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(ii) A produce stand that only offers whole, uncut fresh fruits and vegetables (iii) A food with a pH level of 4.6 or below when measured at 24oC (75oF) Except for hot oil cooking or filtering equipment, V type threads may

    10-144

    Department of Human Services

    Chapter 200

    State of Maine

    Food Code

    2001

    As adopted by:

    The Maine Department of Human Services 10-144 CMR 200

    and the

    Maine Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Resources

    01-001 CMR 331

    Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page i

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Purpose and Definitions ................................................................................ 1

    1-1 TITLE, INTENT, SCOPE.................................................................................................................. 1 1-101 Title ............................................................................................................................................. 1 1-102 Intent ............................................................................................................................................. 1 1-103 Scope ........................................................................................................................................... 1 1-2 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................................... 1 1-201 Applicability and Terms Defined ............................................................................................... 1 Chapter 2 Management and Personnel......................................................................... 12

    2-1 SUPERVISION................................................................................................................................. 12 2-101 Responsibility............................................................................................................................ 12 2-102 Knowledge ................................................................................................................................ 12 2-103 Duties ........................................................................................................................................ 13 2-2 EMPLOYEE HEALTH .................................................................................................................... 14 2-201 Disease or Medical Condition .................................................................................................. 14 2-3 PERSONAL CLEANLINESS ......................................................................................................... 17 2-301 Hands and Arms........................................................................................................................ 17 2-302 Fingernails................................................................................................................................. 18 2-303 Jewelry ...................................................................................................................................... 18 2-304 Outer Clothing .......................................................................................................................... 19 2-4 HYGIENIC PRACTICES .................................................................................................................. 19 2-401 Food Contamination Prevention ............................................................................................... 19 2-402 Hair Restraints .......................................................................................................................... 19 2-403 Animals ..................................................................................................................................... 19 Chapter 3 Food ............................................................................................................ 20

    3-1 CHARACTERISTICS...................................................................................................................... 20 3-101 Condition................................................................................................................................... 20 3-2 SOURCES, SPECIFICATIONS, AND ORIGINAL CONTAINERS AND RECORDS ............. 20

    3-201 Sources ...................................................................................................................................... 20 3-202 Specifications for Receiving ..................................................................................................... 21 3-203 Original Containers and Records.............................................................................................. 23 3-3 PROTECTION FROM CONTAMINATION AFTER RECEIVING ........................................... 24

    3-301 Preventing Contamination by Employees ................................................................................ 24 3-302 Preventing Food and Ingredient Contamination....................................................................... 24

    3-303 Preventing Contamination from Ice Used as a Coolant ........................................................... 26

    3-304 Preventing Contamination from Equipment, Utensils, and Linens .......................................... 26

    3-305 Preventing Contamination from the Premises .......................................................................... 28

    3-306 Preventing Contamination by Consumers ................................................................................ 28 3-307 Preventing Contamination from Other Sources ....................................................................... 29

    3-4 DESTRUCTION OF ORGANISMS OF PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN ................................... 29

    3-401 Cooking ..................................................................................................................................... 29 3-402 Freezing ..................................................................................................................................... 32 3-403 Reheating .................................................................................................................................. 32 3-5 LIMITATION OF GROWTH OF ORGANISMS OF PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN .............. 33

    3-501 Temperature and Time Control ................................................................................................ 33 3-502 Specialized Processing Methods ............................................................................................... 35 3-6 FOOD IDENTITY, PRESENTATION, AND ON-PREMISES LABELING .............................. 36

    Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page ii

    3-601 Accurate Representation ........................................................................................................... 36

    3-602 Labeling .................................................................................................................................... 37

    3-603 Consumer Advisory .................................................................................................................. 37

    3-7 CONTAMINATED FOOD.............................................................................................................. 38 Chapter 4 Equipment, Utensils, and Linens ................................................................. 39 3-701 Disposition ................................................................................................................................ 38 4-1 MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR ................................................................ 39 3-8 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS ....................... 38

    4-101 Multiuse ...................................................................................................................................... 39 3-801 Additional Safeguards .............................................................................................................. 38 4-102 Single-Service and Single-Use ................................................................................................... 41 4-2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................. 41 4-201 Durability and Strength ............................................................................................................ 41 4-202 Cleanability ............................................................................................................................... 41 4-203 Accuracy ................................................................................................................................... 42 4-204 Functionality ............................................................................................................................. 43 4-205 Acceptability ............................................................................................................................. 47 4-3 NUMBERS AND CAPACITIES ..................................................................................................... 47 4-301 Equipment ................................................................................................................................. 47 4-302 Utensils, Temperature Measuring Devices, and Testing Devices ............................................ 48

    4-4 LOCATION AND INSTALLATION ............................................................................................. 48

    4-401 Location .................................................................................................................................... 48 4-402 Installation ................................................................................................................................ 49 4-5 MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION ........................................................................................... 49

    4-501 Equipment ................................................................................................................................. 49 4-502 Utensils and Temperature and Pressure Measuring Devices ................................................... 52

    4-6 CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT AND UTENSILS ......................................................................... 52

    4-601 Objective ................................................................................................................................... 52 4-602 Frequency .................................................................................................................................. 52 4-603 Methods ..................................................................................................................................... 54 4-7 SANITIZATION OF EQUIPMENT AND UTENSILS ................................................................. 56

    4-701 Objective ................................................................................................................................... 56 4-702 Frequency .................................................................................................................................. 56 4-703 Methods ..................................................................................................................................... 56 4-8 LAUNDERING ................................................................................................................................ 57 4-801 Objective ..................................................................................................................................... 57 4-802 Frequency .................................................................................................................................. 57 4-803 Methods ..................................................................................................................................... 57 4-9 PROTECTION OF CLEAN ITEMS ............................................................................................... 57 4-901 Drying ....................................................................................................................................... 57 4-902 Lubricating and Reassembling ................................................................................................. 58 4-903 Storing ....................................................................................................................................... 58 4-904 Handling.................................................................................................................................... 58 Chapter 5 Water, Plumbing, and Waste ....................................................................... 59

    5-1 WATER ............................................................................................................................................ 59 5-101 Source ......................................................................................................................................... 59 5-102 Quality ...................................................................................................................................... 59 5-103 Quantity and Availability ......................................................................................................... 60

    Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page iii

    5-104 Distribution, Delivery, and Retention ...................................................................................... 60

    5-2 PLUMBING SYSTEM .................................................................................................................... 60

    5-201 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 60

    5-202 Design, Construction, and Installation ..................................................................................... 61

    5-203 Numbers and Capacities ........................................................................................................... 61

    5-204 Location and Placement ............................................................................................................ 62

    5-205 Operation and Maintenance ...................................................................................................... 62

    5-3 MOBILE WATER TANK AND MOBILE FOOD ESTABLISHMENT WATER TANK.......... 63

    5-301 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 63

    5-302 Design and Construction........................................................................................................... 63

    5-303 Numbers and Capacities ........................................................................................................... 64

    5-304 Operation and Maintenance ...................................................................................................... 64

    5-4 SEWAGE, OTHER LIQUID WASTE, AND RAINWATER ....................................................... 64

    5-401 Mobile Holding Tank ............................................................................................................... 64

    5-402 Retention, Drainage, and Delivery ........................................................................................... 64

    5-403 Disposal Facility ....................................................................................................................... 65

    5-5 REFUSE, RECYCLABLES, AND RETURNABLES.................................................................... 65

    5-501 Facilities on the Premises .......................................................................................................... 65 Chapter 6 Physical Facilities ....................................................................................... 67 5-502 Removal .................................................................................................................................... 67 6-1 MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR ................................................................ 67 5-503 Facilities for Disposal and Recycling ....................................................................................... 67 6-101 Indoor Areas.............................................................................................................................. 67 6-102 Outdoor Areas ........................................................................................................................... 68 6-2 DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND INSTALLATION ................................................................ 68

    6-201 Cleanability ............................................................................................................................... 68 6-202 Functionality ............................................................................................................................. 69 6-3 NUMBERS AND CAPACITIES ..................................................................................................... 71 6-301 Handwashing Facilities ............................................................................................................. 71 6-302 Toilets and Urinals .................................................................................................................... 71 6-303 Lighting ..................................................................................................................................... 72 6-304 Ventilation................................................................................................................................. 72 6-305 Dressing Areas and Lockers ..................................................................................................... 72 6-306 Service Sinks ............................................................................................................................. 72 6-4 LOCATION AND PLACEMENT .................................................................................................. 72 6-401 Handwashing Facilities ............................................................................................................. 72 6-402 Toilet Rooms............................................................................................................................. 72 6-403 Employee Accommodations ..................................................................................................... 72 6-404 Distressed Merchandise ............................................................................................................ 72 6-405 Refuse, Recyclables, and Returnables ...................................................................................... 72 6-5 MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION ........................................................................................... 73

    6-501 Premises, Structures, Attachments, and Fixtures - Methods .................................................... 73

    Chapter 7 Poisonous or Toxic Materials ...................................................................... 75

    7-1 LABELING AND IDENTIFICATION........................................................................................... 75

    7-101 Original Containers................................................................................................................... 75 7-102 Working Containers .................................................................................................................. 75 7-2 OPERATIONAL SUPPLIES AND APPLICATIONS ................................................................... 75

    7-201 Storage ...................................................................................................................................... 75

    Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page iv

    7-202 Presence and Use....................................................................................................................... 75

    7-203 Container Prohibitions .............................................................................................................. 76

    7-204 Chemicals .................................................................................................................................. 76

    7-205 Lubricants ................................................................................................................................. 76

    7-206 Pesticides ................................................................................................................................... 77

    7-207 Medicines .................................................................................................................................. 77

    7-208 First Aid Supplies ..................................................................................................................... 77

    7-209 Other Personal Care Items ........................................................................................................ 77 Chapter 8 Compliance and Enforcement ...................................................................... 78

    7-3 STOCK AND RETAIL SALE ......................................................................................................... 77 8-1 CODE APPLICABILITY ................................................................................................................ 78

    7-301 Storage and Display .................................................................................................................. 77 8-101 Use for Intended Purpose .......................................................................................................... 78 8-102 Additional Requirements .......................................................................................................... 78 8-103 Variances................................................................................................................................... 78 8-2 PLAN SUBMISSION AND APPROVAL ...................................................................................... 79

    8-201 Facility and Operating Plans .................................................................................................... 79 8-202 Confidentiality .......................................................................................................................... 80 8-203 Construction Inspection and Approval ..................................................................................... 80 8-3 PERMIT TO OPERATE .................................................................................................................. 80 8-301 Requirement .............................................................................................................................. 80 8-302 Application Procedure .............................................................................................................. 81 8-303 Issuance ..................................................................................................................................... 83 8-304 Conditions of Retention ............................................................................................................ 83 8-4 INSPECTION AND CORRECTION OF VIOLATIONS ............................................................. 84

    8-401 Frequency .................................................................................................................................. 84 8-402 Access........................................................................................................................................ 85 8-403 Report of Findings .................................................................................................................... 85 8-404 Imminent Health Hazard .......................................................................................................... 86 8-405 Critical Violation ...................................................................................................................... 87 8-406 Noncritical Violation ................................................................................................................ 87 8-5 PREVENTION OF FOODBORNE DISEASE TRANSMISSION BY EMPLOYEES ................ 87

    8-501 Investigation and Control ......................................................................................................... 87 8-6 NOTICES.......................................................................................................................................... 88 8-601 Service of Notice ........................................................................................................................ 88 8-7 REMEDIES....................................................................................................................................... 89 8-701 Criteria for Seeking Remedies.................................................................................................... 89 8-702 Holding, Examination, and Destruction of Food ....................................................................... 89

    8-703 Hearing Administration .............................................................................................................. 90 8-704 Civil Proceedings ........................................................................................................................ 90 9-1 Statutory Authority……………………………………………………………………………90 10-1 Effective Date .............................................................................................................................. 90

    Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page v

    INFORMATION TO ASSIST THE USER

    Many of the improvements contained in the Food Code are provided to make the document easier to use. Other characteristics, if they are understood by the user, make it easier to follow and apply. These include structure, nomenclature, and methodology.

    Food Code provisions address essentially four areas: personnel (Chapter 2), food (Chapter 3), equipment/facilities/supplies (Chapters 4,5,6,7), and compliance and enforcement (Chapter 8). A new user will find it helpful to review the table of contents in order to quickly gain an understanding of the scope and sequence of subjects included within these four areas.

The structural nomenclature of the document is as follows: (EXAMPLE ONLY)

Chapter 9

Part 9-1

Subpart 9-101

Section (?) 9-101.11

Paragraph (?) 9-101.11(A)

Subparagraph 9-101.11(A)(1)

    Internal cross referencing is widely used throughout the document to eliminate the need for restating provisions. For example, fixtures and devices necessary for handwashing are relevant to both the plumbing (Chapter 5) and the facilities (Chapter 6) portions. To alert the reader to relevant information and provide a system by which each violation is recorded under the one most appropriate provision, the Code uses the phrase "...as specified under (followed by a Code cite such as a section or paragraph)." It must be determined within the context of the provision whether the cross reference simply provides information to explain the requirement or whether the observed violation is properly recorded against the provision that is cited after the word "under."

    The Food Code presents requirements by principle rather than by subject. For example, equipment requirements are presented under headings such as Materials, Design and Construction, Numbers and Capacities, Location and Installation, and Maintenance and Operation rather than by refrigerators, sinks, and thermometers. In this way provisions need be stated only once rather than repeated for each piece or category of equipment. Where there are special requirements for certain equipment, the requirement is delineated under the appropriate principle (e.g., Design and Construction) and listed separately in the index.

    Portions of some sections are written in italics. These provisions are not requirements, but are provided to convey relevant information about specific exceptions and alternative means for compliance.

    Requirements contained in the Food Code are presented as being in one of 3 categories of importance: critical; "swing" (i.e., those that may or may not be critical depending on the circumstances); and

Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page vi

    noncritical. An asterisk * after a tagline (which is the language immediately following a section number

    that introduces the subject of the section) indicates that all of the provisions within that section are critical

    unless otherwise indicated, as follows:

Any provisions that are "swing" items, are followed by the bold, superscripted letter S and any provisions

    that are noncritical are followed by the bold, superscripted letter N.

Any unmarked provisions within a section that has an asterisked tagline are critical. All provisions

    following a tagline that is not marked with an asterisk are noncritical.

Defined words and terms are capitalized in the text of the Food Code chapters to alert the reader to the fact

    that there is a specific meaning assigned to those words and terms and that the meaning of a provision is to

    be interpreted in the defined context. A concerted effort was also made to capitalize all forms and

    combinations of those defined words and terms that were

    intended to carry the weight of the definition.

Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page 1

    Chapter 1 Purpose and Definitions

    1-1 TITLE, INTENT, SCOPE

    1-101 Title

    1-101.10 Food Code.

    These provisions shall be known as the Food Code, hereinafter referred to as “this Code.”

    1-102 Intent

    1-102.10 Food Safety, Illness Prevention, and Honest Presentation.

    The purpose of this Code is to safeguard public health and provide to CONSUMERS FOOD that is safe,

    unADULTERATED, and honestly presented.

    1-103 Scope

    1-103.10 Statement.

    This Code establishes definitions; sets standards for management and personnel, FOOD operations, and

    EQUIPMENT and facilities; and provides for FOOD ESTABLISHMENT plan review, PERMIT issuance,

    inspection, EMPLOYEE restriction, and PERMIT suspension.

    1-2 DEFINITIONS

    1-201 Applicability and Terms Defined

    1-201.10 Statement of Application and Listing of Terms.

    (A) The following definitions apply in the interpretation and application of this Code.

    (B) Terms Defined.

    (1) Accredited program.

    (a) "Accredited program" means a food protection manager certification program that

    has been evaluated and listed by an accrediting agency as conforming to national standards

    for organizations that certify individuals.

    (b) "Accredited program" refers to the certification process and is a designation based

    upon an independent evaluation of factors such as the sponsor's mission; organizational

    structure; staff resources; revenue sources; policies; public information regarding program

    scope, eligibility requirements, re-certification, discipline and grievance procedures; and

    test development and administration.

    (c) "Accredited program" does not refer to training functions or educational programs.

    (2) Additive.

    (a) "Food additive" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, ?201(s)

    and 21 CFR 170.

    (b) "Color additive" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,

    ?201(t) and 21 CFR 70.

    (3) "Adulterated" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, ?402 and as

    stated in 22 MRSA ?2156.

    (4) "Approved" means acceptable to the

    REGULATORY AUTHORITY based on a determination of

    conformity with principles, practices, and generally recognized standards that protect public health.

    (5) "a" means water activity which is a measure of the free moisture in a FOOD, is the quotient of the w

    water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same

    temperature, and is indicated by the symbol a. w

    (6) "Bed and Breakfast" is a unique Food Establishment where the general public can stay overnight,

    and are provided with a "limited menu," serving only a breakfast meal. This meal can be either a full

Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page 2

    FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS the meal is prepared in the private home.

    (7) "Beverage" means a liquid for drinking, including water.

    (8) "Bottled drinking water" means water that is SEALED in bottles, packages, or other containers or continental breakfast. Unlike other and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water.

    (9) "Certification number" means a unique combination of letters and numbers assigned by a

    SHELLFISH CONTROL AUTHORITY to a MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH dealer according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.

    (10) CIP.

    (a) "CIP" means cleaned in place by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a

    piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and SANITIZING solution onto or over EQUIPMENT surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and SANITIZE

    a frozen dessert machine.

    (b) "CIP" does not include the cleaning of EQUIPMENT such as band saws, slicers, or mixers

    that are subjected to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system.

    (11) "CFR" means CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. Citations in this Code to the CFR refer sequentially to the Title, Part, and Section numbers, such as 21 CFR 178.1010 refers to Title 21, Part

    178, Section 1010.

    (12) "Code of Federal Regulations" means the compilation of the general and permanent rules

    published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government

    which:

    (a) Is published annually by the U.S. Government Printing Office; and

    (b) Contains FDA rules in 21 CFR, USDA rules in 7 CFR and 9 CFR, EPA rules in 40 CFR, and

    Wildlife and Fisheries rules in 50 CFR.

    (13) Comminuted.

    (a) "Comminuted" means reduced in size by methods including chopping, flaking, grinding, or

    mincing.

    (b) "Comminuted" includes

    FISH or MEAT products that are reduced in size and restructured or

    reformulated such as gefilte FISH, gyros, ground beef, and sausage; and a mixture of 2 or more

    types of MEAT that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausages made from 2 or

    more MEATS.

    (14) "Confirmed disease outbreak" means a FOODBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK in which laboratory analysis of appropriate specimens identifies a causative agent and epidemiological analysis implicates

    the FOOD as the source of the illness.

    (15) "Consumer" means a PERSON who is a member of the public, takes possession of FOOD, is not

    functioning in the capacity of an operator of a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT or FOOD PROCESSING PLANT, and

    does not offer the FOOD for resale.

    (16) "Corrosion-resistant material" means a material that maintains acceptable surface cleanability

    characteristics under prolonged influence of the FOOD to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and SANITIZING solutions, and other conditions of the use environment.

    (17) "Critical control point" means a point or procedure in a specific FOOD system where loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk.

(18) Critical Item.

    (a) "Critical item" means a provision of this Code, that, if in noncompliance, is more likely than

    other violations to contribute to FOOD contamination, illness, or environmental health HAZARD.

    (b) "Critical item" is an item that is denoted in this Code with an asterisk *.

    Maine Food Code 2001

    10-144 Chapter 200 page 3

    CRITICAL CONTROL POINT to minimize the risk that the identified FOOD safety HAZARD may occur.

    (20) Drinking Water. (19) "Critical limit" means the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or (a) "Drinking water" means water that meets 40 CFR 141 National Primary Drinking Water chemical parameter must be controlled at a Regulations, State of Maine Rules Relating to Drinking Water (Chapter 231,CMR 10-144), and

    Maine law, Chapter 601 Water for Human Consumption, 22 MRSA ?2601 et seq.

    (b) "Drinking water" is traditionally known as "potable water."

    (c) "Drinking water" includes the term "water" except where the term used connotes that the

    water is not potable, such as "boiler water," "mop water," "rainwater," "wastewater," and

    "nondrinking" water.

    (21) "Dry storage area" means a room or area designated for the storage of PACKAGED or containerized bulk FOOD that is not POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS and dry goods such as SINGLE-SERVICE

    items.

    (22) Easily Cleanable.

    (a) "Easily cleanable" means a characteristic of a surface that:

    (i) Allows effective removal of soil by normal cleaning methods;

    (ii) Is dependent on the material, design, construction, and installation of the surface; and

    (iii) Varies with the likelihood of the surface's role in introducing pathogenic or toxigenic

    agents or other contaminants into FOOD based on the surface's APPROVED placement, purpose,

    and use.

    (b) "Easily cleanable" includes a tiered application of the criteria that qualify the surface as

    EASILY CLEANABLE as specified under Subparagraph (a) of this definition to different situations in

    which varying degrees of cleanability are required such as:

    (i) The appropriateness of stainless steel for a FOOD preparation surface as opposed to the lack of

    need for stainless steel to be used for floors or for tables used for CONSUMER dining; or

    (ii) The need for a different degree of cleanability for a utilitarian attachment or accessory in the

    kitchen as opposed to a decorative attachment or accessory in the CONSUMER dining area. (23) "Easily movable" means:

    (a) Portable; mounted on casters, gliders, or rollers; or provided with a mechanical means to safely

    tilt a unit of EQUIPMENT for cleaning; and

    (b) Having no utility connection, a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or a flexible utility

    connection line of sufficient length to allow the EQUIPMENT to be moved for cleaning of the

    EQUIPMENT and adjacent area.

    (24) "Employee" means the PERMIT HOLDER, PERSON IN CHARGE, PERSON having supervisory or management duties, PERSON on the payroll, family member, PERSON performing work under contractual agreement, or other PERSON working in a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT. Volunteers providing services in a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT are subject to the same standards as other EMPLOYEES.

    Maine Food Code 2001

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