By Lillian Wells,2014-05-16 03:36
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    Brief history of discovering and colonizing Australia

    Made by;Tracy Choi ID: 030108101

    Australia, one of the most incredible countries in the world, has becoming more and more charming all around the world. Every year, millions of tourists are visiting there, enjoying the beautiful scenery, getting closer to the unique animals, and breathing the different air from the other side of this planet.

    As we all know, Australia is the smallest, flattest and driest continent in this world, but Australia is the only exclusive country of a whole continent in this planet. The country includes Tasmania, an island just to the south, the Torres Straits Islands off the northern coast of the mainland and a small number of islands in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans.

    First of all, I would like to talk about something on discovering Australia. It will refer to a lot of historical issues.

    Human habitation of Australia is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. It is a very long pried from now. You can imagine how hard the life was for those original people on the island. These first Australians may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians; they may have arrived via land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers.

    he Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, who sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula T

    in 1606, had been recorded as the first European sighting of the Australian mainland. During the 17th century, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New Holland, unfortunately they made no attempt at settlement. That is to say, if the attempt were done at that time, the world would have known the incredible country earlier. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. Cook's discoveries prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. The British Crown Colony of New South Wales began a settlement at Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date was later to become Australia's national day, Australia Day. Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, as we mentioned before, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1829.

    After that, separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales, for example, South Australia was founded in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. And in the year of 1911, the Northern Territory was founded, but one thing I would like to point out is that it was excised from South Australia.

    And let’s move on to the colonization of Australia, but first of all, there is a group of people that should be mentioned. Those are the indigenous.

    When the European settlement took place, the population of the local indigenous was estimated as 350,000, which declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease.As we mentioned before, there were some different colonies in Australia. So the colonization of that time was totally tough. It should consider all those territories’ interests, but meanwhile, the Colonial Office in

    London still retained the control of some matters.

    thAs time went by, we went into the 20 century. It had a very important meaning

    ederation of the colonies was achieved of Australia. Because on January 1st 1901, f

    after a decade of planning, consultation and voting, and the Commonwealth of Australia was born. In 1911, His Majesty King George V proclaimed Australia as a Dominion of the British Empire.

    At the same time, the WW1 broke out. During that time Australia achieved Independent Sovereign Nation status for the first time in 1919 following the end of WW1.

    Australia's independence and sovereign nation status was officially recognized by all world nations when the Charter and Articles of the League of Nations legally became International Law in January 1920. British rule ceased at that point. No ruling British Monarch has held any valid legal power of authority since. That is to say, Australia had become an independent sovereign state.

    What follows was the most tough period in human history, as we all known, the nd2 World War. A lot of countries and people were involved in this terrible disaster. But fortunately, the war didnt do a lot harm to Australia. After the war, Australia

    encouraged immigration from Europe; since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also encouraged.

    Robert Menzies' newly-founded Liberal Party of Australia dominated much of the immediate post war era, defeating the Australian Labor Party government of Ben Chifley in 1949. Menzies oversaw the post-war expansion and became the country's longest-serving leader. Since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy from Asia and other parts of the world, Australia's demography, culture and image of itself has been radically transformed. However, despite the abolition of the policy, instances of racism continue.

    Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from Europe; since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also encouraged. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image have been transformed. The final constitutional ties between Australia and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role in the government of the Australian States, and ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council. At the 1999 referendum, 54% of Australian voters rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by two-thirds vote of both houses of the Australian Parliament.

Until now, we have get a brief imagination of the discovering and colonization of

Australia. And maybe we can make some contrasts between the Australian history

and our Chinese history, and probably well find something different and interesting.

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