Adaptation (CBA) Country Programme Strategy (CPS) -
1. Overall CBA Country Programme Strategy (CCPS)
1. Namibia’s Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC indicates significant
vulnerability to climate change impacts. With an economy strongly dependent on natural
resources such as agriculture, water, fisheries and wildlife and nature-based tourism, predicted
impacts can have severe repercussions for the economic development and sustainable
livelihoods. Under current climate, Namibia is already subject to frequent and persistent dry
periods, as well as erratic rainfall, and Namibia is considered naturally the most arid country in
sub-Saharan Africa (Zeidler & Chunga, 2007; INC, 2002). According to international climate
predictions, the impacts of climate change will exacerbate the already prevailing difficult climatic
conditions – increasing aridity as well as making climate increasingly variable. A large percentage
of Namibia’s population relies on subsistence and small-holder ranching and in some areas
agriculture (about 70% of the population are subsistence farmers), which are highly vulnerable to
climate change impacts. To safeguard these livelihoods, relevant responses to climate change
have to be designed and implemented at all levels. The CBA programme in Namibia will pilot the
community-based component of these adaptation activities.
2. Projections for Namibia and the southern African region suggest significant vulnerability
to the impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2001 and 2007), and the IPCC’s Third Assessment
report and other recent studies suggest that by 2050, temperatures and rainfall over southern
Africa will be 2 – 4?C higher and 10 – 20% less than the 1961-90 baseline respectively. According to the IPCC’s fourth assessment report, all of Africa is very likely to warm during this
century. The warming is very likely to be larger than the global, annual mean warming throughout
the continent and in all seasons, with drier subtropical regions warming more than the moister
tropics. Rainfall in southern Africa is likely to decrease (IPCC, 2007). Records and projections
from Namibia confirm such trends for Namibia, observing a west to east gradient in increased
temperature and a reverse gradient of relative increased aridity from east to west (Biggs et al.,
2004; Midgley et al., 2005). Although currently flood and drought preparedness is being
advocated as a “normal” risk management strategy, it is obvious that Namibian’s have to start
planning and managing for the long-term climate changes that will most probably occur in the
future (UNDP/GEF MSP - SPA, 2006).The vulnerability assessment of the Second National
Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC currently underway, but the vulnerability assessment
suggests that climate trends need to be assessed on a finer scale.
3. The direct effects of climate change on the socio-economic sectors could potentially be
felt in sectors such as water; agriculture; fisheries; ecosystems, biodiversity and tourism; coastal
zone; health; and energy (DRFN, to be published - SNC). Community Based Adaptation project
interventions will seek to increase the resilience of the communities and ecosystems to the
impacts of climate change, by building capacity at the local level to integrate climate change
concerns into sustainable community-based management of natural resources. The agriculture
sector and the natural resource sectors will be targeted for project intervention. It is further
proposed to focus the first generation of CBA interventions in certain areas (see below), to
guarantee consolidated investments and returns in the initial experimental phase of the CBA and
the CPS, which later shall be up-scaled to a national level. Initial CBA investments will be
leveraged in the northern regions of the country i.e. Omusati, Oshana, Ohangwena, Oshikoto,
Kavango and Caprivi regions. From climate models it is discernable that these areas will face,
and are already facing, major climate change risk, and due to the high population numbers are
particularly vulnerable to the impacts.
a. Objectives and Impact Indicators
4. The objective adopted by Namibia’s CBA CPS is: to foster capacity among natural
resource dependent-communities to sustainably manage resources in the face of climate change.
This will be achieved through the following outcomes: awareness built regarding climate change
risks and adaptation options for natural resource users, access to climate change and scenario
information integrated into sustainable resource management activities, and access to alternative
resources enhanced to enable adaptation to climate change while reducing climate change
stresses on climate sensitive biodiversity, soils and ecosystems.
i. Number of stakeholders at community level (e.g. businesses, community
representatives, CBOs, NGOs) engaged by project and provided with training
in climate change risk management and scenario planning.
ii. Population covered by awareness building programmes to increase
understanding of risks associated with climate change among general public
and key stakeholder groups.
iii. Increase in awareness of climate change related risks to natural resources
iv. Percentage change in natural resource dependent population with access to
alternative or supplementary livelihood options
b. Sectoral Focus:
5. As per the priorities of the Initial National Communication (INC) for Namibia, submitted in
partial fulfillment of Namibia’s obligations to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), CBA in Namibia will mainly focus on the agriculture sector, with
emphasis on the impacts of climate change on this sector, particularly increases in climate
variability and increase in the occurrence of extreme events, such as floods and droughts. The
Ecosystems/Biodiversity sector will also be targeted during the project interventions. This is also
in line with the national priorities identified as part of Namibia’s long-term development strategy,
Vision 2030, its underpinning National Development Plans (NDP), the National Poverty Reduction
Programme (NPRP) and Namibia’s Country Pilot Partnership for Integrated Sustainable Land
Management (CPP for ISLM), Namibia’s country approach to SLM, including a strong Climate
Change Adaptation (CCA) component. It is noted that Namibia is currently formulating its Second
National Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC. The work included here takes initial findings of
the draft SNC into account, and should be updated according to the final recommendation of the
SNC in the future.
6. About 70% of the Namibia population depends on subsistence agriculture for their
livelihoods. The commercial agricultural sector, agriculture consists primarily of livestock ranching,
although some dryland cropping under irrigation also takes place. Cattle rearing is predominant in
the central and northern regions of the country, while karakul sheep, goat, and ostrich farming are
concentrated in the more arid southern regions. The cultivation of rainfed crops in Namibia is, of
climatic necessity, regionally concentrated, and is mainly confined to the northern communal
areas apart from a small but significant area of commercial maize production in the so-called
maize triangle east of the Etosha National Park (between the towns of Otavi, Grootfontein and
Tsumeb); seedless grapes and other specialized products are grown in selected areas. Pearl
millet (Mahangu) is the most widely grown cereal in the communal areas, and maize in the
commercial areas and some communal areas. Wheat is only grown in the commercial areas and
under irrigation. Maize is widely preferred as the staple food in the communal areas, but millet
and sorghum are more reliable crops except in the highest rainfall zones (Sweet, 1998).
7. Namibia’s semi-arid to arid climate does not allow for much intensive agricultural
production (INC, 2002) thus confining most of the agricultural activities to the northern parts of the
country. Less than 5% of Namibia is considered fit for arable agriculture. Dryland crop production
is common in the north and north eastern parts of the country (INC, 2002). Subsistence farming
supports the livelihoods of the vast majority of rural living Namibians, an approximate two thirds of
the total population. Over the period 1995 to 2004, the share of agriculture in the GDP declined
from 6.9% in 1995 to a mere 4.1% in 2001 due to severe drought conditions during that year. As
from 2002, the overall agricultural sector’s percentage contribution to GDP increased to 5.0% in
2004. The increase in the previous two years can be attributed to the favorable rainfall received
countrywide. The commercial sector percentage contribution remained steady at 3.4% for 2004
Ecosystems, Biodiversity and Tourism Sectors
8. In Namibia is it generally recognized that firstly biodiversity and the functioning of
ecosystems and related ecosystem services are intricately linked. As such reference is made in
the Namibia’s Constitution on the Promotion of Welfare of the People that “the State shall actively
promote and maintain the welfare of the people by adopting, inter alia, policies aimed at (l) the
maintenance of ecosystems, essential ecological processes and biological diversity of Namibia
and utilization of living natural resources on a sustainable basis for the benefit of all Namibians,
both present and future. It is further recognized that biodiversity and ecosystem services are an
important asset and foundation to maintaining and growing the tourism sector. It is in this spirit
that Namibia has a Ministry that is dedicated to Environment and Tourism (MET).
9. In Namibia’s National Development Vision, Vision 2030, biodiversity is defined as the
variety and variability among living organisms and the natural environments in which they occur.
Namibia’s biodiversity includes innumerable species of flora and fauna, which occur within the
country’s five major terrestrial biomes, namely the Nama Karoo, Namib Desert, Succuelnt Karoo,
Tree-and-shrub Savanna, and Namibia’s Lakes and Salt Pans (Mendelsohn et al, 2002). Despite
Namibia’s aridity, the country is characterized by a remarkable variety of habitats and ecosystems
(NBSAP, 2001). The Namib desert is believed to be the oldest desert of the World and
consequently has given rise to a unique evolutionary laboratory (Louw & Seely, 1982; Louw,
1993), Characterized by varied climate, soils and geology, Namibia’s larger-scale biomes are
categorized into 29 distinct vegetation types, associated with peculiar biodiversity formations.
Overall, a species diversity gradient follows the south-west to north-east rainfall gradient, with
increasing rainfall to the north-east harboring higher species numbers. However, endemism is
inversely related to the rainfall gradient and is observed to be highest in the Namib Desert and
pro-Namib transition zone, including the highly variable escarpment areas distinguishing the low-
lying desert form the inland (e.g. Barnard, 1998; Vision 2030) (Figures 1 and 2; endemism and
species richness maps). Although only a relatively small element of Namibia’s biodiversity has
been described to date, of the approximately 14,000 species described, almost 19% are endemic
or unique to Namibia.
Figure 1: Terrestrial plant and animal species richness
Figure 2: Endemic terrestrial plant and animal species
10. Namibia is one of the very few countries in Africa with internationally recognized biodiversity hotspots, and harbors one of the few drylands hotspots world-wide. Namibia’s most
significant hotspot is the Sperrgebiet, which is the restricted diamond mining area in the Succulent Karoo floral kingdom, shared with South Africa. The Succulent Karoo probably the World’s only-most significant and recognized arid biodiversity hotspot. On the Namibian site, the
Succulent Karoo is protected almost in its entirety as it falls into a protected are and diamond concession. Special conservation measures have been put into place, however it is envisaged that additional CCA measure need to be developed in future, to address climate impacts not previously envisioned.
11. In this Strategy proposed focal areas are situated in the moister northern regions of Namibia. Although not necessarily covering biodiversity endemism, these areas have the highest species richness in the country. Additionally, due to the high human element, biodiversity is under usage pressure and climate change impacts are expected to be significant. The focal areas are covering at least 12 of 29 described vegetation zones in Namibia, namely Kalahari Woodlands, Cuvelai Drainage, Western Kalahari, Mopane Shrubland, Salt Pans, Etosha Grass and Shrubland, Karstveld, Omatake Drainage, Okavango Valley, Riverine Woodlands and Islands, Caprivi Mopane Woodlands and Caprivi Flood Plains. A great proportion of biodiversity in Namibia is associated with these vegetation types, and numerous community-based institutions, e.g. in form of conservancies, community-forests, water basin management groups, community-based
tourism associations and other are operational in these areas. Biodiversity has an additional importance in the context of local agriculture, relating to both agro-biodiversity including aspects of adaptability to climatic variation, and sustained ecosystem function. Although limited information is currently available on species inventories and status and trends of population numbers, some natural resource and biodiversity monitoring efforts are in place and ongoing, both on a community level and on a, primarily government related, research level.
c. Vulnerability Assessment:
12. Namibia’s INC (2002) established that agricultural output from Namibia, both for
subsistence and commercial, is extremely sensitive to climatic conditions. Although adapted to arid conditions and prolonged dry spells, periodic sever droughts and on the other end of the scale, devastating floods, cause considerable losses in agricultural and livestock production. The uncertainty in future rainfall trends make projection of agricultural impact very difficult, but certain projections under increased temperatures can be made with confidence (INC, 2002). The currently underway in-depth analysis of Climate Change Vulnerability and Risk, part of the SNC preparation, will deliver finer scale information with regards to especially the agriculture and water sectors.
13. Crop vulnerabilities: There are approximately 274,000 ha of land used for rain-fed cereal cropping, consisting mostly of millet under subsistence farming. Millet is a staple food for most rural communities in the north of the country. In times of climatic hardship, it is supplemented by use of wild natural resources. Millet is relatively drought resistant, particularly indigenous and improved regional varieties, but if effective soil moisture decreases in the future, then decreases in yield, and a greater inter-annual variability in yield are likely. The commercial sub-sector is vulnerable to lack/competition for irrigation water. Maize is the principle commercial crop. One study (Hulme et al., 1996) predicts a small increase in maize yield under future climate change
scenarios, although yield quality would be reduced due to shortened growing seasons. Given the projected increase in air temperature, already close to the maximum for maize, a probable decrease in rainfall and increase evaporation, a decrease in maize yield is more likely (INC, 2002).
14. Livestock vulnerabilities: Export of livestock products makes up 8.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 16% of all exports. Farming with both domestic livestock and game is common on commercial farms, and in communal areas. A trend towards greater aridity would be associated with a decline in ecological carrying capacity of the rangelands due to changed primary productivity patterns and yields. A shift towards farming with small stock and game is suggested. Drought lowers the availability of forage, reduces milk production, growth rates and the health status of livestock. With increased temperatures the incidence of animal diseases may increase. Impacts on household food security in the subsistence farming areas could be dramatic and climate change has the potential to cause significant social disruption and population displacement in these communities. Country-wide climate change is seen to severely impair and reduce grass biomass critical to intensive livestock husbandry currently undertaken especially on commercial farms in Namibia, with livestock breeds that require high levels of biomass instead of more adapted breeds such as the local Sanga breeds (INC, 2002). Strong impacts on both the cropping and livestock production sectors are foreseen, with heat and drought adapted breeds and varieties being more suitable for agricultural production. Certain areas of Namibia are predicted to suffer from increased levels of bush encroachment, as increased CO in the 2atmosphere favors woody plant species with C3 photosynthetic pathways.
15. Links to land degradation risk: The in afore laid out argument becomes even more significant when examined in the context of land degradation risk and the unsustainable management of natural resources, including biodiversity. Severe climates in northern Namibia lead inevitable to pressure on the land and on natural resources. In times of severe drought high livestock pressure leads to overgrazing, and rangelands are observed to be degraded. A change in vegetation structure and loss of natural biodiversity has been reported in certain areas in Namibia, including a simplification of soil fauna (Zeidler, 1999). A shift from perennial to annual forage species, and composition in favor of less palatable species has also been observed (e.g. Seely & Jacobson, 1994; Behnke, et al., 1993). Wood resources, critical to energy supply in the
northern regions of Namibia and important in an ecosystem function context per se, are at risk in terms of climate change, with a reduction of wood cover to be expected under aridification of climate. Overall, the moister areas of Namibia may well be less resilient to a shift towards aridity than more arid areas, stemming from a variety of reasons, including the naturally better adaptability to dry conditions in arid lands. The high degradation risk linked to high population numbers (both people and livestock), unsustainable land uses and management practices, non-conducive tenure arrangements and others, will be explored and addressed in more detail through the CPP for ISLM country programme, and will input into the context of this CBA Strategy in future.
Ecosystem, Biodiversity and the Tourism Sectors
16. The impacts of climate change on ecosystems are predicted to bear significant changes
in vegetation structure and function in several areas of Namibia. Midgley et al. (2005) project that grassy savannah vegetation types will be replaced by more arid adapted desert and arid shrubland vegetation types. Overall in Namibia, vegetation is projected to loose in cover and overall net primary productivity, which will impact on ecosystem functions such as soil formation and nutrient cycling. The changes will affect the composition of natural fauna, especially but not only on so-called ecosystem engineers, which are essential for maintaining crucial ecosystem functions such as maintenance of soil resilience.
17. Threats to biodiversity: The afore mentioned study (Midgley et al., 2005) suggest that, under currently available climate change scenarios, Certain vegetation types are predicted to expand, whilst others are predicted to disappear completely. This holds true for the northern areas, where a simplification of vegetation types can be expected. Especially those vegetation types that are associated with unique water drainage systems such as the Cuvelai, Kavango,
Omatako, Cuito, Zambezi and Kwando-Linyanti-Chobe (See Mendelsohn et al., p.62), would be
at risk under a scenario of increased aridity. However, during the 2007/08 rainfall season
currently underway in Namibia, severe floods have occurred in these areas, partially triggered by
heavy rainfall in the catchment areas that lay outside the country boundaries, primarily in Angola
and Zambia. At this stage no reliable research information is available that would determine the
impacts and indicative changes of biodiversity. However, it is clear that local communities need to
be prepared to adapt to variability, to ensure that ecosystems can be better protected and human
populations are able to deal with the impacts.
15. Threats to tourism: Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in Namibia economy. Since
Namibian tourism relies primarily on its natural resource base, any impacts to biodiversity and
natural ecosystems will impact on this sector. There is an increase in protection of natural
resources through state protected areas, and communal and freehold conservancies, cross-
boundary conservation zones and commercial mixed livestock and game farms, but most of these
efforts need to be financially viable and need to take climate change risk and adaptation options
particularly into consideration.
d. Baseline-additionality reasoning:
Baseline Threats to Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Management:
18. Summary of baseline threats to agriculture:
- Naturally arid to semi-arid climatic conditions throughout Namibia determine ecological
carrying capacity (esp. natural limitations) and productivity, as well as relation to that land
- With only a small percentage of the country considered to be arable, high production
expectation are vested in such areas and often high land use pressure is exerted such
- Population pressure is one of the most significant non-climatic factors affecting land and
resource (biodiversity, ecosystem function) condition directly impacting on the agriculture
- High livestock and in some areas even game populations, accumulating due to
inappropriate resource management decisions lead to over-utilization and degradation of
land and natural resources, including, for some areas the disruption of the carbon cycle
e.g. leading to a impoverishment of soil nutrients
- High levels of deforestation due to clearance of field but mainly for energy consumption
purposes disrupt ecosystem services and lead to soil erosion, amongst other
- Limited water availability and over-abstraction of ground water aquifers lead to water
shortages, for agriculture (e.g. irrigation), livestock (limited drinking water) and humans
(all household and personal needs)
- Pest management is required during all times of agricultural and range management, as
well as other management practices can enhance productivity
- The severe impacts of HIV/AIDS cause enormous pressures on the agricultural sector;
loss of skilled people such as extension officers and knowledgeable people in the
community leads to unsustainable agricultural practices; households which have lost the
“breadwinners” to the disease also have fewer choices, but to depend only on agriculture
putting more pressure on the sector, amongst other.
Climate change will worsen the baseline threats to agriculture amongst other through:
- Shift in climate to more aridity and higher temperatures will render many currently
used crop varieties and livestock breeds unsuitable; better adapted options need to be
introduced and sought for, including through the improvement and promotion of
indigenous varieties and breeds; livestock health and productivity will decline under less
favorable climatic conditions and relevant veterinary practices need to be availed; water
resources will become more challenged and adaptive water management practices need
to be introduced and implemented amongst the extensive rural population; over-utilization
of rangelands, natural resources and biodiversity will be exacerbated and options and
alternatives are desperately needed to deduce the already high pressures; people living
with HIV/AIDS will suffer more under worsening climatic conditions
- Shift to changed growing periods will directly affect productivity of crops, woody
vegetation and livestock; at this stage limited research information is available to firstly
establish the expected changes in the growing seasons and what this would mean in
terms of overall yields; it is important to start thinking about these impacts in the context
of community/subsistence agriculture and to identify options
- Shift to more severe climatic event, including drought and floods is difficult to
establish with certainty, however it is clear that severe droughts and floods lead to crop
failures, livestock losses, as well as loss of human lives, housing and other structural
assets. Increased occurrence of pests such as army worms, locusts and other may occur
during extreme weather. Coping strategies need to be strengthened. The opportunistic
exploitation of run-off water during floods periods through establishment of rainwater
harvesting infrastructure, building of flood proofed housing and grain storage,
establishment of reliable Early Warning Systems that would allow for plantation of
appropriate crops, moving or diminishing of livestock herds at appropriate times and so
forth, are amongst some of the additionality activities one can envision.
It is noted that there is a direct impact link between the human well-being, agriculture, biodiversity
and sustainable land management.
19. Summary of baseline threats to ecosystems, biodiversity and tourism
- Biodiversity in Namibia is faced by many non-climate change pressures, including human
population pressure. The northern part of the country is the most densely populated, and
numbers are increasing. This may lead to overuse of natural resources, ecosystem and
- In certain areas, where people have infringed on traditionally existing National Protected
Areas, human-wildlife conflicts impact negatively on wild animal populations. - The high poverty levels still pertaining in Namibia exert non-climate related pressures on
the environment. The income distribution in Namibia is extremely skewed with a large
part of the population living in poverty. People living in poverty depend strongly on natural
resources and my be forced to overuse resources in order to meet their daily demands - Lack of secure and exclusive tenure rights are seen to pose threats to sustainable
management of natural resources, both in the communal and commercial sectors. - Application of unsustainable land use practices leads to land degradation/desertification;
an example is that overstocking has lead to significant bush encroachment significantly
degrading biodiversity in affected areas; invasion of alien species has also been
attributed to inappropriate land management
- HIV/AIDS has direct and indirect impacts on the biodiversity and ecosystems. HIV/AIDS
robes the sector of human resource capacity to manage the environment in the
government, NGOs, academic institutions, at the community level and the private sector.
One explicit impact recorded is the over-use of natural resources as alternative foods (e.g.
bush meat/game) and sources of income, as well the explicit use of medicinal plants to
try and cure the disease. A high consumption of timber exerts pressure on woody plants,
as timber is used for the production of coffins. It has been reported that human resource
losses have led to the degradation of traditional knowledge of sustainable land and
- Degradation of habitat and loss of biodiversity will directly negatively affect the tourism
sector; resource shortages limit tourism establishments and reduce the quality of Namibia
as a prime destination
- Shift in climate to more aridity and higher temperatures will have similar impacts as
those described above for agriculture. A special note should be made in terms of tourism:
impact on water and other amenities are also critical to sustainable tourism – where e.g.
water becomes a limiting factor tourism will not be a sustainable and appropriate land use
- Shift to changed growing periods will directly affect vegetation types and extends of
habitats, and consequently of all associated biodiversity. Very limited information is
available on what extend of changes are to be expected.
- Shift to more severe climatic event, including drought and floods will have significant
impacts on ecosystems, and distribution patters can be expected to change. Additionally
severe climates can be expected to have a strong impact on tourism. For example
extreme flooding will prevent tourists from traveling and make areas more prone to
disease such as malaria and cholera. During times of severe droughts the tourism
potential will also be reduced – people would not like to witness dying livestock and
e. Focal Area(s)
20. CBA interventions in Namibia will deliver Global Environmental Benefits (GEBs) in the
GEF focal areas of biodiversity conservation and the prevention of land degradation, while
seeking to make GEBs in these focal areas increasingly resilient to the impacts of climate change.
It is understood that climate change impacts on ecosystem resilience occur, whilst currently
progressing land degradation is reducing ecosystem resilience to critical levels, leading to
cumulative effects of climate changes. Climate change adaptive capacities are lowered by other
negative social, economic and other environmental impacts. The project interventions, especially
action at a local level, will have cumulative impacts on a global scale especially in the focal area
of land degradation. Land degradation triggers destructive processes that affect the entire
biosphere. For this reason, the GEF has recognized that the results of combating land
degradation go well beyond national boundaries and isolated effects on climate, biodiversity and
21. Enhancing the adaptive capacity of natural resource managers and small holder farmers
to sustainably manage natural resources in the face of climate change impacts will have positive
impacts on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use aspects. Specifically, vegetation types
indigenous to the northern areas of Namibia and their associated biodiversity, which are now
threatened by climate change impacts, will be protected over through CBA projects. Room will be
made for developing dryland biodiversity resources and products, applying the sustainable use
principles of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the ecosystem approach, while
integrating additional climate change concerns to ensure sustainability into the future. Additionally,
CBA Namibia will focus on promoting the use of indigenous agrobiodiversity in the context of
sustainable land management will ultimately lead to the conservation of traditional and indigenous
plant and animal genetic resources with relevance in a global biodiversity conservation context,
while providing community benefit in terms of increasingly climate-resilient livelihoods for communities.
22. Project interventions under the CBA will be at the community level, targeting small holder farmers and local level natural resource managers. The project interventions will target the most vulnerable communities in terms of dependency on climate sensitive natural resources. The project selection will also be based on the fact that there is already ongoing complimentary project in this area on climate change adaptation, embedded in the CPP for ISLM country framework. Lessons learnt from this project will be taken into consideration in order to ensure that the project interventions under the CBA will have positive impacts.
23. To ensure that the initial CBA pilot phase will generate strong lessons learnt for eventual up-scaling of the approach to the national level, as well as have a discernable impact on the ground, the Namibian Steering Committee (NCS) for the CBA project has decided to focus initial investments to a geographically defined area of particularly high climate change risk and vulnerability. With the given funding an initial number of small-grant projects are expected to be developed in the northern regions of Namibia, namely Oshana, Omusati, Ohangwena and Oshikoto regions (cluster 1) and Kavango and Caprivi regions (cluster 2).
Regional Characteristics and Farming Systems
24. Cluster 1: Omusati, Oshikoto, Oshana, Ohangwena regions situates in the north central parts of Namibia. Subsistence agriculture (livestock and crop farming) are the main livelihood subsistence and economic activities in the area. Farmers in north central regions grow primarily rain-fed and not irrigated crops such as millet, sorghum, bambara nuts, groundnuts, pumpkins and several vegetables, including indigenous types. Pearl millet also known as Mahangu is the most produced crop. Large numbers of cattle are reared, however animals are not used much for commercialization. The agriculture sector is threatened by periodic droughts that are responsible for livestock losses, reduction in milk production due to reduced forage and reduction in crop production (INC, 2002).
25. Cluster 2: Caprivi and Kavango regions are situated in the North-East of the country and are characterized by floodplains, fertile soils and a mixed farming system that combines rain-fed small scale cereal production with livestock raising. Cattle and maize are the most farmed animal and crop respectively. The north eastern parts of Namibia have relatively high volumes of water are continuously available; this is because of the presence of rivers, namely; Okavango, Zambezi, Kwando, Linyanti rivers. The north eastern parts of the country receive the highest rainfall in Namibia. Rainfall exceeds 550mm per annum on average, with the lowest variation encountered in Namibia (Mendelsohn and Roberts 1997; Mendelsohn et al. 2006). Agricultural sector is threatened by droughts and flooding (Caprivi Regional Poverty Profile, 2004; Kavango Regional Poverty Profile, 2007).
26. Cluster 1: Omusati region has 228,842 inhabitants, which is 12.5% of Namibia’s total
population. ). About 161,916 persons are living in Oshana, which is equivalent to 8.8% of Namibia’s population, while 161,007 persons, which is equivalent to 8.8% of Namibia’s population,
live in Oshikoto Region. Ohangwena has a population of 228 384, which is equivalent to 12.5% of Namibia’s total population. Most of the people in the regions reside in rural areas. About 99% of