INDONESIA’S COUNTRY REPORT
FOR EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON :
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ASIAN HIGHWAY NETWORK: REGIONAL EXPERIENCES
AND LESSONS IN FINANCING HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE AND
IMPROVING ROAD SAFETY,
8-10 MAY, BANGKOK THAILAND
GEDE PASEK SUARDIKA,
( Chief of Safety Management , Directorate of Land Transportation Safety)
DIRECORATE OF LAND TRANSPORTATION SAFETY
DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF LAND TRANSPORTATION
MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATIONS OF INDONESIA
1. 1 General
Indonesia is an independent republic consisting of more than 17,500 islands, spreading over 1. COUNTRY DESCRIPTION 3,000 miles (from east to west), located between 06?08' North and 11?15' South latitude, and
from 94?45' to 141?05' East longitude. Indonesia's economy is growing and relies on the
oil, gas, small-scale industry, and tourism sectors. Since 2001, Indonesia has been divided
administratively into 30 provinces, including four new provinces: Banten, Gorontalo, Kepu-
lauan Bangka Belitung, and Maluku Utara. The climate is tropical (hot, humid, and rainy),
with two distinct monsoon seasons: dry season (April-September) and rainy season (Octo-
ber-March). 2Indonesia covers a total area of 9.8 million square kilometers (km). As an archipelago, it comprises a sea area of 7.9 million km (including an exclusive economic zone), or 81% 2of the total area, and a land area of about 1.9 million km. It is also a country with many volcanoes and rivers. The total population of Indonesia, according to the 2004
Population Census is 227 million.
Table 1: Population, Area, and Economy
1.9 million square Population and Area Land Area
7.9 million square Sea Area
Population (2004) 227 million
Population Growth 1.49% Economic Indicators Gross Domestic Product Rp 1,42 trillion
Per Capita National Rp 6.4 million
Source: BPS-Statistics Indonesia, 2001.
The growth of Indonesia's economy is 3.32%, based on gross domestic product, at 1993
constant prices, while the growth of non-oil and gas gross domestic product
1. 2 Road Transportation
The total length of Indonesian roads in 2003 was 328,313 000 kilometers. State Law No.
14/1992 on Road Traffic and Transportation is the only act regulating all aspects of
road traffic and transportation. Basically, it is the last update to the Dutch colonial's traffic
act in the 1930s, which was adopted by the Indonesian Government in 1951 and updated
in 1965 (Law No. 3/1965). Currently, the new act is being prepared to cater to recent
developments, especially to accommodate new concepts and technologies emerging in
traffic management and engineering practices. The act is then manifested into four pera-
turan pemerintah (government regulations): PP No. 41/1993 on road transport, PP No.
42/1993 on vehicle inspection, PP No. 43/1993 on road infrastructure and traffic, and PP
No. 44/1993 on vehicle and drivers. In line with these are Keputusan Menteri (minis-
ter's decrees) outlining the application of such regulations for certain matters. Some
examples are KM No. 60/1993 on road markings, KM No. 61/1993 on road signs, and
KM No. 62/1993 on traffic signals. National Act No. 13/1980 on roads regulates road
standards, road hierarchical system, and classifications (covering public roads, private
roads, and toll roads). To implement this act, PP No. 65/1985 on roads gives more de-
tail on all aspects of roads.
The wave of decentralization in Indonesia began in the late 1990s. PP No. 22/1990 was en-acted for traffic, regulating the transfer of responsibility from the central Government to local governments (i.e., municipal and provincial). The branch of the Ministry of Communi-cation (MOC) at the local level was abolished and merged with the Local Office of Traffic and Transport Affairs, which is now known as the Local Office of Communication and ex-ists at the provincial and municipal levels. Under this regulation, most traffic management and engineering matters are now the full responsibility of these offices. However, there ex-ists a national forum where all these institutions sit together for coordination meetings.
2.1 Road Accident Definitions 2 ASSESSMENT OF ROAD SAFETY SITUATION
In Indonesia, road accidents are classified into four categories of severity or impact: fatal
injury, serious injury, minor injury, and property damage only (PDO). These categories are
(i) A fatal accident is one in which the victim dies, either on the spot or due to inju-
ries sustained within 30 days of the accident.
(ii) A serious injury is one in which the casualty suffers serious injuries and is admitted
to a hospital and receives treatment for over 30 days.
(iii) A minor injury is one in which the casualty requires medical treatment
or is admitted to a hospital and receives treatment for less then 30 days. (iv) A PDO is a type of accident in which only damage to property is
involved. The nature of the damage is expressed in monetary terms.
2.2 Road Accident Reporting
The Directorate of Land Transportation Safety (DLTS) within the Indonesian Na-
tional Police (INP), is responsible for collecting and recording all traffic accidents na-
tionwide. DLTS is also responsible for data processing and preparing acci-
dent statistics. The data are mainly used by MOT and, to a lesser extent, the
other related institutions as a reference for setting up programs. Accident
investigation is a joint responsibility shared by INP and MOT. But, in most
cases, only serious and fatal accidents are investigated.
A new accident data system known as 3L, which refers to Laka Lantas, or Traffic
Accident Data Processing, was introduced in the early 1990s, adopting Transport Re-
search Laboratory data system. This system is then reinforced by the Transport
Research Laboratory-produced traffic accident data processing package known as
the microcomputer accident analysis package. This data system should be quite
sufficient in providing useful information for analyzing accidents. However, the
longer list of items in the data form seemed to discourage police officers in the
field from recording. Several pilot projects were introduced to promote the new sys-
tem involving many cities in various sizes, though sustainability seems to be
questionable. Only 1 or 2 years after the pilot project was implemented, the new
system reverted back to the conventional or old system (i.e., a manual system).
This system has been tested at Bandung; Jakarta; Semarang; and Surabaya, Yogya-
karta, Bali. Such a program is now being introduced in main cities in Sumatra (Medan,
Pekanbaru, Padang, Palembang).
Every year, INP produces Traffic Police in Figures, which contains some analyses and
evaluations of the role of DRT and quantified traffic situations in the nation. The re-
port consists of population; number of vehicles; and registration, traffic viola-
tions, traffic accidents, driver's license issuance, and some analysis on accidents,
including grouping people involved in accidents based on age, education level,
and type of violation. No technical analysis of accidents is presented here. This
report cannot be regarded as a way of presenting proper traffic accident statistics
but rather as an INP report.
2.3 Coverage of Road Accident Reporting All road accidents are required to be reported and will involve the role of traffic po-
lice, but reporting is not always done. For example, minor accidents and those that
occur in remote areas or that are settled by the parties involved are usually not
reported. Police normally will record fatal or serious injury accidents or those involv-
ing serious traffic violations.
Accident casualty data recorded by INP over the last 30 years. In the last 20 years,
the number of accidents has decreased by 69%, in contrast with the 225% increase
in the total number of vehicles. The decreased number of accidents resulted in an
increase of 4% in fatalities. These data are suspect since no road safety improvement
effort has been exerted. Further analysis and discussion indicate severe underreporting
2.5 Present Road Safety Situation Referring to accident statistics, the road safety situation in Indonesia increase over
the years. The total number of road accidents in 2004 increased, when compared
with the previous year, increased about 16, 3 % (from 17,732 cases in 2004 to
20,623 in 2005). Accidents resulting in fatal injuries increased approximately
3.6 % while the number of accidents resulting in serious injuries and minor injuries
increased by 10 % and 2 %, respectively. The number of PDO accidents, how-
ever, continues to increase. This may be because many accidents that do not result in
injuries occur between vehicles on roads. Table 2 examines Road Accident Trends.
Table 2. Traffic Accident in 2000-2005
NO DESCRIPTION 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
20.623 1 Traffic Accidents 12,649 12,791 12,267 13,339 17,732
11.610 2 A. Death 9,536 9,522 8,762 9,856 11,204
B. Seriously 9.891 3 7,100 6,659 6,012 6,142 8,983 Injured
12.326 4 C. Light Injured 9.518 9,181 8,929 8,694 12,084
Source : National Police of the Republic of Indonesia
Again, there seems to be a high ratio of fatalities to road accidents, probably
caused by under reporting accidents, the high number of accidents involving buses loaded with passengers, and poor medical treatment. Other major factors
that contribute to the large number of fatalities include the poor condition of
many intercity roads, poor vehicle maintenance, and reckless high-speed driving of
many bus and truck drivers.
Table 3 shows traffic accidents based on road user age. Road users between the
ages of 22 and 30 contributed the highest percentage (i.e., 33.43% in 2002 out of a
total 13,433 people involved in road accidents), this is an increase of 0.34% com-
pared with the previous year, which was 33.09%.
Table 3: Road Traffic Accidents by Age
Road Users Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2
Range of Age People People Percentage Percentage
5-15 294 2.16 409 2.32
16-21 3,600 26.48 4,717 26.8
22-30 4,655 34.24 6,036 34.3
31-40 3,053 22.46 3,946 22.4
41-50 1,517 11.16 1,920 10.9 1,517
51-60 479 3.5 568 3.2
Total 13,593 100.00 13,433 100.00
Source: Indonesian National Police, 2003.
According to INP, people with senior high school as the last level of education at-
tended shares the majority of people involved in road accidents. A staggering
47.99% out of 2,110,938 people involved in road accidents in 2002 were those who
attended senior high school as their last-level of education. There is a noticeable
increase of about 1.25% as compared with the previous year, in which 46.74% of
people with a senior high school levelof education were involved.
Table 4: Road Traffic Accidents by Education Level
Year 2004 Road Year 2003
People Percentage People Percent-User's Involved Involved age Level of
Education Elementary School 1,977 14.5 2,251 13.0 Junior High School 4,352 31.9 5,415 30.7
Senior High School 6,287 46.2 8,386 47.6
University 989 7.2 1,259 7.2 Total 13.605 100.00 17,311 100.0
2.6 NATIONAL ACCIDENT COST
In 2002, Gajah Mada University, a leading state universty conducted a research on accident
cost. The research aimed at exploring how much country’s lost each year resulting from road
traffic accident. The national accident cost is obtained by multiplying the number of casual-
ties and unit cost for each level of severity. Table 5 illustrates the total annual national
economic loss due to road accidents Using the 2002 Indonesia nominal gross domestic prod-
uct of Rp1,421 trillion, the total accident cost in Indonesia was estimated to be roughly
Rp. 41 trillion (approximately US$4.5 billion) or 2.9% of the gross domestic product. This
figure is relatively high, even though the human capital approach is applied. Number of lost
each year is very significant and government of Indonesia must not negleted this because
will affect social and economic life one’s country.
Table 5 National Accident Cost
Numberof Severity Cost Unit Total Cost Casualtie (Rp) (Rp) Fatal 30,464 327,338,384 9,972,036,547,189
Serious 450,000 21,365,938 9,614,672,364,835
Slight 2,100,000 6,082,118 12,772,448,336,325
PDO 13,515,000 668,656 9,036,898,494,305
Total Gross Domestic Product Per-41,396,055,742,655 cent of Gross Domestic Product
Source: Indonesia data.
3. NATIONAL ROAD SAFETY ACTION PLAN In March 2004 with sponsored by Asian Development Bank (ADB), ASEAN and some
local private sectors, Indonesia’s National Road Safety Action Plan was made. The
preparation of this action plan involved some expert from developed countries, schol-
ars from state universities as well as expert from other ASEAN Countries. The actions
include 15 sectors which are accomodate all issues on road safety. Sectors that on Na-
tional Road Safety Action Plan are as follows:
Sector 1 : Coordination and Management of road safety ••
•Sector 2 : Road Accident Data System
•Sector 3 : Road Safety Funding
•Sector 4 : Safe Planning and Design of Road
•Sector 5 : Improvement and Hazardous Location
•Sector 6 : Road Safety and Education for Children
•Sector 7 : Driver Training and Testing
•Sector 8 : Road Safety Publicity and Capaigns
•Sector 9 : Vehicle Roadworthiness and Safety Standard
•Sector 10 : Traffic Legistation
•Sector 11 : Traffic Police and Law Enforcement
•Sector 12 : Emergency Assistance to Road Accident Victims •Sector 13: Road
•Sector 14 : Road Accident Costing
•Sector 15 : Collaboration
Taking the current situation into account, the aim of the plan is to halve the an-
ticipated increase in deaths from 5.8 % to 3.4% per year over the next five years.
The key targets are as follows:
• Save more than 20.411 lives over the five year period by halving the antici-
increase in deaths per year
• Reduce the death rate (deaths per ten thousand vehicles) by 5.8 % in 2003
3.4 % in 2010 .
• Increase seat belt wearing to 90% countrywide
• Increase helmet wearing to 90% countrywide
These targets will act as benchmarks for monitoring the casualty reduction success of the
plan. The impact of the plan will be reviewed after two years and revisions made to ensure
that the targets will be met. The proposed improved data system and improved, regular
analyses of National road accident data will provide the information to adjust target if
necessary. In due course the National road safety action plan and National targets will be
brought into line with the Development Plan cycle and the actions and targets amended ac-
4. MEASURES TAKEN TO IMPROVE ROAD SAFETY
4.1 Progress Since 2004
In December 2005, new Directorate of Land Transportation Safety has been set up.
The new directorate has four Sub Directorates which are Sub Directorate of Safety
Management, Promotion and Partnership, Acreditation & Sertification and Safety Audit.
This new institution hopefully will be the main body resposible for the implementation
of National Road Safety Action Plan mentioned and obtain more budget allocation and
increase high official commitment from government.
The progress taken since the preparation of the National Road Safety Action Plan in
2004 are as follows:
a. The establishment of National Road Safety Council ( Sector 15 : Collabo-
As have been known before one problem for the efectivness of road safety ac-
tivites is the worst coordination among institutions. Some institutions that involved
in road safety activities conducted their activities saparately (without ccordination
with other institutions). So therefore the impact of the activities not seen yet.
In order to improve coordination among institutions, a body named National Road
Safety Council will be established. The basic legislation for this new body have
been included in the draf revision of Act 14 Year 1992 on Road Traffic and Trans-
Main task of this body is to coordinate all instituions to carry out all actions men-
tion at National Road Safety Action Plan (Blue Print) which is launched in April 7,
2004 on the commemorate of WHO day.
b. Accident Black Spot Investigation Unit (ABIU, or Investigation Unit) now
on Pilot Project in Southern Sumatera and 2007 all provincies in Java
and Bali Islands and by 2010 this unit will be established nationally).
In oder to improve accident data reporting especially fatal accidents, an investiga-
tion unit will be set up in all provinces. The establishment will be done periodically.
This unit will be responsible for the investigation and analysing current data on ac-
cident as well as delivering recommendation for the improvement.
c. The establishment of Global Road Safety Partnership Indonesia (GRSP ,
Sector 15 : Collaboration);
On June 2005, Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP) Indonesia have started.
GRSP Indonesia was chaired by former Minister of Transortation Mr. Giri Suseno
Hadihardjono. One of its main program for the year 2006 is the helmet for kids
program collaborate with Asia Injury Vietnam and MOT.
d. Preparation of Guidelines for Road Transporation Safety Information
Systems ( Sector Sector 2 : Road Accident Data Systems);
To improve the information system especially on road safety, preparation for the
Guidelines on Road Transportation Information System is currently doing . The
guideline will be apply as a frame for Road Safety Information System.
e. Preparation of Guidelines for Road Safety Audit ( Sector 4 : Safe Plan-
ning and Design of Roads);
In the revision of Law 14 year 1992 on Road Traffic and Transport, in an article, it
is stated that the implementation of road safety audit for new and existing road
become compulsory. For that Directorate of Land Transporattion Safety is now
preparing the guidelines of road safety audit.
f. Preparation of Curiculla for Public Driver’s Competence ( Sector 7 :
Driver Training and Testing);
At present MOT has implement training and education for public drivers for 12
batch, the subject given during the training usually about how to drive safely, fol-
low traffic code on other issues. In order to enhance the materials given for train-
ing and educating public drivers, MOT is now preparing the better sylabus.
g. Helmet For Kids Program ( Sector 6 Road Safety Education for Children);
Considering as very vulnerable road users, children ( kindergarten and elementary
level) would be the best target for safety campaign. In the country where most
family have motorcylce, distributing free helmet for children would be an advan-
h. Investigation of Fatal Accident (Sector 2 : Road Accident Data Systems);
Investigate fatal accident (causing death victims) have been carried out so far.
Althought the role for investigation and reporting for acccident basicaly conducted
by National Police, MOT conducted investigation for different view and approach.
i. Vehicle Safety, imrovements in vehicle design, mandatory wearing seatbelt (2004)
and helmets (1992);
j. Enforcement; to examine the effectiveness of traffic enforcement systems in many
cities, often inspect the driving license (SIM) and the motor vehicle license (STNK) of
l. Physical measures; Traffic Calming (Speed Hump,Choker, Raised Sidewalk,
Crosswalk Refuge), Pedestrian Road Crossing (The Signaled Crossing, Non-Signaled
Within the last three years, road safety issues have been raised government awareness and
commitment. The extension of Sub Directorate Safety to Directorate of Land Transportation
Safety, the next establishment of National Road Safety Council (NRSC), ABIU and the increas-
ing national budget alocation on road safety programs to name a few as the proof.
Some problems identified as hinderance for the smoothness of the implementation of the
programs are as folows
? Road accident data contains severe under-reporting
? Official figures have created public ignorance on road safety for so many years to the
point that putting them right will be a political issue•Very little safety program existed
? Very poor co-ordination among parties
? Lack of Human Resources Competence;
? Lack of Road Safety Awareness among road users.
But there are some potential opportunities to change this current situation on road
safety General public concern, deep concern among educators/teachers, more concern among
female than male, more concern among education cities and more concern among private ven-