A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops. (H.B.Adams, American historian)教师
的影响是永恒的！无法估计他的影响会有多深远。(美国历史学家 亚当斯 H B)
And gladly would learn, and gladly teach. (Chaucer, British poet)勤于学习的人才能乐意施教。(英国诗人
Better be unboun than untaught, for ignorance is the root of misfortune. (Plato, Ancient Greek phiosopher)与
Dancing in all its forms cannot be excluded from the curriculum of all noble education: dancing with the feet, with ideas, with works, and ,need I add that one must also be able to dance with the pen? (Friedrich W.Nietzsche, German philosopher)所有高尚教育的课程表里都不能没有各种形式的跳舞，用脚跳舞？用思想跳舞？用言语
跳舞？不用说？还需用笔跳舞。(德国哲学家 尼采 F W)
Education commences at the mother's knee, and every word spoken within the hearsay of children tends towards the formation of character. (Hosea Ballou British cducator)教育始于母亲膝下？孩童耳听一言一语？均
影响其性格的形成。(英国教育家 巴卢 H)
Educaton does not mean teaching people to kow what they do not know ; it means teachng them to behave as they do not behave. (John Ruskin, British art critic)教育不在于使人知其所未知？而在于按其所未行而行。(英
国艺术评论家 园斯金 J)
Education is a progressive discovery of our ignorance. (Durant, American historian)教育是一个逐步发现自
Education is a admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing worth knowing can be taught. (Oscar Wilde, British dramatist)教育是令人羡慕的东西？但是要不时地记住，凡是值得知道的？没
有一个是能够教会的。(英国剧作家 王尔得 O)
Education has for its object the formation of character. (Herbert Spencer, British philosopher)教育是以造就
人的品质为其目标。(英国哲学家 斯宾塞 H)
Education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading. (George Macaulay Trevelyan British historian)教育造就了一大批人？他们会读书？但是不会区别什么书值得读。
(英国历史学家 特里维廉 G M)
Education is not the filling of a pail but the lighting of a fire. (William Butler Yeats, lrish poet)教育不是注满
一桶水？而且点燃一把火。(爱尔兰诗人 叶芝 B W)
Education is the chief defence of nations. (Edmund Bruke, British statesman)教育是国家的主要防御力量。(英国
Education is the transmission of civilization. (Will Drant, American historian and essayist)教育传播文明。(美国历
Education makes a people easy to lead, but difficult to drive ; easy to govern but imposible to slave. (Brougham, British statesman)教育使一个民族容易领导？但是难于驱使！容易管理？却不可能奴役。(英国政
Every person has two education, one which he receives from others, and one , more important, which he gives himself. (Edward Gibbon, British historian)每个人都受两种教育？一种来自别人？另一种更重要的是来自自己。
(英国历史学家 吉朋 E)
Example is always more efficacious than precept. (Samuel Johnson, British writer and critic)身教胜于言教。
(英国作家、批评家 约翰逊 S)
For a cultivated man to be ignorant of foreign languages is a great inconveniece. (Anton P.Chekhrv, Russian dramatist) 一个受过教育的人？不懂外语是极不方便的。(俄国剧作家 契克夫 A P)
Genius without educaton is like silver in the mine. (Benjamin Franklin, American president)未受教育的天
才？犹如矿中之银。(美国总统 富兰克林 B)
How much more profitable for the independent mind, after the mere rudiments of education , to range through a library at random, taking down books as the mother wit suggests! (John Henry, British Cardinal Newman)受到初
猎？这该是多大的好处啊？(英国纽曼红衣主教 享利 J)
I have long since abandoned the notion that higher education is essential to either success or happiness. Hot houses of learning do not always grow anything edible. (Robert Moses, American state govenment officer)我早已
食。(美国州政府官员 摩西 R)
Let early education be a sort of a musement; you will then be bette able to find out the natural bent. (Plato, ancient Greek Philosophe)初期教育应是一种娱乐？这样才更容易发现一个人天生的爱好。(古希腊哲学家 柏拉图)
The Chinese education system is based on legalist and Confucian ideals. The teaching of Confucius has shaped the overall Chinese mindset for the past 2500 years. But, other outside forces have played a large role in the nation's educational development. The First Opium War of 1840, for example, opened China to the rest of the world. As a result, Chinese intellectuals discovered the numerous western advances in science and technology. This new information greatly impacted the higher education system and curriculum.
Soviet influence in the early 1950s brought all higher education under government leadership. Research was separated from teaching. The government also introduced a central plan for a nationally unified instruction system, i.e texts, syllabi, etc. The impact of this shift can still be seen today. Chinese higher education continues its struggle with excessive departmentalization, segmentation, and overspecialization in particular.
From 1967 to 1976, China’s Cultural Revolution took another toll on higher education, which was devastated more than any other sector of the country. The enrollment of postsecondary students can be used as example to illustrate the impacts. The number dropped from 674,400 to 47,800. This has had a major impact on education in the 21st century. The decline in educational quality was profound.
In 1977, Deng Xiaoping made the decision of resuming the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gao Kao), having profound impact on Chinese higher education in history.
From the 1980s on, Chinese higher education has undergone a series of reforms that have slowly brought improvement.
The government found that schools lacked the flexibility and autonomy to provide education according to the needs of the society. Structural reform of higher education consists of five parts:
reforms of education provision
recruitment and job-placement
Management reform is the most difficult.
The reforms aim to provide higher education institutions more autonomy and the ability to better meet the needs of students. Instead of micromanagement, the state aims to provide general planning.
The Provisional Regulations Concerning the Management of Institutions of Higher Learning, promulgated by the State Council in 1986, led to a number of changes in administration and adjusted educational opportunity, direction and content. Reform allowed universities universities and colleges to:
choose their own teaching plans and curricula
to accept projects from or cooperate with other socialist establishments for scientific research and technical development in setting up "combines" involving teaching, scientific research, and production to suggest appointments and removals of vice presidents and other staff members;
to take charge of the distribution of capital construction investment and funds allocated by the state to be responsible for the development of international exchanges by using their own funds. Reforms picked up the pace in 2000, with the state aiming to complete the reform of 200 universities operating under China's ministries and start 15 university-based scientific technology parks.
In 2002, there were slightly over 2000 higher education institutions in PRC. Close to 1400 were regular higher education institutions (HEIs). A little more than 600 were higher education institutions for adults. Combined enrollment in 2002 was 11,256,800. Of this close to 40 percent were new recruits. Total graduate student enrolment was 501,000.
In 2005, there were about 4,000 Chinese institutions. Student enrollment increased to 15 million, with rapid growth that is expected to peak in 2008. However, the higher education system does not meet the needs of 85
percent of the college-aged population.
Since 1998, 10 universities have been targeted by the Chinese government to become “world-class” -
including Peking and Tsinghua Universities. To achieve that goal, the government promised to increase the educational allocation in the national budget by 1 percent a year for each of the five years following 1998. When Chinese president Jiang Zemin attended the hundredth anniversary ceremony at Beijing University in 1998 and the ninetieth anniversary ceremony at Tsinghua University in 2001, he emphasized this ambitious goal of advancing several of China's higher education institutions into the top tier of universities worldwide in the next several decades. In the meantime, China has received educational aid from UNESCO and many other international organizations and sources, including the World Bank, which recently loaned China $14.7 billion for educational development.Since 2007, China has become the sixth largest country in hosting international students. The top ten countries with students studying in China include: Korea, Japan, USA, Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, India, Indonesia, France and Pakistan. The total number of international students studying in China often range around two hundred thousands.
Only 30 percent of faculty hold postgraduate degrees. This is a consequence of the lack of an academic degree system in China until the 1980s. Recently, internationally-trained scholars have entered the faculty with the goals of both improving quality and strengthening ties to other institutions around the world. The state recognizes the need for more home-grown professors.
In Spring 2007 China will conduct a national evaluation of its universities. The results of this evaluation will be used to support the next major planned policy initiative. The last substantial national evaluation of universities was in 1994. This evaluation resulted in the 'massification' of higher ecucation as well as a renewed emphasis on elite institutions.
Degree and Program Offerings
There are some noticeable aspects of campus life in China's universities. Almost all institutions provide food and boarding for students on campus, and consequently a typical student enrolled in a university live in a dormitory room which she/he share with from 1 to 7 people, and eat in the dining halls on campus.
Life in universities is regarded by almost all students as the most colorful period in their life, though some may be discontent with the administration or education quality of their universities. Classes in most universities are arranged from early morning (usually 8am) to late evening (usually 10pm), and like in western universities, students select their own class schedule before the beginning of each semester, although an emphasis on major exists in China and a considerable proportion of a student's curriculum design is required by her/his major. Students take more classes than in other countries like the U.S., it is not rare that an undergraduate in China take 7 or 8 classes a semester, but this is definitely at the cost of the depth and time of practice for each class. Also, switching majors is still very hard, if not impossible, in many universities in China. Many students tend to consider the university administration in China not flexible enough to satisfy the needs of individual students.
The closeness of students objectively resulted by their living environment--especially crowded dormitories and dining halls--has become the hotbed for the prosperity of entertainment culture as well as student organizations of all sorts on China's university campuses. Compared with former generations of university students in mainland China, nowadays students enjoy great freedom and diversity of activities both within and outside their campuses.
Despite this, the lack of independent Student Unions or societies means that there are hardly any student run facilities, for example bars, concert halls or religious areas. Student protests are unheard of and students lives are controlled much more tightly by the school authorities, for example having a girlfriend or boyfriend is often forbidden. This makes Chinese students seem much more immature and dependent than western students, but in part reflects the attitude towards youth in Chinese society.
University students in China since 1990s generally have become more ego-centric, less interested in politics but much deeper influenced by consumption culture than students in the 1980s. However, in recent years, volunteer groups and spontaneous student actions of charity nature have emerged and developed quickly.
Generally speaking, in recent years, together with the great social diversity and general freedom in China and the economy booming in China's cities, university life has included much more content which however may be also potential distractions to study than ever before: socializing, entertainment, attending internships, to just list a few,
and especially the pandemic addiction to computer games and online chatting, which according to some professors in China have led to drop of learning morale as well as study performance in many universities. Also due to the ingrained emphasis on rote learning, many students do not study hard and postpone finishing homework for most part of every semester, and only cram right before the exam weeks. However, undeniably, the new generation university students are also feature by much broader view and perhaps greater critical thinking ability than former university students in China, and they are also more conscious of their own rights in the society and in their universities.
Public vs. Private
It is commonly considered[by whom?] that public universities especially those national ones are better than private universities. Universities in China generally select their students based on students' performances in the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gaokao, 高考), the entrance scores required by public
universities are typically much higher than those of private universities. However, it is noted that private universities in China have been developing only in recent decades, thus many people can easily regard private universities academically less competitive.
China exhibits a great need for better regulation as well as more academic qualifications, teaching experience, and understanding of social changes and technology. To achieve success, the state realizes that the impacts of the Cultural Revolution on education must be reversed. To this end, top universities now function as centers of excellence that serve as a model for all other institutes. A helpful model involved "twinning" of poorer institutes with model institutes to provide equipment, curricula, and faculty development.
There is also an issue of funding and equity. Although academic praise reforms for moving the higher education sector from a unified, centralized and closed system to one that allows openness and diversification, they understand that decentralization and semi-privatization has led to further inequity in educational opportunity.
Also, there is a concern about the mindset of students produced by Chinese institutions. Cheating is widespread and tolerated, within a reasonable level. Many corporations feel the quality of rote memorization instilled in Chinese students serves as a detriment to creative thinking and the lack of real-world experience during the formative years negatively impacts students' ability to adapt to the global business environment easily. These issues will need to be addressed in the coming years if China aims to continue its drive for excellence. Impact on Global Higher Education
China's demand for postsecondary education is immense and the country currently cannot keep pace with this compelling need. This means U.S., European and Australian universities can play a significant role by partnering with Chinese universities, aggressively recruiting Chinese students for study in their host countries, increasing the number of students they send to study in China, and adding to their presence on the mainland, either as official foreign campuses or extensions. Australia, Hong Kong, and other Asian countries are already making strides into this market.
Partnering offers a mutual economic benefit, both if scholars choose to stay in the host country or return to the mainland. Most Chinese students who go abroad are among the best and brightest from their home country. Thus, if they choose to stay, they propel the economy of their host country when they take on jobs and establish themselves. If they leave, they take the many contacts and connections they have established, alongside a generally positive perception of their host nation and hosts, with them. This allows for continued economic gain, as scholars can convince their home nations and firms to propel business in a certain direction.
The first modern institution, Peiyang University, was founded October 2, 1895, in Tianjin. The university changed its name to Tianjin University in 1951 and became one of the leading universities in China. Jiaotong University, the next, was founded in Shanghai in 1896. In the 1950s, a large portion of this university was moved to Xi'an, an ancient capital city in northwest China, and became Xi'an Jiaotong University; the part of the university remaining in Shanghai was renamed Shanghai Jiaotong University.
Tianjin University celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1995, followed by Xi'an Jiaotong and Shanghai Jiaotong Universities in 1996. Other leading universities, such as Zhejiang University (1897), Peking University (1898), and Nanjing University (1902) also recently celebrated their hundredth anniversaries, one after another.