolved into early Hinduism.

    4. Outline the social structure of the caste system. B** 5. Know the life and moral teachings of Buddha and how Buddhism spread in A** India, Ceylon, and Central Asia.

    6. Describe the growth of the Maurya empire and the political and moral * achievements of the emperor Asoka.

    7. Discuss important aesthetic and intellectual traditions (e.g., Sanskrit

    literature, including the Bhagavad Gita; medicine; metallurgy; and B** mathematics, including Hindu-Arabic numerals and the zero).

    6.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 2 social structures of the early civilizations of China.

    1. Locate and describe the origins of Chinese civilization in the Huang-He Valley * during the Shang Dynasty.

    2. Explain the geographic features of China that made governance and the

    spread of ideas and goods difficult and served to isolate the country from the * rest of the world.

    3. Know about the life of Confucius and the fundamental teachings of A** Confucianism and Taoism.

    4. Identify the political and cultural problems prevalent in the time of Confucius * and how he sought to solve them.

    5. List the policies and achievements of the emperor Shi Huangdi in unifying B** northern China under the Qin Dynasty.

    6. Detail the political contributions of the Han Dynasty to the development of the A** imperial bureaucratic state and the expansion of the empire.

    7. Cite the significance of the trans-Eurasian "silk roads" in the period of the B** Han Dynasty and Roman Empire and their locations.

    8. Describe the diffusion of Buddhism northward to China during the Han * Dynasty.

    6.7 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 3 social structures during the development of Rome.

    1. Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including

    the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus B** and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero.

    2. Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g.,

    written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic A** duty).

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 3 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 6 % Items 3. Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth

    of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire * fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes. 4. Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition B** from republic to empire.

    5. Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects

    of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans' restrictions on their * right to live in Jerusalem. 6. Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life

    and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and A** the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of

    Christian beliefs (e.g., belief in the Trinity, resurrection, salvation).

    7. Describe the circumstances that led to the spread of Christianity in Europe * and other Roman territories.

    8. Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, A** literature, language, and law.

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 4 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 7 % Items WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY: MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN

    TIMES

    Students in grade seven study the social, cultural, and technological

    changes that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia in the years A. D. 500-1789. After reviewing the ancient world and the ways in which

    archaeologists and historians uncover the past, students study the

    history and geography of great civilizations that were developing

    concurrently throughout the world during medieval and early modern

    times. They examine the growing economic interaction among 31% 24 civilizations as well as the exchange of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and

    commodities. They learn about the resulting growth of Enlightenment

    philosophy and the new examination of the concepts of reason and

    authority, the natural rights of human beings and the divine right of kings,

    experimentalism in science, and the dogma of belief. Finally, students

    assess the political forces let loose by the Enlightenment, particularly the rise of democratic ideas, and they learn about the continuing influence of

    these ideas in the world today.

    Reporting Cluster 2: 14 18% LATE ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES (formerly titled MIDDLE AGES) 7.1 Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and 1 ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.

    1. Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance

    of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture,

    engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) A** and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers

    within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and

    slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news).

    2. Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors C** that threatened its territorial cohesion.

    3. Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in

    Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European B** civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct

    views on church-state relations.

    7.2 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 2 social structures of civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages. 1. Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian

    peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and C** nomadic and sedentary ways of life.

    2. Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including A** Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity. 3. Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources A** of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life. * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 5

    ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 7 % Items 4. Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties,

    emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread B** and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.

    5. Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among

    Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along C** these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops), and the role of

    merchants in Arab society.

    6. Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia

    and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in B** the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and

    literature.

    7.3 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 2 social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages. 1. Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for A** the spread of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan.

    2. Describe agricultural, technological, and commercial developments during the * Tang and Sung periods.

    3. Analyze the influences of Confucianism and changes in Confucian thought B** during the Sung and Mongol periods.

    4. Understand the importance of both overland trade and maritime expeditions between China and other civilizations in the Mongol Ascendancy and Ming * Dynasty.

    5. Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of A** paper, wood-block printing, the compass, and gunpowder.

    6. Describe the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class. B** 7.4 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and

    social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in 2 Medieval Africa.

    1. Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones of forest,

    savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves; and the growth A** of the Ghana and Mali empires.

    2. Analyze the importance of family, labor specialization, and regional * commerce in the development of states and cities in West Africa.

    3. Describe the role of the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing

    religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of B** Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law.

    4. Trace the growth of the Arabic language in government, trade, and Islamic B** scholarship in West Africa.

    5. Describe the importance of written and oral traditions in the transmission of * African history and culture.

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 6 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 7 % Items 7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 2 social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.

    1. Describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the

    intellectual, linguistic, religious, and philosophical influence of those countries B** on Japan.

    2. Discuss the reign of Prince Shotoku of Japan and the characteristics of C** Japanese society and family life during his reign.

    3. Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting A** influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century.

    4. Trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism. C** 5. Study the ninth and tenth centuries' golden age of literature, art, and drama

    and its lasting effects on culture today, including Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of * Genji.

    6. Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of A** the samurai in that society.

    7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and 3 social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.

    1. Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass, including its

    location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate and their *

     relationship to ways of life in Medieval Europe.

    2. Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by

    the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the * western half of the Roman Empire.

    3. Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European

    economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role A** of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided

    the foundation of political order.

    4. Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the

    Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor A** Henry IV).

    5. Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and

    constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic B** thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament,

    development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England). 6. Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on

    the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on A** the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern

    Mediterranean world.

    7. Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle * East, and Europe and describe its impact on global population.

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 7 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 7 % Items 8. Understand the importance of the Catholic church as a political, intellectual,

    and aesthetic institution (e.g., founding of universities, political and spiritual

    roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, B** preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, St. Thomas Aquinas's

    synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology, and the concept of

    "natural law").

    9. Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that

    culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of Spanish and Portuguese * kingdoms.

    7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic,

    religious, and social structures of the Mesoamerican and Andean 2 civilizations. 1. Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and

    South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, * trade, and development of urban societies.

    2. Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family A** life, war-fare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery.

    3. Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan A** empires were defeated by the Spanish.

    4. Describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the three B** civilizations.

    5. Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics,

    including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American B** knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations' agricultural systems. Reporting Cluster 3: RENAISSANCE/REFORMATION 10 13% 7.8 Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic 2 diffusion of the Renaissance.

    1. Describe the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts

    fostered a new interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between intellect and A** religious faith).

    2. Explain the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance

    and the growth of independent trading cities (e.g., Venice), with emphasis on * the cities' importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas.

    3. Understand the effects of the reopening of the ancient "Silk Road" between Europe and China, including Marco Polo's travels and the location of his * routes.

    4. Describe the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information

    (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the B** vernacular, printing).

    5. Detail advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics,

    cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and A** astronomy (e.g., by Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo di

    Buonarroti Simoni, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare).

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 8 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 7 % Items 7.9 Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation. 3 1. List the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic A** church (e.g., tax policies, selling of indulgences).

    2. Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures

    during the Reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John A** Calvin, William Tyndale).

    3. Explain Protestants' new practices of church self-government and the

    influence of those practices on the development of democratic practices and B** ideas of federalism.

    4. Identify and locate the European regions that remained Catholic and those

    that became Protestant and explain how the division affected the distribution A** of religions in the New World.

    5. Analyze how the Counter-Reformation revitalized the Catholic church and the

    forces that fostered the movement (e.g., St. Ignatius of Loyola and the B** Jesuits, the Council of Trent).

    6. Understand the institution and impact of missionaries on Christianity and the

    diffusion of Christianity from Europe to other parts of the world in the C** medieval and early modern periods; locate missions on a world map. 7. Describe the Golden Age of cooperation between Jews and Muslims in

    medieval Spain that promoted creativity in art, literature, and science, including how that cooperation was terminated by the religious persecution of B** individuals and groups (e.g., the Spanish Inquisition and the expulsion of

    Jews and Muslims from Spain in 1492).

    7.10 Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific

    Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural 2 institutions.

    1. Discuss the roots of the Scientific Revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish,

    Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from A** global exploration).

    2. Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of

    Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions A** (e.g., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer).

    3. Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the

    influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and B** the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.

    7.11 Students analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth,

    seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the 3 Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).

    1. Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the A** influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview. * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 9 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

    CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST

    GRADE 8 HISTORY-SOCIAL SCIENCE

    (Blueprint adopted by the State Board of Education 10/02)

    # of CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: GRADE 7 % Items 2. Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas

    among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth B** centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent. 3. Examine the origins of modern capitalism; the influence of mercantilism and

    cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in

    seventeenth-century Europe; the changing international trading and A** marketing patterns, including their locations on a world map; and the

    influence of explorers and map makers.

     4. Explain how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such

    movements as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific * Revolution and to the Greeks, Romans, and Christianity.

    5. Describe how democratic thought and institutions were influenced by

    Enlightenment thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, A** American founders).

    6. Discuss how the principles in the Magna Carta were embodied in such

    documents as the English Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of * Independence.

    * Standard not ranked for emphasis. 10 ** Emphasis: A=high; B=medium; C=low.

    ? California Department of Education

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