Assignment 1 Essay Conflict Management
Introduction of Johari Window
The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. The Johari Window model can also be used to assess and improve a group’s relationship with other
groups. The Johari Window model was devised by American
psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955, while researching group dynamics at the University of California Los Angeles. The model was first published in the Proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development by UCLA Extension Office in 1955, and was later expanded by Joseph Luft. Today the Johari Window model is especially relevant due to modern emphasis on, and influence of, ‘soft’ skills, behavior,
empathy, cooperation, inter-group development and interpersonal development.
The Johari Window model is also referred to as a feedback model of self awareness, and by some people an information processing tool. The Johari Window actually represents information - feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc - within or about a person - in relation to their group, from four perspectives, which are described below. The Johari Window model
can also be used to represent the same information for a group in relation to other groups. Johari Window terminology refers to ‘self’
and ‘others’: ‘self’ means oneself, ie, the person subject to the Johari Window analysis. ‘Others’ means other person in the person’s group
The Johari Window has four panes, which can be of different size.
Each of these regions contains and represents the information - feelings, motivation, etc - known about the person, in terms of whether the information is known or unknown by the person, and whether the information is known or unknown by others in the group.
Johari Window’s four regions
1. Arena(Open area): what is known by the person about
him/herself and is also known by others.
2. Blind spot(Blind area): what is unknown by the person about
him/herself but which others know.
3. Façade(Hidden area): what the person knows about
him/herself that others do not know.
4. Unknown(Unknown area): what is unknown by the person
about him/herself and is also unknown by others.
Here’s how the Johari Window is normally shown, with its four regions.
Analysis myself with Johari Window
Arena: accepting, adaptable, calm, Blind spot: mature, modest,
caring, dependable, introverted, patient, quiet,
Façade: cheering, unconfident, Unknown: bold, complex,
independent, nervous, observant dignified, idealistic, smart
With these analyses, there can be some cognize about me: I could be a better listener than a speaker. I could hardly project myself in public. Otherwise I would like and be able to help others in the backstage.
Conflict management means an approach to conflict that may involve reduction or elimination of, or an increase in, conflict.
What causes conflict? There are many possible, some of which are also causes of aggression. Some of the major ones may be:
Just as there are different approaches to conflict, so too are there different personal styles of reaction to conflict. An understanding of personal styles of reaction to conflict can help us to understand whether our reactions help or hinder solutions to any given conflict situation.
People tend to have one dominant style of conflict handling, out of a possible five styles:
The model is below:
Assertive Competing Collaborating
Unassertive Avoiding Accommodating
This model is based on different mixes of assertive/unassertive and cooperative/uncooperative behaviour. Each style has something to offer, depending on the situation. We may use one style in one situation and one in another. Different departments, organizations, families, professions and nations may have a preferred conflict-handling style.
The table below shows analysis of conflict-handling styles in different situation.
Conflict-handling When to use
?When quick, decisive action is vital, e.g. in
?On important issues where unpopular actions need
Competing implementing, e.g. cost cutting, enforcing unpopular
?On issues vital to company welfare when you know
?Against people who take advantage of non-competitive
?To find an integrative solution when both sets of
concerns are too important to be compromised;
?When your objective is to learn;
Collaborating ?To merge insights from people with different
?To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a
?To work through feelings which have interfered with a
?When goals are important, but not worth the effort or
potential disruption of more assertive modes;
vWhen opponents with equal power are committed to
Compromising mutually exclusive goals;
?To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues;
?To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure;
?As a backup when collaboration or competition is
?When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are
?When you perceive no chance of satisfying your
?When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of
?To let people cool down and regain perspective;
When gathering information supersedes immediate
?When others can resolve the conflict more effectively;
?When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other
?When you find you are wrong-to allow a better position
to be heard, to learn and show your reasonableness;
?When issues are more important to others than to
Accommodating yourself, to satisfy others and maintain cooperation;
?To build social credit for later issues;
?To minimise losses when you are outmatched and
?When harmony and stability are especially important;
?To allow subordinates to develop by learning from
Basic Steps of Conflict Management
1.Tolerance - One of the best ways to deal with conflict in marriage is to tolerate it. Partners will have differences of opinion and that is okay - even healthy. You can still live together and love each other with many differences. In fact, researchers believe that couples in long-lasting marriages never really resolve most conflicts in the sense that it is over and done, with a clear winner and loser. Instead, they manage most conflicts through an ongoing process of negotiation where both individuals feel like they have been heard in their efforts to find a workable solution.
2.Couples must often simply agree to disagree. Diane Sollee, director of the Coalition for Marriage, Family and Couples Education, says, "Every couple has about 10 irreconcilable differences. The reason couples divorce is they don't know how to deal with those differences." Sollee says, "Even if you switch partners, you'll still have about 10 irreconcilable differences." You simply have to learn how to live with some of your differences.
3.Agree to Cooperate with Each Other - If neither one of you is
willing to budge you will not get anywhere. Cooperation is a key to change in conflict management. Stop fighting with each other and team-up. This requires a change in behavior and a realization that what you have been doing is not working, and perhaps even wrong.
4.Identify and Clarify The Issue - Figure out what the conflict or argument is all about. Many times we mistake misunderstandings, where we really agree with one another, for genuine differences of opinion.
5.Find Out What Each Person Wants - If you have a genuine difference of opinion, make a list of what each of you really want to happen.
6.Consider Your Partner's Point of View - Honestly try to put yourself in the place of your partner. Try to see, feel, and experience the issue as they are. This can be a difficult thing to do because as C. Terry Warner says, "We see things in ways that assure us that our way of seeing them is correct." Just remember that we may not be seeing things correctly.
7.Identify Various Alternatives - This involves brainstorming and coming up with as many possible solutions as you can think of to the problem. Just spit them out and write them down initially. Don't worry about whether they are good or bad.
8.Negotiate and Compromise - Once you have listed several
possible solutions, talk about which one is best, and the most workable for both of you. You should both feel good about the solution. Remember that you are on the same team and have agreed to work together. This should be a stage for forgiveness and drawing closer together because you have identified how you will manage the problem.
9.Use Your Solution and Follow-up - Do what you agreed to do and then meet again to talk about how it is going.
10.Get Outside Help - If you find that you and your partner are unable to come to a workable solution on your own, talk to a professional counselor that you trust. They should be able to help you work through the problem.
Conflict vs. Anger
Conflict and anger are often associated with one another but they are not the same thing. Conflict involves a difference of opinion and anger is an emotion, an emotion that we can and ought to control. Sometimes anger leads to conflict and sometimes conflict leads to anger. It is important to remember that we do not have to get angry about differences of opinion with our partner. Occasionally anger prompts us to take action in positive ways, but more often than not it is destructive to relationships.
Anger is really a double-edged sword in the sense that if effects