REGIONAL CORPORATION PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN (RCPIP),
WORKING GROUP OF HYDROLOGY, TYPHOON COMMITTEE
Configuring an Operational Flood Forecasting System based on the Tank
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1 – 31 December 2008
Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID)
Ministry of Natural Resources, Malaysia
?. Course Background and Overall Goal
Flood forecasting is a non-structural measure to mitigate flood loss. By giving advance flood warnings, flood forecasting provides the following benefits:
? early evacuation of property and people so as to mitigate flood loss
? allow authorities to take contingency measures releasing water from dam,
activate pumping, diversion of flows etc. to mitigate flood impact.
? Allow authorities to activate emergency response plan to face flooding
In Malaysia, flood forecasting has been successfully implemented in the Kelantan and Pahang River Basins and it is intended that the service be extended to other river basins.
The effort in flood forecasting began in the early seventies following the widespread severe flooding which affected many areas in the country in 1971. The Department of Irrigation and Drainage was subsequently entrusted by the government to provide flood warning and forecasting services to flood prone areas in the country. This led to gradual installation of hydrological data acquisition systems involving telemetry and SCADA as a prerequisite to real-time monitoring of floods, flood warning and flood forecasting.
Several flood forecasting models such as the Sacramento Model, the Tank Model, the Linear Perturbation Model had been configured and put into operational use and among these the Tank Model stood out as an easy to use and effective model for flood forecasting.
The Tank model in its original form was developed by Professor Sugawara of Japan. What attracted DID to use the model was its simplicity of concept, simplicity in computation while achieving forecasting accuracy comparable with more
There were efforts made to further enhance the Tank Model by way of changing the runoff equation of the outlets and adding an error correction module to adjust the simulated flood hydrograph so as to achieve better forecasting accuracy.
The Typhoon Committee at its Thirty-Third Session in 2000 decided to revive the Regional Cooperative Programme Implementation Plan (RCPIP). The RCPIP
working group on hydrology proposed 9 projects to be carried out within a period of 3 to 60 months. Malaysia has decided to conduct an international on-the-job training course on flood forecasting in January 2008, in cooperation with the Typhoon
Committee Secretariat (TCS). The proposal was endorsed by the Typhoon
Committee during the thirty-ninth Session of the Committee in Manila from 4 to 9 December 2006.
?. Course Description 1. Title (No.):
Configuring an Operational Flood Forecasting System based on the Tank Model
The proposed on-the job training programme is to enable participants to:
? gain knowledge, appreciation and experience on use of the Tank Model
for flood forecasting
? configure a flood forecasting model based on the Tank Model for a
selected catchment in the participant‟s country
? calibrate the Tank Model and preparing the model for operational use in
the participant‟s respective organisation
? develop an error correction module for the Tank Model to enhance
? develop expertise in writing simple macros (MSExcel) to automate model
computations – a skill which can be used to customize the model and
further enhance the model in the future
3. Course Output:
To achieve the above mentioned objectives, participants are expected to
produce the following outputs by the end of this course:
? Understanding the concept of the Tank Model in simulating flood runoff.
? Configure and calibrate a Tank Model for a river basin in the participant‟s
? Develop expertise in simple programming techniques which is useful for
future continual enhancement of the model which is to be expected
4. Place and Duration:
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1-31, 2008.
5. Total Number of Participants and Candidate Countries:
(1) Number of Participants;
The OJT will be conducted in two years. There will be 4 participants from listed
10 countries below. The group will be divided into two groups (2 participants
per year). Each country is expected to nominate one engineer who is engaged
in flood forecasting or disaster management. The first OJT was successfully
carried out in 21 January – 28 February 2008 which attended by participants ndfrom Philippines and Vietnam. For the proposed 2 OJT, the number of
participants increased from 2 to 3 persons as agreed by TC.
(2) Candidate Countries;
Cambodia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Japan, Lao
People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of
Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam.
6. Eligible/Target Organization:
Organization involved in flood monitoring, warning and forecasting at the
national or local level in the public sector such as government/provincial
ministries or municipalities
7. Language to be used in this Course:
8. Course Program:
This program consists of the following five (5) phases.
(8.1) Preparatory Phase; (1 September – 16 September 2008)
Preparatory Questionnaire. All applicants are requested to fill and submit
the „Preparatory Questionnaire‟ (refer ANNEX I). Participants can
download digital copy of form at this link –
(8.2) Nomination Submission and Notice of Acceptance: 17 September -
29 September 2008
(i) Submission of the Documents for Selection: An interested countries
candidate should fill in nominate applicants for the Course and should
submit one (1) original Nomination Form and two (2) Preparatory
Questionnaire by 19 September 2008 to DID Malaysia.
(ii) Selection: DID reviews the documents for selection, carries out the
pre-screening, and send the documents to TCS in charge of this
course through e-mail by 29 September 2008. TCS in charge will
decide applicants to be accepted among those who fulfill set
requirements described in item III.2 below.
(iii)Notice of Acceptance: TCS will inform the applying government of
acceptance or non-acceptance of nominees‟ application no later than
13 October 2008 by email and/or letter.
(8.3) Hydrological data Preparation: 14 October – 14 November 2008
Candidates are advised to prepare the data requirement as specified
before acceptance letter by TCS. It is important that all prepared
hydrological data for calibrating the Tank Model follow ANNEX II.
Participants are required to collect data for developing a Tank Model and
submit this data to Hydrology and Water Resources Division, DID,
Malaysia by 14 November 2008. Hydrology data will be checked by DID
Malaysia upon received the data from candidates‟ country. DID Malaysia
will inform the candidate‟s country about the completeness of the data.
Digital Copy of the forms can be downloaded at the same link.
(8.4) Program in Malaysia: (1 – 31 December 2008)
Training Type Date Week No. of days Flood forecasting using the Tank Model Lecture 1
MSExcel Macros Lecture December 1 2
Configuring the Tank Model OJT 2 Data quality checking and processing OJT 9 2
December 2 Catchment parameters – calibration of model (1) OJT 2008 2
15 Development of Excel macros for automating OJT December 3 5 model computations 2008
22 Fine tuning model – adjustment of flood simulation OJT December 4 2 to improve forecasts –calibration of model (2) 2008
Site visit to SMART Tunnel Site Visit December 1
4 Lecture on telemetry and SCADA, Integrating with 26 SCADA/Telemetry System and preparing the OJT December 1 model for real-time flood forecasting, 2008 dissemination of flood forecast.
30 Other models-enhancements to model – adapting Lecture December 1 model to changes and additional modules 2008 5 31
Reports/Discussion - December 1
Total No. of Days 20
*OJT: On the Job Training
*Public Holiday: 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 20, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29 December 2008
(8.5) Implementation Phase; (1 January – 23 Mac 2009)
i) In order to put to use the technologies, knowledge and experience they
obtained from this training course, all participants should share the
outputs of this training program within their organization in 60 days after
going back to home country and assist their respective flood forecasting
service in testing the model in real-time operation with the view of
adopting the model for flood forecasting.
ii) All participants should submit the report on the above-mentioned of 60
days activities to the Hydrology and Water Resources Division, DID,
Malaysia and Carbon Copy to Chairman Of Working Group of Hydrology
by 23 Mac 2009. The Report Format will be given during OJT in Malaysia.
iii) The participants are expected to present their flood forecasting model in
the next TC working group of hydrology workshop.
?. Conditions and Procedure for Application
1. Responsibility of the Participating Countries/Organizations:
(1) Participating countries/organizations are expected to nominate Applicants
with relevant experience, is motivated and is committed to address the
problem of flood mitigation via flood warning and forecasting.
(2) The organizations are required to facilitate the participants to disseminate
what they learned in the course to others in the organization and to assist the
participant in testing and implementing the flood forecasting model developed.
Due to the short period of training it is expected that there may be certain
issues or aspects of flood forecasting not addressed or adequately
addressed. However it is the intention that the training will provide sufficient
capacity to the participants to modify the model and to add additional
requirements as deemed fit.
2. Qualifications of Applicants:
(1) be nominated by their governments in accordance with the procedures
mentioned in the chapter IV
(2) be the technical managers or engineers with at least five years experience
and currently engaged in flood monitoring, flood warning and forecasting
issues in the public sector and below 45 years old.
(3) be university graduates or equivalent
(4) be proficient in spoken and written English
(5) be familiar with MS Excel Spreadsheet software
(6) be in good health both physically and mentally
(7) be non-military personnel
3. Required Documents:
Please refer to item II. 8: Course program.
4. Procedure for Application and Selection:
Please refer to item II. 8: Course program.
5Rules for Attendance:
Participants are requested to observe the following rules for attending the
(1) to observe strictly the course schedule
(2) not to change course subjects or extend the course period
(3) not to bring any members of their family
(4) to return to their home country at the end of the course according to the
international travel schedule designated by DID
(5) to refrain from engaging in political activities or any form of employment for
profit of gain
(6) to observe the rules and regulations of their place of accommodation and
not to change accommodations designated by DID
*Participants who have successfully completed the course will be awarded a
certificate by DID
? Administrative Arrangements
1. Travel to Malaysia:
(1) Air Ticket: Round-trip ticket between an international airport designated
(2) Travel and health Insurance: Travel and health insurance is insured by
Accommodation for participants in Malaysia will be arranged by DID Malaysia
DID Training Centre Hostel,
Training and Career Development Division,
Department of Irrigation and Drainage,
Kompleks JPS Ampang, Jalan Air Bukit Off Km 7,
Jalan Ampang, 68000 Ampang,
Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.
Tel: 603 - 4256 2657 Fax: 603 – 4251 3064
The participants shall register to the hostel upon arrival. An officer from the
hostel in charge will be there.
3. Living Expenses:
Living expenses for the participants while in Malaysia will be provided by DID
(1) Allowances for accommodation, and
(2) Food allowance
At present, Malaysian Law requires the successful participants to submit
their VISA application (apply for “Professional Visa”) as per ANNEX III
together with taxation form before they come to Malaysia as per ANNEX IV.
These forms shall be attached together for applications. The forms can be
downloaded at website: http://h2o.water.gov.my/train/train.html
4. Course Implementing Organization:
Flood Forecasting Unit,
Hydrology and Water Resources Division,
Department of Irrigation and Drainage,
Ministry of Natural Resources, Malaysia
Km7, Jalan Ampang
68000 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Tel: 603 – 4256 2657
Fax: 603 – 4256 3735
ANNEX I : Preparatory Questionnaire
ANNEX II : The data for the exercise of developing a flood forecasting
ANNEX III : VISIT PASS APPLICATION FORM (IM. 12-Pin.1/97)):
FOREIGN VISITORS – PROFESSIONAL VISIT PASS
ANNEX IV : INLAND REVENUE BOARD OF MALAYSIA (NR/R/PS1)
No Item Send by to Send by
Date 1 Nomination Form: One (1) original
22 and three (3) copies Preparatory DID Participants September Questionnaire (refer to ANNEX I) Malaysia 2008 (Participants are advised to pre
prepare the flood forecasting data)
2 29 Documents to TCS in charge of this DID TCS September course through e-mail Malaysia 2008 3 Notice of Acceptance and
Non-acceptance ( if possible 13 October through e-mail for early notification TCS Participants 2008 to firstname.lastname@example.org and Cc to
4 Data developing a flood forecasting
scheme (refer to ANNEX II should 14 DID be submitted to the Hydrology and Participants November Malaysia Water Resources Division, DID, 2008 Malaysia
5 Taxation Declaration and VISA Before your Malaysia Forms (ANNEX III) participants flight to Immigration Malaysia
6 OJT in Malaysia 1 – 31 December 2008 7 Implementation Phase in 1 January – 28 February 2009 Participant‟s Country
8 Report Submission on Item No 7 By 16 Mac 2009 above
9 TC Working Group of Hydrology By each participant in the next TC
(Paper Presentation) Workshop