By Willie Ford,2014-04-16 16:14
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More fuel is heaped around and between them and Paraffin oil or petrol is sprayed over the whole. The straw lighted. Its body temperature is 38.9oC. It has no sweat glands. ii) A good ration should nutritionally balanced




     Breeds of pigs

     Handling and caring of pigs

     Management of the boar


     Satellite Pig Farm



    India has one of the largest livestock populations in the world. As per the 2003 livestock census, there were 187.38 million cattle of which 22.63 million are crossbred, 96.62 million buffaloes 61.8 million sheep and 120 million goats and 14 million pigs in the country, Haryana has 0.12 million and U.P. has 2.6 million pigs. From these resources, about 1 million tons of meat is produced annually and it is expected to be doubled by 2005 A.D. This quantity is produced form 1.4 million cattle, 37.3 million sheep and goats, and 1.5 million swine slaughtered in the abattoirs annually. Of the total meat thus produced, 54% is mutton and chevon, 26% beef and buffalo, 13% poultry meat and 7% pork in addition to 2.4 million tons of fish. The rate of slaughter of cattle and buffaloes in the country in relation to their population is approximately 1.4% as against 21-30% in the developed nations. Nearly 99% of Pig Population is slaughtered annually.

    The composition of livestock population has undergone significant transformation. The share of bovine population declined from approximately 68 percent in 1951 to less than 58 percent in 2003, and the share of goats increased from 16 percent to over 24 percent. Second, within the bovine population, there has been a clear shift towards buffaloes. The share of buffaloes, in the bovine population increased from 22 percent in 1951 to 33 percent in 2003. Further, within cattle there has been a marked shift from work animals towards milch animals. The proportion of male cattle in the population declined from 41.8 percent in 1972 to about 36.4 percent in 1992. Finally, within milch cattle the population of crossbred cows has grown at a much faster rate than the indigenous stock. For example, the population of crossbred cows increased at the rate of 7.5 percent during 1982-92 compared to 0.1 percent for indigenous cows. As a result, the number of crossbred cows more than doubled from 3 million in 1982 to 6.5 million in 1992 and 23 million in 2003.

    Apart from being an important contributor to national income, the sector has been considered as one with high potential for alleviating poverty and unemployment in rural areas. About three-fourths of India’s population and almost three-fourths of the poor

    population in India live in rural areas and over 70 percent of rural households own livestock. A large majority of livestock owning households comprise of small and marginal farmers and landless households which also account for a large share of poor households. Overall, the distribution of livestock is much more equitable than that of land the bottom 60 percent of rural households, own 65 percent of all milch animals leading to more equitable distribution of gains from livestock production. In addition to being an important source of income for poor households, livestock has many other important roles. It supplies a significant portion of draft power for farming and rural transportation. Dairy products are a major source of nutritious food to million of people in India and the only acceptable source of animal protein for the large vegetarian segment of the population. The organic fertilizer produced in the livestock sector is a key factor of agricultural production and dung from livestock is a major source of cooking energy in rural areas specially among low income households. Not only is it one of the most important productive assets in the rural areas, it also serves as a critical store of wealth for farm families and an insurance mechanism to cope with household related crisis through goats and pigs.

    The situation is very disappointing as far as production of high quality, wholesome, clean and disease free, fresh/processed and preserved meat is concerned. In India only 0.02% of the total meat produced is processed as compared to 50% and 80% in


developed countries. The deterrents probably are identified as the difficult (i) climatic

    conditions, (ii) liking for fresh-hot-meat directly from the butcher shop, (iii) lack

    refrigeration of chain system, (iv) cost benefit factors, stiff competition in the

    international meat trade, (v) no organized, (vi) absence of service sector (vii)

    processing sector (viii) absence of micro credit, due to technological gaps in processing

    chain. However, it is gratifying to observe that the government and the industry both

    are keenly interested in technological break through in the age- old meat industry in the


    Meat industry, although in a very primitive and developing stage in India, is the top

    food industry in the world. An analysis of world meat scenario reveals that Europe

    leads in production, followed by developed continents (North America, Europe and

    Oceania) contribute about 60% to total meat production they have a monopoly in meat

    exports as their share is as high as 84%. Nearly 55% of all world meat exports are being

    shared by European countries alone. The share of Asia in world meat export is very low

    (6.5%) but it is on the rise.

    It is disheartening to note that India with a vast raw material base, contributes less than

    1% to the world meat production. Our share in the export of meat is also of the same

    magnitude. The export of meat from India mainly comprises of fresh, chilled meat,

    frozen meat and frozen meat products (Tables 1.1 and Table 1.2) A major chunk of

    meat exports amounting to Rs.400 crores is contributed by Buffalo meat (1994-95).

    Malaysia and UAE are the principal importers of buffalo meat from India (Table 1.3).

    However, Indian exports of meat constitute barely 0.8% of global export of this

    commodity. A great potential exits for exporting buffalo meat, beef and poultry in view

    of increased demand in gulf countries and higher cost of meat from developed countries.

    India has additional advantage of geographic proximity to gulf countries. There is an

    urgent need to tap the world meat export market by establishing modern and hygienic

    slaughter houses with chilling facilities solely for export purposes.

    Table - 1: Growth of meat and meat product export

    Year Value Year Value

    (Rs in crores) (Rs in crores)

    1985-86 74 1991-92 231

    1986-87 76 1992-93 287

    1987-88 88 1993-94 245

    1988-89 94 1994-95 403

    1989-90 114 1995-96 627

    1990-91 140

    Source: Economic Survey of India

    Table - 2: Export of meat and meat products

    (Quantity in 000 MT Value in Rs. in crores)

     1990-91 1991-92 1992-93

    Item Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value

    Buffalo meat 63.50 107.00 81.40 189.0 81.60 214.4

    Sheep/Goat meat 8.30 31.00 7.60 32.5 13.70 75.0

    Processed meat 0.16 0.82 0.19 1.0 0.15 1.0


    Table -3: Product destination

    Item Major markets

    Buffalo meat Malaysia, UAE, Jordan, Oman and UAR

    Sheep/Goat meat Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Baharain and UK

    Processed meat Jordan, Russia, Oman, Scuchelles, Baharain

    Poultry Products Bangladesh, UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Maldives

    If the quality of Indian meat is strictly controlled, the country may boost its meat exports by selling to developing Asian, African and Latin American countries that import about 25% of the world meat exports. These measures will also help in fetching better prices for our produce, which is nearly 30% lower than the average world meat export price.

    The meat produced in the country is from about 3000 municipal slaughter houses, 10 modern abattoir complexes and 150 meat processing plants both in private and public sector a part from a large number of individual rural slaughter slabs. Majority of these do not confirm to the basic sanitary requirements and the food animals processed largely pass without any regular meat inspection procedures, at least for the domestic market. The meat is therefore, of questionable quality keeping into consideration the endomicity of important livestock diseases. The diseased and poor quality meat and meat products generate a poor demand form the affluent nations and a low carcass yield influences the cost structure of meat. Thus, there is express need for the modernization of the meat industry by technological break through by constructing hygienic slaughter houses, imposition of a uniform and stringent code of veterinary inspection of meat (ante and post mortem), organization of meat hygiene service with trained meat inspectors, veterinary public health workers, sanitary engineers, microbiologists and food technologists under a coordinating agency.

    Meat industry including the by-product processing technology in India needs to be modernized on priority basis to utilize the vast agrarian resources to its optimum capacity, enhance export possibilities, overcome rampant malnutrition among the population and control the risk of meat borne zoonosis.

    The population of pigs by and large consists wholly of the indigenous nondescript type (Desi) except for a few pigs maintained at breeding stations and those distributed to farmers under development programmes. There has been growth of crossbreds as a result of these programmes.

    To improve pig production in the country some efforts were made after independence and during second to the fifth five year plan; 7 regional pig breeding farms, 8 bacon factories, 55 pig breeding units and 140 piggery development blocks were established in different parts of the country. The primary objective of the regional pig breeding farms is to improve the breeding stock for distribution to pig breeding units for further multiplication. Pig breeding units are supposed to distribute improved pigs among farmers for cross-breeding the local indigenous stock. The second objective of regional farm is to supply surplus stock to bacon factories.

    The Government strategy in piggery development work has been to use improved pigs for grading the indigenous population. The breeding stations have been utilized for the multiplication of imported stock for distribution to farmers. Pig production in the rural areas had been concentrated around the bacon factories.


    Pig production in the rural areas had been so organized with a view to supply pigs to becon factories. The pattern and nature of inputs assistance offered to farmers show considerable variation form state to state. The items that may be subsidized are stock, feed, housing, equipment transportation to market (factory ) and stipend for the training of breeders. Balanced feed at reasonable cost was distributed to a limited extent in Maharashtra and West Bengal. This has been discontinued.

    Many of the Government pig breeding farms set up so far have been used largely as seed stock multiplication centres from where pigs would be distributed to farmers. On these farms replacement stocks are selected on the basis of preweaning traits and physical appearance.

    The Indian Council of Agricultural Research i.e. the research organization at the apex simultaneously is trying to find out the basic requirements for development of pig industry through coordinated project, being run at Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Jabalpur, Tirupatti and Assam. The project has done considerable research on the genetic mix with fast growth and high adaptability under Indian conditions, the best cost economic rations and the disease calendar for pig units and training of livestock keepers.

    The sector’s ability to capitalize on the new market opportunities is constrained by the availability and quality of support services. The productive potential of animals depends crucially on the quality of genetic material and the animal health system, and on both these counts India has a poor record. Although there have been a number of initiatives since the early sixties to increase milk production, the quality of meat and meat products improve the quality and supply of draft animals for agriculture, the quality and accessibility of health and breeding services, barring some cooperatives and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), generally remains poor. On the health side the focus all throughout the past planning periods has been on enhancing the supply of veterinary services by strengthening the capabilities and coverage of the State Animal Husbandry Departments (SAHDs). The number of state run veterinary institutions grew from about 2,000 in 1951 to over 50,000 at the end of 1997-98. These institutions employed some 36,000 professional staff and over 70,000 para-veterinarians. But, all this investment covered mostly curative services. Over 75 percent of this staff either provided curative health services or implemented other livestock development schemes. This project involves development of a integrated Piggery complex of 100 sows and their followers at 12 acre plot in Gahri- Harswroop village in Gurgaon District as a nodal point for development of farm based entrepreneurship, which will operate as the hub for the development of stallite farm around 10-20 km of Central Nuclear Farm (CNF). Each satellite farm will be offered all the inputs from Central Nuclear Farm at Gurgaon such that they have access to technology, credit, services and goods in an area of 10-20 km around the CNF which will target about 50 sow units (5, 10, 20 or more) and their followers in a period of five years. A market will be provided for all their products viz. meat, livestock and manure the Resource International Pvt. Ltd. will provide inputs to small and marginal pig farmers.

    Primary purpose of this report is to highlight the special role of the small holder livestock farmer in sustaining and gaining income through improved Animal Husbandry practices and underwriting technology. This has got a greater relevance when we weigh the resultant benefits to the community through diverse animal resources in terms of human development, against the economic development where there is an opulence of money accrued through individual profit. “Human


Development Report 1999” analyzed the benefit accrued by various economic groups

    as a result of economic development. 86% share of benefit from world GDP went to

    the richest twenty percent, 13% to middle sixty percent and 1% went to the poorest

    twenty per cent. Sixty eight per cent share of the benefit from foreign direct

    investments in India go to the 20% richest, 30% to the middle 60% and 1% to the

    poorest 20%.

    The case of the small holder in the livestock sector need much greater and concerted

    attention in the backdrop that the world’s richest animal biodiversity is available in this country, waiting to be explored and tapped optimally.

    Following major factors have been identified as constraints to quick growth of this

    sector in generating wealth and employment:

    1. There is a general apathy and lack of interest in piggery development both at

    official and unofficial levels.

    2. Religious taboos and prejudices.

    3. Lack of public awareness of nutritive benefits of pig meat. 4. Poor breeding practices and unhygienic management of animals. 5. Pigs are often reared in small groups and allowed to tend for themselves in open

    and free range condition which is not suitable for hygiene meat production. 6. Desi pigs maintained by poor section of the society and raised mainly as scavengers,

    is a deterrent to consumption of their meat for various reasons of hygiene and health. 7. There is a lack of systems approach in the operation of pig enterprises. 8. Pig farmers do not get a fair price for their pigs and are usually paid a price at cost

    lower than the production costs.

    9. There are few well trained personal in this area.

    10. Lack of genetic diversity in the exotic stock present in the country. 11. Extension publication are lacking.

    12. Lack of an organized market for pork and pork products.

    13. The small and marginal farmers and agricultural labors schemes in spite of

    subsidies are not as popular as there are few takers due to little access to credit and

    margin money.


    Breeds Desi

    In India four kinds of pigs are found viz. Wild pigs, domesticated or indigenous pigs,

    upgraded stock of pigs and exotics. In order to raise the productivity of indigenous pig stock and thereby to obtain better meat yield, high quality breeds are imported from

    foreign countries such as European union, New Zealand and Australia.

    The wild pig: The wild pig has a long snout, short ribs and long legs. Colour of the

    animal is rusty gray when young and becomes dark chestnut brown with its hair tinged

    with gray at the extremities. The wild pig is a poor producer of pork products. The

    meat is however delicious. Blyth is the wild boar found in the forests of Andaman

    Islands. The pigmy hog is found in the moist forests at the base of Himalayas in

    Sikkim and north eastern region including Assam.


    Desi pigs differ in their characteristics and colour from region to region. The colour varies from black, brown, rusty gray to an admixture of any two colours. In size and appearance they differ considerably. They posses a long face tapering towards the nostrils. The hairs on the neck and part of the back are thick, long and bristly, while those on the sides and the flank are thinner and shorter. Head and shoulders are heavier as compared to hind quarters, back is slightly arched and rump is drooping. Ears are small and medium sized. Tail reaches nearly the hock and has a tuft of hairs. Female possess 6-12 teats. Adult pigs weigh up to 168 kg. Indigenous pigs are mostly slaughtered and consumed as fresh pork. Some breed type have high fertility genes. So far very little research has been done to characterize indigenous strains of pigs and the diversity in Indian breeds.

    Exotic Breeds

    The primary objective of swine production is to get maximum lean meat in the form of bacon and ham. It is essential to know the different strains of germ plasm available in the country and all over world in relation to these traits.

    Large White Yorkshire

    The large white Yorkshire is native breed of United Kingdom and is reported to produce better bacon when crossed with other suitable types. This bred was imported into India form UK, New Zealand and Australia. It is large in size with a long and slightly dished face. Body is covered with fine hair, free form curves Skin is pink colored and is free form wrinkles with long and moderately fine coat. Ears thick, long and lightly inclined forward and fringed with fine hair. Neck is long and full to the shoulder with deep and wide chest. Shoulders are not too wide. Back is slightly arched, loin is long and broad with a well developed wide rump. Hump is fleshy extending up to the hocks. Tail is set high. Mature boars and sows of this breed generally weigh 295-408 kgs and 227 317 respectively. This breed is very popular for the bacon.

    Middle While Yorkshire

    The middle While Yorkshire was evolved as a result of crossing Large White Yorkshire and Small Yorkshire breeds of UK. It is a medium sized bacon pig and a good porker at light weights. It is white in colour with a short head unturned dished face wide between the ears. Neck is blended neatly from head and to shoulder. Ears are nearly erect but somewhat inclined forwards. Hams are broad and fleshy upto the hocks. It is a prolific breeder, maturing early and the sows make good mothers. Mature boars and sows of this breed generally weigh 249-340 kg and 181-272 kg respectively. Berkshire

    The Berkshire is one of the oldest English breed of swine. This breed is valued as producer of quality meat, specially suitable for the pork market. This breed is used in upgrading programs. The pigs are black with white markings usually on the feet, head and tail. It has a short head with dished face. The snout is short. The body is long and ribs well sprung. Mature boars weigh about 280-360 Kg or more.


    It is a bacon breed; colour white large in size, ears are lopped, head and neck small, light shoulders, great length of side and heavy hams. There had to be a high proportion of lean meat and a small proportion of fat and fine bone. The carcass of this breed pig is so proportioned that as much as possible could be made into bacon with as little wastage as possible. Sows have good mothering quality.



    Hampshire breed was developed in USA from hogs imported form UK. It is a black hog with a white belt encircling the body and including the front legs. Head and tail are black, and the ears are erect. The pigs are short legged. Sows are very prolific breeders. The weight of a mature boar is 300 kg and sow 280 kg.


    Tamworth is possibly the purest modern representative of the native English pig. The colour is reddish or chestnut, typically golden red hairs on a flesh coloured skin. The snout is very long and straight. The ears are fairly large and rigid and incline forward. It has a strong back and thin shoulders. The carcass produces bacon of best quality. Sows are prolific breeders. Mature boars weigh up to 300 kg.

    Wessex Saddleback

    Wessex Saddleback, an English breed is essentially a bacon breed, easily adaptable for pork production. It is know for its prolificacy and has a robust make up. Head, neck, hind quarters, hind legs and tail of this breed are black. Head is fairly long with straight snout and ears having a forward pith without being floppy. Pigs of 8 weeks of age weigh 21.5 kg.


    Duroc has its origin in USA. It is red in colour, with the shades varying form golden to very dark red. It is a large breed with excellent feeding capacity and prolificacy. The sows are good mothers. The weight of mature boar is 410 kg and sow 250 kg. Chermukha

    This is a heavy pork-breed of Russia and imported in India for pork production in North Eastern states. It is a hardy and well adoptable breed, which has thrived well in various parts. It is a spotted pig with patches of black and white. Heavy with strong head and shoulders, face is slightly dished and is wide between ears and eyes, neck is short and back is straight or slightly arched. Ears are long extending forward. Legs are short but strong and feet are strong and fair sizes. Loin is strong and broad, ribs are well spring and belly is deep with straight underline, hams are broad and full deep to hocks. Coat is long, straight and abundant. Sows have 12 or more sound teats, evenly placed. It is a hardy breed for upgrading the indigenous pigs and has been specially popular in North-Eastern States of India. Now few specimens are available in field. 3.0 HANDLING AND CARING OF PIGS

    Handling and catching: Small pigs may be easily caught by grasping either of the

    hind legs just above the hock joint and lifting them off the floor. Stronger pigs should be caught by grasping them behind the shoulders, using your out stretched hands. In this way pigs up to about 50 kg may be handled with little difficulty. Heavier pigs should be run into a cage such as the pig scales or restricted by using a rope.

    Several suitable types ropes are available which are slipped over the upper jaw of the hog and provide the person with sufficient leverage to hold the hog readily when it pulls backward.

    For holding large sows and boars, use a piece of stronger rope about one-half inch in diameter and several feet long. Make a loop in one end and slip it over the upper jaw of the hog. As the hog pulls backward, the noose is tightened. The other end of the rope


    may be quickly snubbed around a post the rope stays tight because the natural tendency of the hog is to pull backward when held in this manner.

    Nose rings: By instinct most hogs do some rooting, but it is likely to be especially

    damaging to pastures. When rooting starts, the herd should be "ringed"; and this applied to all hogs past weaning age. Older animals can be restrained by a rope or snare placed around the snout, whereas young pigs can be held.

    May types of rings can be and are used, but the fish hook type is most common.

    Rings (usually 1 to 3 rings) are usually placed in the snout, just back of certilage but away from the bone; although some producers prefer to use a ring that is placed through the septum (the partition of the nose). Others cut the cartilage on top of the snout, but this causes a rather severe setback and should be practiced with caution. Clipping the boar's tusks: It is never safe to allow the boar to have long tusks, for

    they may inflict injury upon other boars or even prove hazardous to he caretaker. Above all, such tusks should be removed well in advance of the breeding season, at which time it is necessary to handle the boar a great deal. The common procedure in preparation for removing the tusks consists of drawing a strong rope over the upper jaw and tying the other end securely to a post or other object. As the animal pulls back and the mouth opens, the tusks may be cut with a bolt clipper.

    Tube feed small pigs: Small pigs are often defeated in their quest for milk by bigger

    pigs in the litter. A simple and effective way to provide small pigs with adequate energy until a sucking order has been established is to tube feed them with supplemental milk.

    The equipment necessary for tube feeding is a 20 ml hypodermic syringe, a 12 to 15 inch piece of soft rubber tubing with an inside diameter small enough to fit strongly over the end of the syringe, and a suitable device to hold the syringe while the pig is being fed.

    A supplemental feed for young pigs can be prepared by mixing 1 quarter of cow's milk, ? pint of half an half, 4 tablespoons white jarosyrup, 1 egg, and a suitable antibiotic. The procedure for feeding a pig is simple. Hold the pig by the head, place the tube carefully through its mouth into the esophagus, and force the milk into the pig's stomach. Small pigs should be fed 15 to 20 cc at four-hour intervals until they are strong enough to complete successfully for their share of the sow's milk. They should not, however, be removed from the sow unless it is absolutely necessary.


    Shortly after birth a pig receives his first injection. Proper injection involves the right size needle for the job and the best site for the injection. For piglets, 0.5 to 1 inch (13 to 25 mm) 20 gauge needle works for this liquids when an 18 gauge needle is best for thick liquids. Most sow injections should be clean and sharp.

    There are two ways in which you may inject a pig (a) sub-cutaneously, which means under loose fold of skin and (b) intramuscular, which is to inject directly into the muscle.

    The most suitable site for injecting under the skin is at the base of the ear, where loose folds of skin are clearly available. This site also has the advantage of being in a clean area of the pig’s body. An alternative site is in the groin region.


Clean the site with surgical spirit and then inject under loose skin, which may be held

    between the first thumb and finger of your left hand.

    1. Assemble the syringes and needle, shake the bottle and swab the cap with clean

    surgical spirit.

    2. Draw into the syringe a volume of air slightly more than the volume of liquid to

    the withdrawn, and thrust the needle though the rubber cap of the bottle. 3. Turn the bottle upside down, push the plunger to inject the air in the syringe into

    the bottle. If you do not do this you will have difficulty in with drawing the

    dose, as a partial vacuum will form inside the bottle. 4. Make sure that the needle tip is well below the surface of the fluid 5. Pull the plunger down, drawing slightly more liquid than is required. Push the

    plunger slightly to expel any air bubbles, and adjust to the right dose. 6. Detach the syringe, leaving the needle in the cap for with drawing subsequent


    7. Finally, attach a second needle to the syringe, expel any air from the needle, and

    make the injection.

    8. Immediately after use the syringe should be dismantled, thoroughly cleaned,

    and then sterilized by boiling in clean water for twenty minutes. 9. Needles should be changed frequently, and then sterilized with the syringe. For

    intramuscular injections a 30 mm sixteen gauge is used and for subcutaneous

    injection a 15mm eighteen-gauge needle is used.


    As the boar contributes half the inheritance of all pigs produced, he therefore has the

    widest influence over type and the importance of are in his selection is obvious. Proper

    management of the boar can influence litter results and prolong his useful life.

    When selecting accommodation for the young growing boar two points must be

    considered, freedom from undue excitement, and the nature of the soil in the yard, it is

    a wise plan to house the boar so that he will not be excited unduly, also he should not

    be placed in a yard which has a hard stone-covered surface as the stones will cause sore

    feet, thus preventing him from working properly later on, and actually shortening his

    period of usefulness. Sound legs and feet are essential in a boar if he is to work

    satisfactorily. When the young boar is ready for work he should be given a chance to

    accustom himself to his duties.

    Control of services is important: No matter what the age of the boar may be, and for

    this season mature sows and gilts must be placed in the boar’s yards, only when ready

    for service. It is particularly a bad practice to place a young untried boar amongst sows,

    as he may be rendered useless for work by being bullied and knocked about by older


    When the boar is ready for his first service it is a good idea to select from the baconers

    about ready for market gilt who is heat and introduce her into the boar pen. Stand by to

    observe just how the boar performs, and lend assistance if necessary. The reason for

    using small gilts is that they are not big enough to bully the boar and make him timid. If

    baconer gilts are not available a sow known to be quiet should be used, but do not

    select a big tall sow, unless the boar himself s tall, and able to cover the sow effectively.


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