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Introduction

By Gloria Perkins,2014-05-13 23:30
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Introduction

     Proposal for

     Developing and

     Installing solar

     powered LED

     lighting in a

     sample village

     March 2004

     THRIVE

     Chintapalli gate, Nalgonda district Andhra Pradesh - INDIA Phone: +91-8691-233601/2, +91-40 - 31037300 Email: ranga@thethrive.org

    www.thethrive.org

INTRODUCTION AND RURAL LIGHTING SITUATION

    70% of the India’s population lives in rural areas in approximately 6 Lakh villages. After independence efforts are made to connect every village with the grid power. Villages need electricity for lighting, running home appliances, small power consuming services like grinding and for agriculture applications. Due to geographical and cost considerations still sizable percent of villages /hamlets are not connected with grid power. In case the average distance from the power line is 20 KMs it costs approximately 20 Lakhs rupees to connect the village. Needless to say that substantial amounts are needed to maintain the line, transformer and there will be heavy line losses. Finally if the village population is less than 100 meaning 20 houses, it becomes most unviable to supply and maintain the regular power. The hamlets situated in dense forests and the ones located far away from the power lines are generally thinly inhabited and power requirements at the moment are for communication and lighting. It is proposed to use

    the low power consuming LED lighting with very low investments in one sample un electrified village (Bugga tanda in deverakonda mandal of Nalgonda district) and demonstrate the capability and usefulness of the LEDs thus facilitating large scale application in all the rural areas

SOLAR ENERGY IN INDIA

    Solar energy is the earliest source of energy known to mankind and is also the origin of other forms of energy used by man. Energy from the sun has many salient features, which make it an attractive option. These include wide-spread distribution, lack of pollution and a virtually inexhaustible supply. India receives solar energy equivalent to over 5000 trillion KWhr/year, which is far more than the total energy consumption of the country. The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 -7 KWhr/m2 depending upon the location.

    India today has among the world's largest programmes in Solar Energy. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources is implementing countrywide programmes on: In India there are about 300 clear sunny days in a year and solar energy is widely available in most parts of the country. Solar photovoltaic technologies offer a unique decentralized option for providing electricity locally.

    A country wide Solar Photovoltaic Programme is being implemented by the Ministry for about last two decades. The Programme is aimed at developing the cost effective PV

    technology and its applications for large scale diffusion in different sectors, specially in rural and remote areas. Major components of PV programme include, R&D,

    Demonstration and Utilization, Testing & Standardization, Industrial and Promotional

    activities. The following PV systems are covered under the programmes of MNES:

    Solar Street Lighting Systems, Solar Lanterns, Home Lighting Systems/Solar Home

    Systems;

    Stand-alone PV Power Plants;

    Solar PV water pumping systems for agriculture and related uses;

Under the PV program of MNES, about 6,10,,000 systems aggregating to over 20 MW

    have been installed. This includes 3,85,000 solar lanterns; 1,80,000 home lighting

    systems; 41,000 street lighting systems, 4204 water pumping systems and of about 1.2

    MWp aggregate capacity of stand alone power plants/packs.

ISSUES WITH THE PRESENT SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    1. They use florescent lightening (tube lights big or compact ones (CFL) lights )

    which consumes less electricity than the filament based incandescent (normal)

    bulbs but still is considerable.

    2. To electricity a small hamlet populated by 100 residents, it can cost

    approximately 5 Lakhs rupees without subsidy.

    3. Since there are many storage batteries required the maintenance and their

    replacement cost is very heavy.

    4. The bulbs/ lights fail once in 6 months or so and require maintenance thus

    complicating the usage in a small inaccessible village. Battery storage and

    periodic maintenance are the main factor for the dysfunction of many of the

    installed systems.

PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE LIGHTING WITH LEDs

It is proposed to use the modern lighting product (WHITE LEDs) in an alternative model.

    They consume very less energy and last more than 20 years of normal use and require

    very less battery storage capacity. Main features of the proposed plan are:

    1. Only one 40 amps 12 volts battery is proposed to be used for a hamlet of 100

    population (Bugga tanda in deverakonda mandal of Nalgonda district)

    2. The battery is charged though a single 37 watt solar panel and usually charged in

    a single sunny day.

    3. It is proposed to install around 3 to 4 LED bulb units in each house.

    4. It is proposed to install around 40 units for street lighting.

    5. Since the consumption of electricity is very less there is no need to switch them of

    in the late night.

    6. Day lighting automatic switch is used, and the system switches on and off

    automatically in the day and night times.

    7. The battery requires just tapping with water once in 6 months.

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF LEDs

    White LEDs are 'Light Emitting Diodes', a type of semiconductor. They

    are the newest item in today's lighting technology. Unlike other light

    sources, these WHITE LEDs can take a lot of punishment from vibration,

    heat and severe cold. WHITE LEDs can be made waterproof, and put into a lighting package with 2 to 1000 WHITE LEDs. They can be used for street lights,

    sign lighting, spot lighting or anything else.

WHITE LEDs need 3.6VDC and use approximately 30 milliamps of current, a power

    dissipation of 110 milliwatts. The positive power is applied to one side of the LED

    semiconductor through a lead and a whisker. The other side of the semiconductor is

    attached to the top of the anvil that is the negative power lead. It is the chemical makeup

    of the LED semiconductor that determines the color of the light that the LED produces.

    The plastic housing has three functions: it is designed to allow the most light to escape

    from the semiconductor; it focuses the light, and it protects the semiconductor from the elements.

     Some Basic Facts About White LEDs

     White LEDs can be placed in abusive environments.

     White LEDs can be "AC" or "DC" powered depending on the model.

     White LEDs are the newest lighting device on the market today.

     White LEDs do not produce "RF" to interfere with radio equipment.

     White LEDs are a proven technology.

     White LEDs last about 100, 000 hours of continuous use.

     White LEDs radiate light at a 15 to 45 degree angle depending on the model.

     White LEDs can be made completely waterproof for use in many marine applications.

     White LEDs are polarity protected, so it is hard to make an installation mistake.

AGENCY FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LED LIGHTING PROJECT.

THRIVE, CHITAPALLY, NALGONDA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

Founded by a group of professionals working in development subjects, THRIVE

    is an action research organisation aiming to develop, showcase and implement

    technologies and processes of comprehensive development of the rural and

    underdeveloped communities in the areas of education, health, communication,

    agriculture and lighting.

THRIVE operates from the resource center and model farm in a 20 acre campus

    and well equipped with mechanical, electrical workshops, agriculture labs and

    host of other technical resources.

Ranganayakulu BODAVALA represents the implementing agency

DURATION OF THE PROJECT

    One month from the date of project award

Proposed cost of implementing LED lighting in one sample village.

    No. Item Cost Rs. 1 MATERIALS (100 numbers of LED lighting 40,000

    units @ of 400 each)

    2 Solar panel and charging unit and battery (to 8,000

    be purchased under subsidy scheme)

    3 Installation charges 2,000 4 Wiring and other expenditure 5,000 5 Organizational overheads 5,000

     Total 60,000

Total cost of the proposal is sixty thousand Indian rupees.

    The cost of the study can be paid in two installments of 50% each to the following

    agency.

    THRIVE

    Chintapalli gate, Nalgonda district

    Andhra Pradesh - INDIA

    Phone: +91-8691-233601/2,

     +91-40 - 31037300

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