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Procedure for Imaging of Mica at Atomic-Scale Resolution Using the

By Debra Spencer,2014-01-20 03:02
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Procedure for Imaging of Mica at Atomic-Scale Resolution Using the

    Procedures for Imaging of Standards at Atomic-Scale

    Resolution Using the Digital Instruments Multimode AFM

    Ortiz Nanomechanics Laboratory@MIT F01

    I. Sample Producers and Preparation

    ? Muscovite Mica is a yellowish, light-colored, transparent to translucent silicate (subclass :

    phyllosilicates) mineral with the following chemistry : KAlSiAlO(OH,F), Potassium 2462204aluminum silicate hydroxide fluoride. It is a hard, layered, crystalline (monoclinic 2/m)

    material that fractures along weak atomic planes ("cleavage" planes), thus easily producing

    atomically flat surfaces of atoms having a regular lattice structure which are excellent for use

    in high-resolution AFM piezo calibration and as substrates for imaging of biological samples.

    Muscovite has a layered structure of aluminum silicate sheets weakly bonded together by

    layers of potassium ions. The potassium ions occupy large holes between 12 oxygen atoms, 6

    from the layer above and 6 from the layer below; the resulting K-O ionic bonds are rather

    weak and easily broken. The cleavage sheets fairly flexible and elastic, hydrophilic, and

    negatively charged in water. Muscovite Mica has low iron content is a good electrical and

    thermal insulator. More detailed information on Muscovite Mica can be found here :

    http://www.2spi.com/catalog/submat/mic_shet.html

    (*http://www.ill.fr/dif/3D-crystals/layers.html)

    Another typical AFM substrate is Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) which is described in detail here : http://www.2spi.com/new/hopgsub.html ? A few suppliers include the following companies :

    1) Bioforce Lab (http://www.bioforce.com)

    2) Structure-Probe Inc. (*http://www.2spi.com/catalog/afmstm.html),

    3) Microscopy Mart / Pelco International (*http://www.pelcoint.com/AFM.htm) ? Cleavage directions are detailed here : http://www.2spi.com/catalog/submat/mica-disk.html

    ? Attach to metal puck and then to piezo scanner cap.

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II. Real Time Parameter Settings

    ? contact mode, air or fluid cantilever holder (it is typically much easier to obtain images in

    water or buffer than in air)

    ? use stiffest spring constant cantilever; on DI V-shaped cantilever chips this is the shortest

    one with fattest legs

    ? use oxide-sharpened SiN probe tips, e.g. Model NPS which has the following 34

    specifications (http://www.di).com/products2/NewProbeGuide/ContactModeProbes.html :

PARAMETER VALUE

    spring constant 0.58 N/m

    nominal tip radius of 5-40nm

    curvature

    cantilever leg length 100?m

    cantilever configuration V-shaped

    reflective coating Au

    shape of tip square pyramidal

    tip half angle 35o

? use piezo scanner with smallest distance range available, A or EV scanner, E scanner

    should also work (the difference is the engagement mechanism).

    ? load sample, turn microscope and vibration table on, and then focus the laser as far out on

    the cantilever as possible to obtain the highest sensitivity

    ? let the system stabilize thermally for 30 minutes (with hood on)

    ? laser focusing (find maximum): the laser should never been switched off, i.e. turn the

    system on and off and all manipulations done with the laser on

    PANEL PARAMETER SETTING Scan Controls Scan size 1 ?m

    X offset 0.00 nm

    Y offset 0.00 nm

    Scan angle 0.00 deg

    Scan rate 61.00 Hz

    Number of samples 512

    Slow scan axis enabled

    Z limit between 55V-440V Feedback Controls Integral gain 0.001

    Proportional gain 0.00

    Lookahead gain 0.00

    Setpoint 0 V Other Controls AFM mode Contact

    Input attenuation 1x Interleave Controls Interleave mode Disabled Channel 1 Data type Height*

    (*setting this parameter to

    deflection is typically easier)

     Highpass filter OFF, 3-4

     2 Lowpass filter OFF, 1

III. Imaging

    ? Engage the surface. Make sure you are not false engaged (*see Section 10.10.1 of the DI

    AFM Manual).

    ? Reduce Scan Size to ~12 nm.

    OR

    ? Engage with the Scan Size set to zero and slowly increase.

    ? Increase Scan Rate to 60Hz. Notice that if the Scan Rate is set much higher for atomic scale images to defeat some of the noise due to thermal drift.

    ? Adjust Integral Gain, Setpoint, Scan Rate, and Scan Angle to obtain a good image. Initially, the Setpoint should be kept as low as possible initially and then increased to obtain

    an image. The Z-center position should be close to 0V. The Scan Angle is known to have

    a huge effect, with optimal imaging conditions if the sample is rotated until the atoms are

    oriented vertically or when the fast scan axis is parallel to the a or b crystallographic axis.

    The Proportional Gain should stay at zero except for large scan sizes (~70% of the scanner

    range). The system determines the minimum value of the Integral Gain. If you start with a

    value less than the system's minimum, you wont get an image.

    ?Filters, you should be able to obtain an image with the filters off. In general, the filters

    should be set to off since filtering during data acquisition affects raw data and height values.

    ? If difficulty is experienced obtaining and image Withdraw and try a different location on the sample surface, then Engage again. See Section 15.10.1 of the Multimode AFM Manual

    for Troubleshooting Contact Mode imaging.

    ? Once an adequate image of the surface is obtained (see Figures 1-4), make sure the image

    is real by varying the Scan Size. The spots observed should scale with Scan Size. The image

    you will obtain is based on the "stick-slip" frictional motion of the probe tip (which is why

    there needs a certain amount of force to be applied) determined by the spatial periodic

    corregations on the crystalline lattice surface.

    ? If you notice a bright vertical band on either end of the image, this is due to the abrupt

    reversal of direction of the scanner at the end of each scan line. You can eliminate this by

    using the following procedure :

    1) select Microscope/Calibrate/Scanner

    2) A window will open with the scanner calibration files and in the lower right hand

    corner is the "rounding coefficient" which is the percentage of the last portion of

    each scan line that is not displayed. This should initially be set equal to 0.0. Increase

    this to ~0.2 (while not exceeding 0.5) and this will cut off the last 20% of each scan

    line.

    3) Reset this value back to 0.0 when finished.

    ? Capture the image.

    ? Sometime a good image can suddenly vanish, possibly due to adsorption of surface

    contaminants. Try different XY locations on the same cleaved plane and cleaving the sample

    a few other times.

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Figure 1. AFM High-Resolution Contact Mode Image of Mica from A.Belyayev, State

    Research Institute of Physical Problems & NT-MDT, Moscow, Russia.

    (unpublished) (*downloaded from :

    http://www.ntmdt.ru/scangallery/index.php?action=fullview&id=34)

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Figure 2. AFM High-Resolution Contact Mode Image of HOPG (*downloaded from :

    http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/how-afm/how-afm.html)

Figure 3. AFM High-Resolution Contact Mode Image of HOPG (*downloaded from :

    http://www.physics.sfasu.edu/afm/afm.htm)

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(http://www.energosystems.ru/fgallery.htm)(http://www.energosystems.ru/fgallery.htm)

Figure 4. AFM High-Resolution Contact Mode Image of HOPG

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IV. Off-line Image Analysis.

    ? Go to Off-line / View / Top View option and measure the spacings between atoms. The spacings should be as follows (as shown in Figure 5) :

    MICA : A=0.519 nm, B=0.900 nm, C=1.37 nm

    HOPG : A=0.255 nm, B=0.433 nm, C=0.666 nm

    hexagonal atomic latticehexagonal atomic lattice

    AA

    BBCC

    Figure 5. Hexagonal Atomic Lattice

Record the spacings for ~ 10 atoms observed in a captured image and average them. This

    can be done by alternatively "walking" the cursor line from atom to atom; the average

    distance will be shown on the bottom right hand corner of the display monitor's status bar.

    If the measurements vary by more than 2 percent from the dimensions shown above, a

    correction should be made as follows.

V. X and Y Axis Corrections

    ? See Sections 15-7.2-15-7.3 of the DI Multimode manual. The only difference is that the

    known distances must be adjusted for the smaller atomic spacings of the atoms.

    Furthermore, the sensitivity parameters are adjusted for atomic-scale imaging as follows :

PARAMETER

    oX fast sens 0 Scan Angle

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    oX slow sens 0 Scan Angle oY fast sens 90 Scan Angle oY slow sens 90 Scan Angle

The derate parameters are not changed for atomic scale imaging including ; x fast derate, x

    slow derate, Y fast derate, Y slow derate, retracted offset der, extended offset der.

    As stated in section 15-7.9 in the DI Multimode manual, the sensitivity parameters must be

    calibrated with the Scan angle set at both 0 degrees and 90 degrees. Z-axis calibration is done

    the normal way using a silicon calibration reference (see Section 15.8 of the Multimode

    Manual for detailed instructions).

VI. References

    1. Binnig, et al., Europhys. Lett. 3, 1281 (1987) [graphite] 2. Albrecht, et al., J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 6 271 (1988) [molybdenum sulfide boron nitride]

    3. (a) Manne, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 1758 (1990), (b) Meyer, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 2100

    (1990), (c) Meyer, et al., Z. Phys.B. 79 3 (1990) [sodium chloride (001), lithium flouride] 4. Ohnesorge, et al., Science 260 1451 (1993)[(1014) cleavage plane of a calcite (CaCO) 3

    crystal] TM5. Digital Instruments / Veeco Metrology Group Multimode SPM Instruction Manual Version

    4.31ce (copyright 1996-1999), Section15.9.

    5. Encyclopedia Brittanica Online :

    (*http://search.britannica.com/frm_redir.jsp?query=mica&redir=http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/s

    ilicate/micas.htm)

    6. Advanced Materials 6 355 (1994)

    7. Applied Physics Letters 59, 27 (1991)

    8. J. Chem. Phys.96 10444 (1992)

    9. Nature 349 398 (1991)

    10. J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14 1271 (1996)

    11. Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 29 L502 (1990)

    12. Nanotechnology 1 141 (1990)

    13. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 1942 (1987)

    14. J. Chem. Phys. 89 5190 (1988)

    15. Z. Phys. B-Condensed Matter 88 321 (1992)

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